Skip to main content

Full text of "North Carolina and its resources"

See other formats


^' l/\0/tl 

XW ^^Af 




.>Vi..J w 

,EiG r 






Charles ¥• Broadfoot 









Form No. A-368, Rev. 8/95 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

1 . W. F. Green, Chairman. 
2. H. E, King, 3. J. R. McLelland 4. W. R. Capehart. 

6. D A. Tompkins. 7. E. A. Aiken. 8. Cyrus Thompson 


5. J. H. Gilmer. 
9. R. W. Wharton, 

10. H.E. Fries. 1 1 . W. S. Pnmrose. 1 2. ' Frank Wood. J^''^^- 

14 J. B. Co'field. 15- J. L. Nelson. 

16. H. B. Battle, Director. ' 17. S, L. Patterson, Com-missioner. 18. T, K. Bruner, 









M. I. & J. C. STEWART, Public Printers and Binders. 





Early History i 

Roanoke Island 9 

Roanoke Colony Memorial Association 12 

Virginia Dare Memorial Association 12 

The Revolution 13 

After the Revolution , 13 

Proprietary and Royal Government 14 

The Civil War 15 


The Mountain Region 17 

In the Smoky Mountains 19 

In the Balsam Mountains 19 

In the Black Mountains 20 

In the Craggy Range 20 

Piedmont Plateau Region 24 

Coastal Plain Region 26 


Temperature 33 

Precipitation 34 

Snowfall 35 

Frosts, Ice and Storms 35 


The Forest Trees 40 

Forestry on the Biltmore Estate 52 

Biltmore Nursery and Arboretum 54 




Alphabetical List of Native Minerals 71 

Gold, Silver and Copper , 73 

Iron 87 


' Corundum 98 

Mica 100 

Talc and Agalmatolite 100 

Monazite loi 

. Marls and Phosphates 102 

^ CoaL 103 

IV • Taels of Contents. 

ECONOMIC Mllyin-SiKh^.— ConHmied. Page 

Cumnock Coal Mines 104 

Graphite 105 

Kaolin and Clay 106 


Diamond , 108 

Hiddenite 108 

Emerald 109 

Aquamarine . . no 

Ruby no 

Sapphire . . no 

Cyanite in 

Garnet , Ill 

Quartz in 

Citrine Topaz 112 

Smoky Topaz 112 

Amethyst 112 

Other Gem Stones 112 



Road Materials , . 121 


Rivers 122 

Lakes 127 

Sounds and Bays 128 

Swamps 129 

Canals 130 

Ports and Harbors 132 

Water Powers 136 


Persons Employed 144 

Apparatus and Capital 145 

Products 145 



Cotton 158 

Tobacco 159 

Rice 162 

Peanuts 163 

Other Important Crops 164 

Model Farms , 165 

Glenoe Stock Farm 165 

Occoneechee Farm .... 165 

Duke Farm 165 

Rockwell Farm 165 

Biltmore Farms 166 

State Agricultural Society 168 


Fruit Growing 169 

Coastal Plain Section 169. 

Table of Contents. v 

H0KT1CULTU:S.U. — Continued. Page 

Sand Hill Section 171 

New Experiments 172 

Lower Piedmont Section 173 

Upper Piedmont Section , 173 

The Mountain Section 175 

Native Fruits 176 


Medoc Vineyard 178 

Tokay Vineyard 178 

Bordeaux Vineyard , 179 

Engadine Vineyard , 179 

Happy Valley Vineyard 179 


The Pomona Nurseries 180 

Greensboro Nurseries 180 

Cedar Grove Nurseries 181 

Underdown Nurseries 181 

Other Nurseries 181 

Trucking 181 

Culture of Flowering Bulbs 185 


Cotton Mills 189 

Ivist of Cotton Factories 192 

List of Woolen Mills 196 

By-Products of Cotton 196 

Cotton Seed, Fertilizer and Bone Mills 197 


List of Tobacco Factories 198 















The Insane Asylum „ 239 

State Hospital 239 

Eastern Hospital 240 

Other Provision for the Insane 240 

Institute for the Blind 241 

Institute for the Colored Deaf, Dumb and Blind 241 

School for Deaf and Dumb 241 

VI Table of Contents. 

PUBLIC CHARITIES.— Co;///«M^df. Page 

Soldiers' Home 242 

Oxford Orphan Asylum 242 

Colored Orphan Asylum 243 

State Penitentiary 243 


Thomasville Orphanage 244 

The Thompson Orphanage 244 

The Orphans' Home 244 

Odd Fellows' Orphans' Home 245 

The Friends' Orphanage 245 

The Children's Home 245 

The Mission Hospital 245 

Wilmington City Hospital 245 

St. Peter's Hospital 245 

The Good Samaritan Hospital i\<a 

The Watts Hospital 246 

Rex Hospital 246 



Free Public Schools 249 

University of North Carolina 251 

College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 252 

State Normal and Industrial School 254 

Davidson College 255 

Trinity College 256 

Wake Forest College 257 

Elon College 259 

Guilford College 259 

Bingham School 260 

The Horner School 260 

Davis Military School 261 

Salem Female Academy 261 

Peace Institute 262 

St. Mary's 262 

Baptist Female University 263 

Chowan Baptist Female Institute 263 

Oxford Female Seminary 264 

Greensboro Female College 264 

Asheville Female College 264 

Lutheran College for Women 265 

Private Schools and Colleges. . 265 

Schools for the Colored Race 267 

Agricultural College for the Colored Race 267 

Shaw University. . , 268 

St. Augustine Normal School 269 

Slater Industrial Academy. , 270 

Livingston College 27a 

Biddle University 271 

Scotia Seminary 272 

Table of Contents. vii 

'HBTJ CATION. — Continued. Page 

Franklinton Christian College 272 

Teachers' Assembly 273 


Mineral Springs 275 

Hot Springs 275 

Haywood White Sulphur Springs 276 

Glen Alpine Springs 276 

Connelly Springs 276 

Sparkling Catawba Springs 277 

Barium Springs 277 

Moore Spring 277 

Piedmont Springs 278 

Bromine and Arsenic Spring 278 

Cleveland Springs 278 

Lincoln Lithia Springs 278 

Ellerbee Springs 279 

Jackson Springs 279 

Red Springs 279 

Panacea Springs 280 

The Seven Springs 280 


Nag's Head 281 

New Bern 281 

Beaufort andMorehead 282 

Southport ,. .. 283 

Carolina Beach . . 283 

Wrightsville 283 


Southern Pines 285 

Pinehurst 286 


Hickory 288 

Lenoir 289 

Blowing Rock 289 

Green Park Hotel 290 

Blowing Rock Hotel 291 

Watauga Hotel 291 

Boon 291 

Eseeola Inn 292 

Cloudland Hotel 292 

Highlands 293 

Asheville 293 

Battery Park 293 

Swannanoa Hotel 294 

Berkly Hotel 294 

Oakland Heights 294 

Kenilworth Inn 294 

Arden Park . ... 294 

Hendersonville 294 

VIII Tabids op Contents. 

MOUNTAIN 'R.^QOKTS.— Continued. Page 

Flat Rock 295 

Hot Springs 295 

Roaring Gap ... 295 



Alamance 301 

Alexander 302 

Alleghany 303 

Anson 303 

Ashe 305 

Beaufort 305 

Bertie 307 

Bladen 308 

Brunswick 309 

Buncombe 310 

Burke 312 

Cabarrus 313 

Caldwell 314 

Camden r » 315 

Carteret , 315 

Caswell 317 

Catawba 317 

Chatham 319 

Cherokee 320 

Chowan 321 

Clay 322 

Cleveland 323 

Columbus 324 

Craven 325 

Cumberland 327 

Currituck 328 

Dare 329 

Davidson 330 

Davie 332 

Duplin 333 

Durham 333 

Edgecombe , 335 

Forsyth 336 

Franklin 338 

Gaston 340 

Gates 341 

Graham 342 

Granville 342 

Greene 343 

Guilford 344 

Halifax 346 

Harnett 348 

Haywood 349 

Henderson 350 

Table of Contents. ix 


Hertford 351 

Hyde 352 

Iredell 353 

Jackson 354 

Johnston 355 

Jones 356 

Lenoir 357 

Lincoln 359 

McDowell 360 

Macon : 362 

Madison 363 

Martin 364 

Mecklenburg 365 

Mitchell 367 

Montgomery .... 36S 

Moore 369 

Nash , . . 371 

New Hanover 372 

Northampton 375 

Onslow 376 

Orange 377 

Pamlico 378 

Pasquotank 379 

Pender 380 

Perquimans 382 

Person 382 

Pitt 384 

Polk 385 

Randolph 386 

Richmond 388 

Robeson , 389 

Rockingham 390 

Rowan 391 

Rutherford 393 

Sampson 3^4 

Stanly 395 

Stokes 3g6 

Surry 397 



Transylvania 400 

Tyrrell 40 1 

Union 402 

Vance. . 
Wake . . 


Washington 406 

Watauga 407 

Wayne 408 



Table op Contents. 


Wilson 411 

Yadkin 412^ 

Yancey 412 

STATB MAP , , , Inside last Cover. 



Opposite Page 

A Forsyth County Farm 155 

Blowing Rock 287 

Geological Map 68 

Hickorynut Gap i 

On the Yonahlossee Road 291 

Some Indigenous Flowers 56 

Some Native Fruits 169 

Some Native Gems 108 

State Map Inside last Cover 


A Corner in the State Museum 233 

Ascent of the Blue Ridge 17 

Barnard Farm 362 

Beach at Nag's Head 281 

Bean Field , 28 

Board of Agriculture Frontispiece 

Board of Agriculture and Officers Frontispiece 

Catawba Falls 63 

Cherokees — Indian Reservation 355 

College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 252 

Cotton Mills 190 

Craggy Chain 20 

Cranberry Iron Mine 96 

Cumnock Coal Mines 104 

Experiment Station 234 

Falls of Queen's Creek Rapids 294 

Glenoe Stock Farm 165 

Great Falls and Bulkhead 187 

Harvest in the Catawba Valley 156 

Herd of Holsteins 162 

Macadam Roads and Bridges 120 

Macadamized Country Roads 117 

Mt. Airy Granite Quarry 113 

Narrows of the Yadkin 13d 

Norfolk and Southern Railway 214 

Normal and Industrial School 254 

Occoneechee Farm 166 


Opposite Page 

On Linville River 126 

On Picturesque Trout Streams 298 

On Roanoke River 125 

On the French Broad River 122 

Piny-woods Inn 284 

Placer Gold Mining 84 

Roan Mountain 292 

Rockingham — Carolina Central Railway 202 

Sand-hill Lands 171 

Scenes near Fayetteville 26 

Shell Road 119 

Some Native Game Birds 296 

State Capitol 246 

State Hospital 239 

State School for Deaf and Dumb 242 

Steam Seine Fishing 147 

Stone Mountain 115 

Strawberry Farm 177 

Tar River 138 

The Nantahala Mountains 288 

Tobacco Field 160 

Trucking around New Bern 184 

Trucking Scenes. 181 

University 251 

Vanderbilt Estate 52 

Views at Morehead and Beaufort 12 

Views around Hot Springs 275 

Wilmington, New Bern and Norfolk Railway 132 

Wrightsville Beach and Sound ...t ....••%• ttt. .ti..,,.,. 283 


At the December (1895) meeting of the State Board of Agricult- 
ure it was agreed that a new edition of the Hand Book was a neces- 
sity, and the Secretary to the Board was charged with its prepara- 
tion. This involved a complete revision of the former publication, 
the selection of suitable illustrations, the preparation of much new 
data, and the issuing during this year of a volume illustrative of the 
vast resources of North Carolina. All of this with the view of point- 
ing out progress already made, and the possibilities presented for 
future development. The work has proved more exacting than at 
the time was contemplated, in that the changes necessary frequently 
required the rewriting of such portions of the former volume as were 
still considered in part available, and to make more complete the 
presentation whole chapters have been introduced presenting matter 
hitherto entirely omitted or to which but slight allusion was made. 

The remarkable development in all branches of industry, with 
corresponding increase in the volume of business, together with the 
varied and ever-widening conditions favorable to the avocation of the 
farmer, the trucker, the fruit grower, the lumberman, the miner and 
the fisherman, have all combined to induce the publication of this 
volume by the Board of Agriculture. The Board, always in the lead, 
is ever found promoting the best interests of the people of the State, 
lending encouragement to the development of her rich resource of forest, 
of mine, of soil and of sea. The State Constitution provides for an 
Agricultural Department, and its earlier reports date back to 1S25. 
The present organization of the Board was effected under an act of 
the General Assembly in 1877. From the day of its organization it 
began the discharge of the duties assigned it with an earnest deter- 
mination to foster and stimulate agriculture in all its branches, and to 
promote every legitimate attempt to develop the State's resources. 
It has aided in almost every movement in this direction, being in a 
certain sense a pioneer, by directing attention to the possibilities 
oflFered. It was first among the States to increase the catch offish by 
means of fish hatcheries; it explored the phosphate beds of the east- 

XIV Preface. 

ern counties; it surveyed the coal fields; it exhibited the ores of gold, 
silver, copper and of iron in great expositions, and in the same way 
advertised the forests; it surveyed the oyster grounds, and it pro- 
moted the development of the sand-hill region. By its assiduous and 
systematic effort North Carolina is becoming known as the most 
resourceful of all the Southern States. 

This is the fifth publication of its kind emanating from the Board; 
the first appearing in 1879, which was followed by an improved 
edition in 1883; this was exhausted by distribution at the Boston 
and New Orleans expositions, so that in 1886 a new and still better 
book was issued and did good service until the approach of the great 
Columbian Exposition, when it was determined to offer a more 
exhaustive treatment of the conditions presented in North Carolina 
for the profitable investment of capital. This volume was a departure 
from the ordinary Hand Book type, and proved a most acceptable 
resume of the varied conditions so happily distributed in the State by 
the munificent hand of nature. So useful a volume was soon brought 
to the attention of the public, and so persistent was the demand that 
the edition of ten thousand had dwindled to as many hundred, when 
the Board took the action referred to above. 

It is most gratifying to note the advance made all along the lines 
of enterprise since 1 893. The extent of progress in the industries and 
the manufactures; the extension of agriculture and horticulture; the 
widening of remunerative truck fields; the adaptability of hitherto 
worthless sand-hills and flat lands to the profitable production of 
peaches, grapes, berries and bulbs, and the expansion of the facilities 
for all forms of education — these all tell of the solid progress of our 
people and point with unerring conviction to North Carolina as the 
most progressive, most desirable and most healthful of all the South 
Atlantic States as a place of residence. Her homogeneous, hospitable 
population, conservative laws, light taxation, salubrious and tem- 
perate climate, and the great possibilities of her natural and improved 
<;onditions also present inviting fields to the investor or to the home- 

The subjects brought to view in this volume are presented with 
rigid regard to fact; they are under-drawn rather than otherwise, 
and described from a sober business point of view without exagger- 
ation or untruthful illusion. The facts about North Carolina are 
sufficient in themselves; no coloring is needed. These facts are but 
imperfectly presented in the pages to follow; there are doubtless 
omissions and many under-drawn descriptions, but the work has beeo 
performed while in the discharge of regular official duties. The 

Preface. xv 

compiler has sought out facts in regard to all the State's resources 
obtainable by research, enquiry and from personal observation, 
and, subjecting all to careful examination, has arranged them in 
as succinct and coherent an order as the subjects will allow. A con- 
siderable portion of the facts are from ofiBcial records and statistics, 
and the remainder from the most accurate and competent authority 

It is fitting here to give credit and make due acknowledgment to 
those who have so generously contributed in the preparation of the 
matter for the work. Much has been drawn from the very excellent 
and accurate work of Col. John D. Cameron, in the Hand Book of 
1893. He has written much that is enduring, and from it the most 
liberal quotations have been made. For information relating to the 
ores, building stones, minerals, waterpowen* and roads, I am indebted 
to Professor Joseph A. Holmes, State Geologist; for information in 
regard to taxation and the State debt, to Hon. R. M. Furman, State 
Auditor; for articles on Agriculture, to Hon. S. L. Patterson, Com- 
missioner of Agriculture; for information prepared on horticulture, to 
Prof. W. F. Massey; for information relating to flora and the climate, 
to Dr. H. B. Battle, Director of the North Carolina Experiment 
Station, and to Professor Gerald McCarthy, Botanist, and Mr. C. F. 
von Herrmann, Meteorologist, of the Experiment Station staff, and 
to the following for information on the subjects annexed to their 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle, University of North Carolina — History. 

D. A. Tompkins, Charlotte — Manufacturing. 

Dr. R. H. Ivcwis, Raleigh, Sec. State Board of Health— Health. 

Col. C. A. Cilley, Hickory — Mountain Resorts. 

Dr. G. H. Sadelson, Southern Pines — Piny-woods Resorts. 

Col. F. A. Olds, Raleigh— Seaside Resorts. 

W. W. Ashe, Raleigh — Forests. 

H. H. Brimley, Raleigh — Fauna and Game. 

Capt. C. B. Denson, Raleigh — Charities and Orphanages. 

Mr. Charles McNamee, Biltmore — The Biltmore Estate. 

Morganton Land and Improvement Company — several illustra- 
tions, and to the gentlemen in the several counties who so generously 
corrected the sketches of their counties. 

To all I beg to give assurance of hearty appreciation and the full 
credit for assistance rendered. 

T. K. Bruner, 







"They were the first that ever burst 
Into that silent sea." — Coleridge. 

On the 4tli of July, 1584, two English ships hove in sight of the 
coast of North Carolina, somewhere about Cape Fear. They were 
the vessels of Sir Walter Raleigh, and were on a voj-age of discovery, 
to take possession of some portion of the new world in the name of 
the crown of England. The day on which they first beheld the 
shores of our country has since become the great political holiday of 
the age, and is now distinguished as the anniversary, not of the 
origin, but of the downfall of the authority of England over the 
United States. The commanders of these two ships were Philip 
Amadas and Arthur Barlowe; and the ceremony which the}^ performed 
upon the coast of North Carolina, and which I am now about to 
celebrate, is perhaps one of the most memorable events in the history 
of mankind. The fortunate results of the dominion of England over 
the territory of our Union are as innumerable as are the stars; and the 
free Anglo-American, in whatever forests he may be found, will turn 
reverently to the spot consecrated as its birthplace. The two advent- 
urers loitered along the coast of North Carolina, in full view of the 
shore as it sweeps in a curve from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear. 
There was scarcely wind enough to ruffle the plumage of the two ships 
as they lay their gentle course, and the mild land-breeze vras so 
fragrant, that the voyagers exclaimed that they seemed to be in the 
midst of some delicate garden, abounding with all kinds of odoriferous 
flowers. Thus making their liquid vcay, on the i3tli of Juh*, 1584, 
we find the two ships at anchor in the roads of Ocracock Inlet, within 
a few hundred j'ards of the island which lies to the south, and which 
the Indians called Wokokon. And this is the spot, of all the fair 
lands of our wide-spread country, which was first occupied by old 
mother England. 

Note;. — Extracts from "Memorials of North Carolina" by Joseph Seawall 


North Carolina and its Resources. 

About midday on the 13th, when there was not a film of a cloud 
in the heavens, nor a breath of air to break the sea; when the tides 
were still, and the sunshine danced along the glittering sandbanks 
from Hatteras to Lookout; when the whole scene was so intensely- 
tranquil, that those ships looked like "painted ships," and that 
ocean a "painted ocean; " when the crew stood about the decks in 
silent wonderment at the vast and solitary world before them — no 
scudding skiff, no rising smoke, no distant sound; at this hour, when 
solitude was roost awful and most sublime, the sound of prayer broke 
the enchantment, and the first words of Christian suffrage were uttered 
in returning thanks to God that the lion flag of old England was 
about to be planted upon the coast of the new world. The boats were 
then manned, and the two captains, attended by the most noble gen- 
tlemen of the expedition, were pulled toward the shore; and as the 
boats grated upon the sand, they sprang upon the beach, and Captain 
Amadas shouted in a loud voice: 

"We take possession of this land in the right of the queene's 
most excellent majestic, as rightfull queene and princesse of the same, 
to be delivered over to the use of Sir Walter Raleigh, according to 
her Majestie's grant and letters patent, under her highnesse's great 

This, then, was the birthday, and here, then, was the birthplace, 
of our great Anglo-American empire. And how fortunate was it for the 
cause of civil and religious freedom all over the world that England, 
and not Spain, France, or Portugal, colonized our splendid domain. 
I/5ok to the South American States, already in the decrepitude of old 
age; their moral, intellectual, and physical condition alike unimproved; 
their governments unsteady and tyrannical; their private estates 
insecure; and the very liberty which, but a few years ago, they so 
proudly achieved, already degraded into popular despotism. Spanish 
blood corrupted the new world. The seeds of civil and religious 
despotism were sown, broadcast, from the City of Mexico to Cape 
Horn; and after a revolution of three hundred years, Spanish America 
can boast of but little that is either grand or sublime, in all her history, 
excepting the monuments of Montezuma's magnificence and the 
victories of Bolivar. 

But how different has been the career of the Anglo-American race. 
The seed which was planted on Wokokon Island has given birth to 
a new genus of men. Another and a hardier race than even the 
Anglo-Saxon has sprung into existence, and are now bearing onward 
to the Pacific, as they leap from the Alleghany to the Rocky 
Mountains, the language and the liberty of their forefathers. The 

Early History. 

general principles of human government have been simplified; the 
liberty of the people and their right to self-government, immovably 
established; a free, happy and powerful Republic, under the 
constitution and laws of which the rights of individuals are as 
inviolably sustained as is the glory of the national faith, now covers 
the fairest portions of the new world; and what is the proudest result 
of all, this new-born nation, in the purity ofits government and in the 
happiness of its people, is now sending back across the sea, to 
regenerate and to reform the old world, the sublime lessons of her 
own experience. Happy proud Anglo-America. She has given to 
the world the great principle of a free government. She has extended 
the provinces of liberty, civilization, and of law. "The lightning of 
the heavens could not resist her philosophy, nor the temptation of a 
throne seduce her patriotism." 

lyCt us now return to the voyagers. As soon as they had 
performed the ceremony cf occupation, the company penetrated a few 
miles into the interior, and, on reaching the summit of an eminence, 
they discovered that they were on an island, and not on the continent, 
"They behelde the sea both sides of them to the north and to the south, 
having no end any of both ways." They were on an island clad with 
vines, which reeled so full of grapes, "as that the very beating and 
surge of the sea had overflowed them, of which we found such plentie 
as well there as in all places else, both on the sand as on the green 
soil, on the hills as in the plains, as well as on every little shrub as also 
climing towardes the tops of high cedars, that I thinke in all the 
worlde the like abundance is not to be found." From the eminence 
which they had gained, they beheld the valleys replenished with 
goodly cedar trees, and having discharged their harque-buz shot, a 
flock of cranes (the most part white) arose under them, with such a 
cry, redoubled by many echoes, as if an army of men had shouted all 
together." The island is again described as having "many goodly 
woods, full of deer, conies, hares, and fowle, even in the midst of 
summer, in incredible abundance. The woods are not such as you 
find in Bohemia, Moscovia or Hercynia — barren and fruitless, but the 
highest and reddest cedars in the world, far better than the cedars of 
the Azores, of the Indies, or of Lybanus." 

The extracts which I have made are taken from the report of the 
two captains, Amadas and Barlowe, made to Sir Walter Raleigh on 
their return to Kngland. The description is not too highly wrought, 
for we must remember that the ravages of man and of the ocean have, 
for more than two centuries, desolated and changed Wokokon Island. 
The beautiful name of Virginia was first applied to the islands of 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

North Carolina, and I have seen, in the earliest maps and charts of 
the State at present bearing that name, Roanoke and Wokokon 
Islands laid off to the south under the somewhat boasted title of 
"Old Virginia," This, at least, was the Virginia of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, and of the Fairy Queen of England. His name is identi- 
fied with no other section of our Union, and the name of the capital 
of North Carolina best betokens her proud remembrance of the char- 
acter of her founder. 

The two captains, after having surveyed Wokokon Island, 
returned to their ships and there remained for two days before they 
encountered the natives. It is not my design in this number to 
follow them in their adventures among the savages ; I would rather 
ask the reader to come with me to the consecrated spot, and see how 
it now looks after a revolution of two hundred and fifty years. 

I have myself stood upon such an eminence on V^^'okokon Island 
as that described by the voj^agers, but I sought a more poetical hour 
than midday, and I had, too, the benefit of a blustering March wind, 
which threw the Vv^aters all into a rage, and brought down the waves 
of the Pamlico all the way from Roanoke Island, as heavy as if they 
had been born in the Gulf Stream. It was a clear, cold day ; and 
with the history of these voyages fresh in my memory, I had wan- 
dered about the island, and at sunset I placed myself as near as pos- 
sible on the very eminence on which they had stood centuries ago. 
The view before me was indeed wild and startling. The glorious 
sunset gilded the crested waves of the Pamlico, as they broke in 
boandless succession afar to the west and to the north, and the nar- 
row island that curves around to the northeast from Ocracock to 
Hatteras, all covered as it v/as with the mellow tints of the sun, 
resembled a rainbow resting on the face of the sea. The opposite 
towns of Portsmouth and Ocracock, and the old shell castle, stood 
before me amid the noisy waves, as if they had arisen to earth from 
the convulsive throes of the excited sea, and then there w^as the 
narrow island, v/ith its naked woods and vines, and the waves bursting 
and thundering upon its shores, combing their foam higher and 
higher on each return, as if in the wantonness of their strength they 
would clap their hand over the very spot on which I stood. To me 
there is something especially fascinating in the scenery about Ocra- 
cock Inlet. I love it for its very bleakness ; and historical associa- 
tion, too, hallows it in my memory. It is indeed a place of storms, 
for nature has there provided everything which can give fury to the 
winds, and, come from what quarter they will, they bring noise and 
strife. An easterly wind arouses the whole Atlantic, and the waves 

Early History, 

dash through the narrow straits, retreating from the fury of the 
storm ; and then a westerly wind arises and, sweeping over the Pam- 
lico, sends them all back to their ocean mother. A northeast gale 
will bring down from the banks of Hatteras sand enough to create an 
island ; and oftentimes a ship, riding at her anchorage, is enveloped 
in a whirlpool of sand, and lifted high and dr}^ out of the sea ; but 
then a northern storm will send its ministers to the rescue, and the 
briny waves will soon ply their strength, undermine it, and sweep 
the ship away. 

^ ^ ^ 

" The gentle children of an isle, 
Who knew but to worship and to love." — Russell. 

For two days our adventurous voyagers saw no signs of man. 
The vine-clad and flowery isle before them seemed to have bloomed 
away its existence unenjoyed by man, and their minds v/ere filled 
with the sublime thought — that in this virgin world the clamor of 
war had never been heard, nor the silence of its shores ever violated, 
save by the thunders of the waves and of the clouds of heaven. On the 
third day, however, this dream was broken. A solitary boat with 
three savages turned the northern part of Wokokon, and, gliding 
into an indenture in the shore, one of the party sprang upon the 
beach, and coming directly opposite the anchorage of the ships, he 
walked up and down along the water's edge, seemingly in wonder at 
what he saw. When Captain Amadas and three other gentlemen 
approached him in a boat, he made, them a speech of much length, in 
his own barbarous tongue, and then firmly stepping into their boat, 
he manifested by signs his desire to visit their ships. How brave is 
innocence. It goes wheresoever it will, and triumphs where guilt 
would fall. It has survived the fier}' furnace, and once walked upon 
the stormy sea, as upon the plains of the earth. 

The name of this Indian was Manteo ; and the whole domestic 
history of England cannot boast a more perfect character. He was 
alike the firm friend of the English and the stern patriot and defender 
of his tribe ; and whenever a strife arose among them, he held out 
the olive branch, and made peace upon the principles of justice. His 
savage birth and life were indeed but additional embellishments of 
his character ; and while he restrained the inhuman vices of his tribe, 
he checked the not less odious avarice of his new and more civilized 
associates. . . . On reaching the ships, Manteo wandered about 
the decks, examining every part of them with the curiosity of igno. 
ranee ; and having tasted of their meat and of their wine, and 
received a present of a hat and some other trifles, he departed again 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

to his own boat and attendants. He then put off into the water and 
"fell to fishing, and in less than half an hour he had laden his boat 
as deep as it could swim;" and then he came back to the shore, 
divided his fish between the two ships, and departed. 

The next day Granganameo, the king's brother, with a fleet of 
canoes, entered Ocracock Inlet ; and leaving his boats, as Manteo had 
done, in a small cove, he came down to the water's edge near the 
ships. He was attended by forty or fifty men, " very handsome and 
goodly people, and in their behavior as mannerly and civil as any of 
Europe ;" and they spread down upon the shore a long mat or carpet, 
upon which Granganameo was seated, and * ' at the other end of this 
matte four others of his company did the like — the rest stood about 
him somewhat afar off." 

He showed no signs of fear or mistrust as the English, dressed 
in full array of armor, approached ; but he sat perfectly unmoved, 
and bade them, by signs, to be seated near him, and then he made 
them "all figures of joy and welcome — striking on his breast and on 
his head, and afterwards on ours, to show we were all one — smiling 
and making shewe the best he could, of all love and familiaritie." 
After this welcome, Granganameo made them a long set speech, to 
which Captain Amadas replied by presenting him with divers things, 
which he joyfully received ; and during the whole ceremony none of 
the company of attendants spoke a word audibly, but each in the 
other's ear very softly. 

During this visit the voyagers learned that the country was called 
Wingandaceo, and that the king was named Wingina, and that his 
majesty had recently had a fight, In "which he was shot in two 
places through the body, and once clear through the thigh, by reason 
whereof, and for that he lay at the chief town of the country, which 
was five days journey off, they saw him not at all." Thus, by the 
illness of the king, Granganameo was in authority, and when the 
captain went around making presents to the company of attendants, 
he rose from his seat and took them all away, and indicated to the 
voyagers that all things should be given to him, and that the men 
around were but his servants and his followers. 

In a few days the voyagers commenced trading with the savages- 
for skins, and such other commodities as they possessed; and on 
showing all their merchandise, the article that most took the fancy of 
Granganameo was a large, bright tin dish, which he seized and 
"clapt it before his breast, and after made a hole in the brim thereof 
and hung it about his neck, making signs that it would defend him 
against his enemies' arrows; for these people maintain a deadly and 

Eakly History. 

terrible war with the people and king adjoining They exchanged 
the tin dish for twenty skins, worth twenty crowns, and a copper 
kettle for fifty skins, worth fifty crowns." 

A few days after this, the captains gave a collation on board the 
ships, and Granganameo came with all his retinue, and they drank 
wine and ate of their meat and of their bread, and were exceedingly 
pleased; and in a few days more he brought his wife, his daughter 
and two or three children on board the ships. His wife is represented 
as having been a most beautiful and modest woman. She wore a long- 
black cloak of leather, with the fur side next to her skin; her fore- 
head was surmounted with a band of white coral, and from her ears 
swung, even down to her waist, bracelets of precious pearl. Her 
raven hair was streaming down from her coral crown, and intertwist- 
ing itself with her earrings of pearl, flowed gracefully back over her 
jetty robe in wild and unshorn luxuriance. Granganameo, too, on this 
occasion was dressed in state .... The civility and kindness of the 
voyagers were well appreciated by Granganameo and his wife; and 
they spread around the country such reports of their good will, that 
"a great store of people" came down to Wokokon to see the strangers, 
and to trade away skins, pearls, coral and dyes. During all this 
intercourse nothing occurred to give dissatisfaction on either side, and 
in a few days we find Captain Barlowe, with seven comrades, at 
Roanoke Island on a visit to Granganameo. The particulars of this 
visit deserve to be specially detailed, to illustrate not more the 
manners and customs than the hospitality of the uncorrupted Ameri- 
can savage. 

On the north point of Roanoke Island there stood an Indian 
village of nine houses. Several were very large and commodious 
dwellings, being built of the best cedar, and containing as many as 
five rooms. The town was fortified by a circle of pickets, and the 
entrance through this, into the interior of the village, was over a 
turnpike path, which wound around from the water's edge, and 
entered the fortification through an avenue of these picketed trees. 
This was the town of Granganameo; and as Captain Barlowe and his 
company approached it in their boats, the wife of the good savage, 
being in the entrance near the water's edge, saw and welcomed them 
cheerfully and friendly. 

Granganameo not being at home, the civilities of the tribe 
devolved upon his wife, and generously did she acquit herself. She 
ordered a number of men to draw the boats out of the water, others 
she appointed to carry the voyagers on their backs, and when they 
were brought in the outer room, she gave them seats around a large 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

fire. Their outer garments, which had been wet in a rain, were taken 
off, quickly washed and dried, and the women of the village came 
and brought warm water and bathed their feet. My reader, I have 
drawn this picture not from my imagination but from history, nor 
have I purloined from classic annals a description of the Golden age, 
and thrown it amid the scenery of Roanoke Island; but this good 
Indian woman deserves to live renowned in the history of North 
Carolina as a good Samaritan, who ministered to the sorrows of the 
weary and distressed. 

■ But Granganameo's wife was not satisfied even with these cordial 
attentions. She had prepared, in the words of Captain Barlowe, "a 
solemn banquet" wherewithal to refresh them, and as soon as they 
had dried themselves and reassumed their outer garments, they 
were ushered into an inner room to enjoy the feast. The tables were 
set all around against the walls of the house, and on them were 
placed "some wheate like furmentie, venison, sodden and roasted, 
fish sodden, boiled and roasted, melons raw and sodden, roots of 
divers kinds, and divers fruites." Their drink was wine made of 
the grapes of the island, and ginger-cinnamon and sassafras water. 
Captain Barlowe exclaims, " We were entertained with all love and 
kindness, and with as much bounty after their manner as they could 
possibly devise. We found the people most gentle, loving and faith- 
ful, and such as live after the manner of the golden age." 

The house of Granganameo comprised five rooms — the hall in 
which the voyagers first entered, the banquet room, and then came 
two sleeping chambers, and in the rear of them all was the sanctum 
in which they kept an idol to bend before and to worship, and "of 
whom they spoke incredible things." The feast went off gloriously. 
The voyagers gave man}^ signs of their pleasure and gratification, 
and the good woman implored them to tarry for the night ; but the 
prudent Captain Barlowe preferred lounging in an open boat near the 
shore during a rainy night, lest there might be some miscarriage. 
She, however, sent them mats to cover with, and brought down to 
the boat, with her own hands, some supper put in pots ; and Captain 
Barlowe concludes his account of the feast by declaring that a more 
kind or loving people cannot be found in the world. 

Let us now see what information, as to the geographj^ of the 
country, these voyagers acquired. The Indian name of the Albemarle 
Sound was Occam, and into it flowed a river named Nomopana, and 
near the mouth of this river was a town called Chowanook, and the 
name of the king thereof was Pooneno. The Pamlico shores of the 
County of Carteret were called Secotan, and those of Craven, 

RoAXOKE Island. 

Pomonick. Secotan was under the king of Wingandaceo, and 
Pomonick under an independent king named Piamacum, In the 
interior, towards the setting sun, the country was called Newisk, 
and through it coursed the river Neus. The king of this country- 
was in alliance with Piamacum, and had aided him in a war against 
the Secotans. The journal of Captain Barlowe speaks too of a river 
called Cipo, which flowed into the ocean, in which were found 
" great store of muscles" producing pearls, and constant allusion is 
made to a great town called Shicock, which was said to be five 
days' journe}^ from the banks of the Occam. 

There was a tradition about Secotan, that some 3-ears before the 
arrival of the voj'agers a ship had been wrecked on the coast, and 
the unfortunate strangers had been preserved by the savages. They 
remained ten daj-s on the Southern Cape of Wokokon Island, and 
afterwards put to sea in a rudely constructed craft and were seen no 
more. Some weeks afterwards their boat was found wrecked on a 
contiguous island, and these were the only people "well apparelled 
and of white color" of whom the Indians had ever heard. 

I will here conclude ray notices of the vo3'age of Captains Amadas 
and Barlowe. The report which they made to Sir AValter Raleigh 
gave a powerful impulse to the adventurous spirit of the whole Brit- 
ish nation, and was distinguished at that da}- as the very beginning 
of the authorit}^ of England over the present territory of the United 
States. A rich bracelet of pearl was carried home and worn by Sir 
Walter as an emblem of his new dominions ; and Manteo and Wau- 
chese, two of the native savages, were passengers back to England, 
where they became the companions of the noble Lord Proprietor of 


"Such, is the aspect of this shore, 
'Tis Greece, but living Greece no more; 
So coldly sweet, so deadly fair. 
We start, for soul is Avantiug there." 

I have never wandered over the Island of Roanoke without a 
feeling of melancholy, as intense as that of Byron whilst contempla- 
ting the fallen greatness of Greece. The days of her glory are over, 
and gone with those be^-ond the flood; but still she is to me an island 
of the heart, for her shores are the graves of the warlike and the wise. 
The native Indian built his Machicomack on her hills; and there, too, 
stood the City of Raleigh, the birthplace of the Anglo-American; and 

*NoXE. — Extract from, the "Picturesque History of North Carolina." 

lo North Carolina and its Resources. 

thus was Roanoke known long before the beach of Jamestown was 
settled or the rock of Plymouth consecrated. She is the classic land 
of all English America, and will live in the future story of our 
Republic as the mother-earth of American liberty. The illustrious 
names of Raleigh, of Cavendish, of Grenville and of Drake — the 
heroes of the reign of Elizabeth — are a part and portion of her his- 
tory. Hariot, the mathematician and philosopher of the age, for the 
space of a whole year studied its natural resources and Indian 
History; and nearly two hundred and fifty years since gave to the 
world a book unequalled for the accuracy and the interest of its details. 
It would seem, indeed, as if the chivalry and learning of that age had 
contributed this splendid representation, to give a dazzling brilliancy 
to the early history of that State on whose shores the flag of England 
was first unfurled, and in whose valleys, and over whose hills, the 
mountain Goddess Liberty first shouted the cry of American inde- 
pendence. Bear witness, Mecklenburg, on the 20th of May, 1775. 

But it is not historic association alone which makes sacred the 
shores and the vine-clad forests of Roanoke. Nature seems to have 
exerted herself to adorn it as the Eden of the New World. The 
richest garniture of flowers, and the sweetest minstrelsy of birds, are 
there. In traversing the northern section of the island, in the spring 
time of the year, flowers and sweet-scented herbs, in the wildest 
luxuriance, are strewn along your winding way, welcoming you with 
their fragrance to their cherished isle. The wild rose bush, which at 
times springs up into nurseries of one hundred yards in extent, 
"blooms blushing" to the song of the thousand birds that are basking 
in her bowers. The mocking-bird, too, whatever ornithologists may 
say of its "chimney habits," makes this his favorite haunt; and I 
myself have seen him pillowed on the highest cluster of roses, and 
swinging with his weight the slender tree, as he warbled out his most 
exquisite song. It may be, however, that Roanoke is the very spot 
where, in imitation of the Eastern queen of song, the mocking-bird 
fell in love with the rose. 

There are stately pine forests extending along the centre of the 
island; but the most beautiful of its trees are what are commonly 
called dogwood, the laurel, and a delicate species of the white oak. 
I have seen a forest composed of these trees, the branches and limbs 
of which were literally intertwisted and knitted together by the 
embraces of the Roanoke vine, which here, in its native garden, 
grows with extraordinary exuberance. 

Within the deep shades of these reclining vintages, the spirit of 
solitude at times reigns in undisturbed majest3\ At midday, when 

Roanoke Island. il 

the heat of the summer's sun is too glowing for exertion, there is not 
the chirp of a bird to break the solemnity of the spot. The long and 
slender vine snake, which at other hours is seen industriously 
threading his way through the mazes of the vintage, has now sus- 
pended himself on a twig, and hangs as idle and as still as a black 
silk cord. If you hear the tread of footsteps, it is not of man, but 
the stealthy retreat of an unsuspecting fawn, which hath slept too- 
long, and which now, like a woodland nymph, hies away on the 
approach of man. But in the morning and in the evening this scene 
of quiet and of repose is all changed. It is then the granary of the 
island, and the birds have all assembled and are warbling in bacchanal 
confusion their morning or evening hymn. The scenery of Roanoke 
is neither grand nor sublime. There are no Alpine summits ta 
mingle with clouds, but a series of gentle undulations, and a few 
abrupt hills, in the valleys of which the richly dressed scenery I have 
described may be found. If it should ever be the lot of the reader tO' 
stroll under the vintage shades of Roanoke — made impervious to the 
rays of the sun by the rich foliage and clustering grapes above him — 
he will not venture to discredit the highly wrought sketches of 
Hariot, nor mock the humbler enthusiasm of the volume now before 
him. I remember once to have stood upon the loftiest eminence of 
the island, and to have watched the progress of a sunset. It was on a 
summer's eve which had been made peculiarly clear by a violent 
thunder squall the preceding night, and not a film of a cloud or a 
vapor was to be seen about the horizon or in the blue vault of heaven. 
There was not a breath of air to stir the slender leaf of the few lofty 
pines that straggled around me, and even the mocking-bird seemed 
to have hushed his capricious song, to enjoy the intense feeling of 
the moment. To the westward of the island, the waters of the Albe- 
marle crept sluggishly along; and in the winding current of the 
Swash several vessels stood, with outspread but motionless wings. 
Away down to the south, the Pamlico spread itself out, like an 
ocean of molten gold, gleaming along the banks of the Chikama- 
comico and Hatteras; and, contrasted with this, were the dark waters 
which separate Roanoke from the sea-beach, and which were now 
shaded from the tints of the sunset by the whole extent of the island. 
A sea of glory streamed along the narrow ridge — dividing the 
inland waters from the ocean; and beyond this the boundless Atlantic 
heaved her chafed bosom of sapphire and of gold against the base of 
yon stormy cape. I enjoyed and lived in that sunset and twilight 
hour. I thought of the glorious destiny of the land on which I trod — as 
glorious as the waters and the earth then around me. I thought of 

12 North Carolina and its Resources. 

the genius and the death of Raleigh — of the heroic devotedness of 
Grenville — of the gallantry of Cavendish and Drake — cf the learning 
of Hariot — of the nobleness of Manteo, the Lord of Roanoke — of the 
adventurous expedition of Sir Ralph I^ane up the river Moratock — of 
the savage array of the bloodthirsty'' Wingina — of the melancholy fate 
of the last of the Raleigh colonies — of Virginia Dare, the first Anglo- 
American — of the agony of her mother — and I then thought of those 
exquisite lines of Byron, 

"Shrine of tlie might}', can it be 
That this is all remains of thee?" 


The Roanoke Colony Memorial Association was organized in the 
Spring of 1894. The chief agents in its organization were Prof. 
Edward Graham Daves, of Baltimore; Dr. S. Weir Mitchell and Mr. 
Talcott Williams, of Philadelphia. Earlier than this Prof. Daves, 
who was a North Carolinian by birth, had made a tour in North Car- 
olina, lecturing for the benefit of the scheme. 

At the first meeting, which was held in May, 1894, Prof. Daves 
was elected president; Mr. W. D. Pruden of Edenton, vice president; 
and Dr. J. S. Bassett of Trinity College, secretary and treasurer. In 
the succeeding July Prof. Daves died, and the vacancy thus made was 
filled by the election of his brother, Maj. Graham Daves, of New- 
bern, N. C. 

The Company has bought the site of the Raleigh Fort on Roa- 
noke Island, which it has marked clearly, and it intends to preserve 
the site as it stands, and to erect permanent memorials of the Lost 


An organization under the above title has been efiected in North 
Carolina. The object of the Association is to erect a permanent 
memorial to the memor)'- of Virginia Dare. Mrs. Florence P. Tucker, 
of Raleigh, is president, and Mrs. Sallie S. Cotten, of Falkland, is 

Virginia Dare was the first white child born in North America, 
of English-speaking parents. It is also significant that the first 
Christian sacrament in America was the baptism of Manteo, an 
Indian, and Virginia Dare, infant native white American, which 
occurred on Roanoke Island, North Carolina, in August, 1587. 


The Revolution. 13. 


North Carolina was most forward in resisting the arbitrary- 
aggressions of the British Government. The first pitched battle 
against governmental tyranny was at Alamance, May 12, 1771. The 
first legislative body in defiance of the Royal Governor was at New- 
bern, Aug. 25, 1774. The General Assembly had placed on its 
seal May 20, 1775, as the date of the first declaration of independence. 

[The skirmish at Lexington on April 19, 1775, although insignif- 
icant in itself, fired the American heart ; the news of the encounter 
reached Charlotte, in Mecklenburg county, on the 19th of May fol- 
lowing, and on the next day, May 20, the patriots of Mecklenburg 
met in convention and declared the independence of the colonies. 
The cause of Massachusetts and of New England was theirs also, and 
a blow struck there in furtherance of British aggression must ulti- 
mately be repeated in North Carolina; hence this bold and patriotic 

In the winter of 1775-76, North Carolina troops under Howe helped 
drive Lord Dunmore from Virginia. In February, 1 776, the Tory High- 
landers were crushed at Moore's Creek bridge. On April 25, 1776, 
North Carolina, first of all the colonies, empowered her delegates to 
the Continental Congress to vote for independence. In the next 
month her troops assisted to repel the British fleet at Charleston. In 
the same Summer her militia under Rutherford, marching over track- 
less mountains, effectively humbled the hostile Cherokees. Her 
troops fought gallantly under Washington at Brandywine, German- 
town and Monmouth and were among the picked men to storm 
Stony Point under Wayne. By their stubborn endurance and pluck 
her people thwarted Cornwallis' attempt to subjugate the Carolinas 
and Virginia. They furnished troops and leaders for capturing Fer- 
guson at King's Mountain. They aided Green in crippling Corn- 
wallis at Guilford Court House, and the virtual victory of Butaw 

By the patriotism of Kx-Judge David Schenck, the battlefield of 
Guilford Court House has been purchased, and converted into a 
beautiful park, with appropriate monuments to the gallant heroes of 
the action. 


After the Revolution the State steadily increased in population 
and wealth, albeit hindered by two causes. In the first place, as she 
then had no good accessible harbors within her limits, she was denied 
the striking evidences of prosperity which attend the building of great 

14 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

cities. The handling of her products enriched the merchants of 
Charleston, Norfolk, Richmond, Baltimore and New York. Then 
the opening for purchase at government rates of immense areas of 
fertile lands in the West and Southwest carried off many of her 
citizens with all their substance to build up Indiana, Tennessee, 
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and other States. 

The following table taken from the census books shows that there 
was no backward step: 

Year. Population. 

1790 393.751 

1800 478,103 

1810 555,500 

1820 638,829 

1830 737.987 

1840 753.419 

1850 869,038 

i860 992,622 

1870 1,071,361 

1880 1,399.750 

1890 1,617,947 

This population is of a singularly homogeneous character. The 
immigrants in early days, Virginians (mainly English), Penn- 
sylvanians (mainly Scotch-Irish and German), Scotch-Irish, Scotch 
Highlanders and Lowlanders, Swiss, French, Huguenots, Germans 
from the Rhine and elsewhere, have fused by inter-marriages or busi- 
ness or social communication into a homogeneous people of steady, 
orderly and friendly habits. The relations between masters and 
slaves were singularly free from cruelty on the one side and insolent 
spirit of rebellion on the other. And after emancipation there was 
little friction in the adjustment of the new relation of employer and 


The attempts of Sir Walter Raleigh having signally failed, no 
further attempts at colonization were made for three-quarters of a 
century. In 1629, a charter was granted by Charles I. of England to 
Sir Robert Heath of the Southern part of Virginia, I^atitudes 31° to 36°, 
under the name, in honor of that king, of Carolina. As Heath did 
nothing under it, a renewal was granted in 1663 to eight Lords 
Proprietors, and an enlargement to 36° 30^ and 29°, two years 
afterwards. The first permanent settlement in the limits of North 
Carolina was called the County of Albemarle. The Lords Proprietors 
appointed Governors of Albemarle, and then Governors, or Deputy 

Proprietary and Royal Government. 15 

Governors, of North Carolina until 1728. Seven of tliem then sold 
their interests to the Crown, Lord Carteret, afterwards Earl Granville, 
yielding the right of government, but retaining his one-eight interest 
in the land of all Carolina. In 1744 he obtained a grant in severalty 
of about one-half of North Carolina, next to the Virginia line. The 
colony was therefore under the crown from 1728 to the Revolution. 

The colonists have been charged by some historians as of a 
turbulent character, but it seems certain that their civil commotions 
were on account of real grievances, and were not more frequent nor 
violent than in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, Virginia and South 
Carolina. They had the wisdom to discern attacks on their rights 
and bravery to resent them. 

The Tuscarora war of 1711 brought terrible losses of life and 
property to the young colony. By the aid of troops from South 
Carolina the uprising was quickly suppressed. Afterwards in the 
Yemassee Indian war. North Carolina repaid her neighbor by send- 
ing prompt and efficient succor under Col. Maurice Moore. She like- 
wise sent troops to aid the unsuccessful attempt on Carthagena, and 
to Virginia and New York to fight against the French and Indians. 


North Carolina was not forward in adopting secession. The 
people by a small majority in February, 1861, voted down the pro- 
posal to call a convention to consider Federal relations. Bat when 
coercion by the United States Government was resolved upon, a con- 
vention was called, and, on May 20, 1861, an ordinance of secession 
was passed by unanimous vote, and it was supported by large kvies 
of money and troops. It was not the policy of the Confederacy to 
defend seriously the North Carolina coast, and by the Spring of 1S62 
the whole of the country from Beaufort to the Virginia line was in the 
hands of the Federals. Plymouth was, however, recaptured with 
nearly two thousand prisoners by the Confederates under General 
Hoke, but in a few months it was lost again, the Cuufederates Laving 
previously been ordered to Virginia. Fort Fisher at the nioath of 
the Cape Fear was defended with conspicuous courage for many 
months, thus enabling Confederate vessels to evade the blockade and 
introduce large supplies of necessaries, such as cloth, blankets, shoes, 
medicine, &c., for the use of our soldiers. And this was brought about 
by the efforts of Governor Zebulon B. Vance, seconded by the votes 
of the Legislature in authorizing large increase of bonds and treasury 
notes. A sharp but indecisive battle was fought at Bentonsville near 
the close of the struggle, but the valor and the sacrifices of the sol- 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

diers of North Carolina were chiefly in the great campaigns of Vir- 
ginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, and to a less extent in Tennessee 
and South Carolina. 

The records of the War Department at Washington, comprising 
forty-nine volumes of about one thousand pages each, furnish a 
statistical history of the war. The result is impartial and represents 
the combined labors of five Federal and two Confederate oflScers. 
The casualties on both sides are recorded. The tables of dead and 
wounded show that on the Confederate side North Carolina lost more 
soldiers killed than any other Southern State, as follows: 14,522; and 
that she headed the list in the number that died of wounds, and that 
20,602 of her soldiers perished of disease. Her military population 
in 1 861 was 115,369, yet she furnished 125,000 to the Confederate 


The State of North Carolina is bounded on the north by Virginia, 
east by the Atlantic Ocean, south by South Carolina and Georgia and 
west by Tennessee. It is included nearly between the parallels 34° 
and 36^° north latitude, and between the meridians 75^° and 84)^° 
west longitude. 

The extreme length of the State from east to west is 503 J/4 miles; 
its average breath is 100 miles; its extreme breadth is iS'j}4 miles. 
Its area embraces 52,286 square miles, of which 48,666 is land, and 
3,620 is water. 

Its topography may be best conceived by picturing to the mind's 
eye the surface of the State as a vast declivity, sloping down from the 
summits of the Smoky Mountains, an altitude of nearly 7,000 feet, to 
the level of the Atlantic Ocean. The Smoky Mountains constitute a 
part of the great Appalachian chain, which here attains its greatest 
height; the greatest, indeed, in the United States, east of the Rocky 
Mountains. This slope is made up of three wide extended terraces — 
if that term may be allowed; the first a high mountain plateau — dis- 
tinguished as the Western or Mountain Section; the second, a sub- 
montane plateau, distinguished as the Middle Section, or the Pied- 
mont Plateau region; the third, the Atlantic plain, distinguished 
as the Low Country or the Coastal Plain region, and that part from 
the head of the tides downward as the Tide-water Section. From 
the first to the second section there is a sharp descent through a few 

' V'^^ "m — ' - itn'' i-ihH"" iijiiinm i MC i wiBn ii 


General Sketch. 17 

miles only of not less than 1,500 feet; from the middle to the low 
country a descent of about 200 feet; through the two latter, however, 
there is a constant downward grade. 


This is so sharply and distinctly defined, and embraces so large 
a portion of the territory of North Carolina, as to merit a somewhat 
extended reference to its magnitude, its elevation and its character- 
istics. Broadly considered it may be treated as a high plateau, 
bounded on the east bj'' the irregular chain known as the Blue Ridge, 
extending across the State in a general direction from northeast 
to southwest, until, reaching the southeastern border of Hender- 
son county, it turns to the west and forms for a long distance part of 
the southern boundary of the State, passing at length by a southwest 
projection into the State of Georgia, and again reuniting with the 
chain of the Smoky Mountains, to which it had made near approach 
on its entry into North Carolina in the counties of Ashe and 

The average elevation of the Blue Ridge is nearl}^ 4,000 feet, 
though on the southern and northern extremities it drops to 3,000 
feet, its lower gaps being a little above 2,000 feet over the main level 
of the Piedmont country. Seen from the east, the chain presents the 
aspect of a steep and rugged escarpment springing suddenly from the 
Piedmont plateau to an altitude of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet above it. 
From the west the appearance is that of a low and ill-defined ridge, in 
some places, as in parts of Henderson and Macon Counties, presenting 
almost a smooth, unbroken horizontal line; again uplifting itself in 
bold prominence, attaining the height of nearly 6,000 feet, as in the 
Grandfather, and the Pinnacle, the conspicuous summits so attractively- 
visible near Round Knob, on the Western North Carolina Railroad. 

The v/estern boundarj^ of this division is that long chain known 

under the various names of the Iron, the Smoky, and the Uuaka 

Mountains, and forming the dividing line between North Carolina and 

Tennessee, and enclosing with marked definiteness the plateau of 

Western North Carolina. The area of this division approximates 

6,000 square miles. The plateau is the culminating region of the 

Appalachian sj^stem, and contains not only its largest masses, but also 

its highest summits. It is divided by a number of cross ridges, and 

consequently into a number of smaller plateaus or basins, each bounded 

on all sides by high mountains and having its own independent 

system of rivers or drainage. It is this connection or interlacing of the 

outside bounding chains by the agency of the numerous cross chains 

1 8 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

that gives Western Nortli Carolina its marked mountain character, its 
alternation of high mountain ranges with corresponding valleys and 
their attendant rivers, and the numerous lateral spurs, penetrated also 
by their valleys and their mountain torrents, and all arranged with 
an order and a symmetry as rare as it is beautiful, and also presenting 
facilities for communication from the opposite sides of these chains of 
ifflestimable value in the construction of works of internal improvement 
not often possessed by mountain countries. 

The chief of these in exceptional elevation is known as the 
Black Mountains, consisting of a single short ridge extending in a 
northly direction from the point where it leaves the Blue Ridge. Its 
total length is only about fifteen miles, but within this short distance 
there are a dozen peaks that rise to an elevation of more than 6,000 
feet above the sea, and one of these — Mitchell's Peak — the highest 
mountain on the eastern half of the continent, has an altitude of 6,711 
feet. Between the French Broad and the Pigeon rivers stretches the 
long ridges of the Pisgah and the New Found mountains, interrupted 
b}'' the valley of Hominy creek, the opening of v/hich offers conven- 
ient passway to the next parallel ridge, the Balsam mountains, which 
extends in unbroken continuity from the South Carolina line on the 
south to the Smoky Mountains on the Tennessee border on the north. 
This range has a mean elevation of about 5,500 feet, with fifteen 
summits exceeding 6,000 feet; and across the range are only two pass- 
ways or gaps suitable to the passage of wheeled vehicles, one of 
which, traversed by the Western North Carolina railroad, is 3,357 
feet above sea-level; the other, Soco Gap, being 4,341 feet high. 
Then comes the Cowee mountains, extending nearly across the State, 
and separated from the Great Smokies by the narrow valley of the 
Tuckasegee river. The mean height of this ridge is about 4,800 
feet, the highest summit, at the southern end, being Yellow moun- 
tain, 5,133 feet. Then succeeds the massive and very bold double 
chaia of the Nantahala and Valley River mountains, with a mean 
height of 5,000 feet, the two branches of which lie in close parallelism 
from the Georgia State line on the south as far as the Red Marble 
Gap on the north, where they separate, one branch directed west- 
ward and known as the Long Ridge, and uniting itself with the 
Smoky mountains in Cherokee county; the other extending to the 
northeast, under the name of the Cheowah mountains, and ending 
without definite connection in undefinable ridges or isolated peaks. 

On the east side of the Blue Ridge and extending into the Pied- 
mont region are a series of short and irregular ridges or spurs. 
Among these ate the Saluda, Green River, Tryon and Hungry 

The Mountain Region. 19 

mountain masses, which are more or less separated from the Blue 
Ridge by the deep valleys or gorges carved by the river torrents 
which have cut through them and thus unite with the waters flowing 
toward the Atlantic; the waters on the west of the Blue Ridge, on 
the contrary, all directing their courses toward the Mississippi or its 
tributaries. Two other and more prominent ridges extend into this 
Piedmont plateau for considerable distances. The South mountains, 
commencing as foot hills of the Blue Ridge in western McDowell, 
extend in a general easterly direction, south of the Catawba river to 
western Catawba county, a distance of some fifty miles. They reach 
their maximum development near the junction of Burke, McDowell 
and Rutherford counties, where several knobs have an elevation of 
near 3,000 feet. The other of these two ridges, the Brushy moun- 
tains, cutoff from the Blue Ridge at the west by several tributaries 
of the Catawba assumes definite proportions in eastern Caldwell 
county and extends northeast more or less parallel to the Yadkin 
valley and Blue Ridge on the north, as far as the Sauratown moun- 
tains in Stokes county, a distance of some eighty miles. In Yadkin 
and Surry counties these mountains nearly disappear, but they reap- 
pear in Pilot, Eaton and Moor's Knobs to the northeast. 

The Linville mountains, though a distinct spur from the Blue 
Ridge, are so coincident with it in perspective and in general char- 
acteristics as to need no mention as a distinct ridge. 

The above embrace the whole mountain system of North Carolina, 
and in the western section unmistakably present the culmination of 
the great Appalachian system, as illustrated by the highest summits 
lifted up in all the territory of the United States east of the Rocky 
Mountains, and also as the source from which many large rivers 
radiate to flow towards the opposite directions of the Atlantic Ocean, 
the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mississippi river and its tributaries. 

Along the Blue Ridge, along the Smoky mountain range, and 
along the cross chains are found the following summits which exceed 
6,000 feet in elevation: 

In the Smoky Mountains — Mount Buckley, 6,599; Cling- 
man's Dome, 6,660; Mount Love, 6,443; Mount Collins, 6,188; Mount 
Alexander, 6,447; Mount Henry, 6,373; Mount Guyot, 6,636; Tri- 
corne Knob, 6,188; Raven's Knob, 6,230; Thermometer Knob, 6,157; 
lyuftee Knob, 6,232; Cataloochee, 6,159; Roan (High Knob,) 6,313; 
Roan (High Bluff",) 6,287; Grassy Ridge, (Bald,) 6,220; Cold Spring, 

In The Balsam Mountains — Enos Plotts' Balsam, 6,090; 
Jones' Balsam, 6,224; Rockstand Knob, 6,002; Brother Plott, 6,246; 

20 North Carouna and its Rejsources. 

Amos Plott's Balsam, 6,278; Rocky Face, 6,031; Double Spring 
Mountain, 6,380; Richland Balsam, 6,370; Chimney Peak, 6,234; 
Spruce Ridge Top, 6,076; Reinhardt Mountain, 6,106; Devil's Court 
House, 6,049; Sam's Knob, 6,001. 

In the; Black Mountains — Blackstock's Knob, 6,378; Potato 
Top, 6,393; Black Dome, 6,502; Mount Gibbs, 6,591; Mount Hall- 
back, (or Sugar loaf,) 6,403; Mount Mitchell, 6,711; Balsam Cone, 
6,671; Black Brother, 6,619; Cattail Peak, 6,611; Hairy Bear, 6,681; 
Deer Mountain, 6,233; I^ong Ridge, (middle point,) 6,259; Bowlen's 
Pyramid, 6,348. 

In the; Craggy Range; — Big Craggy, 6,068. 

In all forty-three peaks of 6,000 feet and upwards. And there 
are eighty-two mountains which exceed in height 5,000 feet, and 
closely approximate 6,000, and the number which exceed 4,000 and 
approximate 5,000 are innumerable. 

The general contour of all these mountains is gentle, the summits 
generally presenting smooth rounded outlines, occasionally rising into 
sharp pointed peaks, and, except on the southern border, presenting 
but few precipitous slopes. There, some of the most stupendous cliffs 
or precipices east of the Rocky Mountains present themselves, such 
as Caesar's Head and Whiteside Mountain, the latter presenting a sheer 
perpendicular front of naked rock eighteen hundred feet in height. 

Otherwise the mountains are covered with deep rich soil, clothed 
with massive forests to their tops. To this general condition there is 
the remarkable exception presented by the locally named balds, 
natural meadows found on the rounded tops of many of the highest 
mountains. Their elevation is generally near, or above, 6,000 feet. 
The heavy forest growth of the valleys and lower slopes of the moun- 
tains is gradually dwarfed towards the bald summits, so that these 
are surrounded by a fringe of stunted, scrubby oaks, beeches, &c., 
the balds themselves being covered with a rich herbage of grass, pas- 
turage to which large herds of domestic animals are annually driven 
to remain until the return of cold weather. 

The great elevation of these mountain heights is indicated by 
the botanical features of the vegetation, which shows a predominance 
of firs, hemlocks, white pines, and other trees of high latitudes. 

In respect to those timber trees found here, in common with the 
other sections, the Mountain region has the advantage of possessing 
an unbroken forest. In comparison with the extent of forest lands, 
the clearings here are mere patches. 

There is little hazard in saying that there is nowhere in any of 
the States an equal area of land covered with timber trees of such 


The; Mountain Region. 21 

various kinds, and of such value. The walnut, tulip trees, (poplars), 
and oaks attain a size that would hardly be credited by one who had 
not seen them. The preservation of this magnificent forest is due to 
the fact that it has hitherto been inaccessible to transportation. 
Within the past few years much of it has been brought into connec- 
tion with the markets of the world. One railroad line passes entirely 
through this section, and another branching off at Asheville and 
leading to the extreme southwest of the State, is now completed. 
Into the northwestern part of the State also a railroad has been 
completed and others projected. 

The cultivated productions of this section are the same as 
those of the Piedmont Plateau region, cotton and rice excepted. 
Its garden vegetables are the same, but the cabbage and the 
Irish potato grow here to a degree of perfection that cannot 
be excelled anywhere. Among the fruits, its apples are noted 
for size and flavor. Peaches and grapes grow well generally; 
but, for their highest perfection, nature has made provisions by 
a suspension to some extent of her ordinary laws. Throughout 
the mountains, in certain localities and at certain elevations, 
there are horizontal belts where frost is seldom known. Such 
localities are found not only in this section, but in the South 
mountains and in the Brushy range. 

The climate of this Mountain region differs less from that of the 
Piedmont Plateau region than would be inferred from its higher alti- 
tude. The difi"erence is more perceptible in summer than in winter. 
In the former season, its cool and bracing air, together with its varied 
scenery, its mineral waters — sulphur, chab.-beate and thermal — made 
this section one of the favorite resorts of the people of the South and 
Southwest when it could only be reached by private convej^ances. 
Since it has been penetrated by railroads, the influx of health and 
pleasure-seekers has increased an hundred fold, and in future will 
add very largely to its resources. 

The soils of the basins of the great rivers of this section, and its 
mountain valleys, are noted for their fertilit3^ The capacity for the 
production of cereals and hay grasses is equal to that of any lands. 
As might be inferred from the heavy forest growth with which the 
entire surface is covered, the mountain sides are susceptible of pro- 
fitable cultivation up to their summits. 

Among the valleys most noted for their beauty and extent are the 
upper French Broad and Mills river valleys, of Henderson and Tran- 
sylvania; the Swannanoa, in Buncombe; the Pigeon river, Richland 
and Jonathan's creek flat lands, in Haywood; those of the Val- 

22 North Carolina and its Resourcks. 

ley river and Hiwasse, in Cherokee; and portions of the upper 
lyinville, in Mitchell. 

The entire transmontane country is well adapted to stock-raising. 
The cultivated grasses flourish everywhere with even ordinary care. 
But it is in the north-western counties — particularly in the counties 
of Ashe, Alleghany, Watauga, Mitchell, Yancey — that all the con- 
ditions are found necessary for its perfect success. The soil through- 
out these counties is a deep rich loam, up to the summits of the 
mountains. The whole country is covered with a dense vegetation, 
amongst which will be found some of the largest timber in the United 
States, and as yet the forests are comparatively unbroken, because 
they have been inaccessible to market. The clearing of the timber 
is a work of some difficulty, but when that is done the labor of the 
farmer is rewarded with the richest crops. After two or three crops 
are taken off, the land, if suffered to lie at rest, springs up spontane- 
ously in timothy, herds grass, and other rich pasture grasses; and 
once established, the grass perpetuates itself upon the land. Nor is 
an entire clearing necessary to establish the land in grass. If the 
undergrowth is removed, the trees thinned out, and the surface 
stirred and sown in orchard grass (Cocks foot,) it flourishes luxur- 
iantly even while the forest trees are left standing. 

Its capacity as a grazing country has long been known. But 
formerly the cattle were left to the resources of nature, which indeed, 
in such a country were abundant and rich. " Horses and horned 
cattle," says General Clingman in one of his publications, "are 
usually driven out into the mountains about the first of April and 
brought back in November. Within six weeks after they have thus 
been put into the range, they become fat and sleek. There are, 
however, on the top and along the sides of the higher mountains 
ever-green and winter grasses on which horses and horned cattle 
live well through the entire winter. Such animals are often foaled 
and reared there until fit for market, without ever seeing a cultivated 
plantation." Of late, attention has been turned to the breeding of 
fine stock, and some herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are found 
there which will compare not unfavorably with those of any country. 
This country is already penetrated by one railroad, and others are in 
course of construction. When fairly laid open to railroad communi- 
cation it will offer — besides its rich mining interests and timbers — 
one of the finest fields for cattle and sheep breeding and for dairy 
products that the Union presents. 

Apart from its forests, nature has been prodigal to this section in 
shrubs and flowering plants. It has alwaj^s been a favorite resort of 

The Mountain Region. 23 

the botanists. It is a field that has been assiduously cultivated by many 
of the most distinguished professors of that science. It was from these 
mountains that Bartram, the Michauxs — father and son — Fraser, 
Delile, L,yon, Nuttall, Von Schweinitz, Mitchell, Gray and Curtis, 
drew much of the material of their valuable contributions to botani- 
cal science. It was here that some of the most beautiful flowers 
that adorn the gardens of Europe and of this country were first 
discovered. It still yields rare flowers to the explorer, which 
though not conspicuous for their beautj^, are deemed rare treasures 
by botanists. 

This section has also been one of the chief sources of supply of 
medicinal herbs. Immense quantities are gathered and shipped to the 
northern cities and to Europe. In travelling through the mountains 
bales of these herbs may be seen collected about the country stores as 
bales of cotton are seen in the middle and eastern regions. Ginseng 
in great quantities is shipped to China. The trade in medicinal herbs 
has grown into a large business. 

Corundum abounds in Macon, Clay and many other counties. 
Mica is abundant in Mitchell and Yancey, and those counties yield a 
large part of the world's supply. The largest and finest sheets of it 
seen at the World's Fair at Vienna were from the Ray Mine in 

This section is rich in iron ores of the best grade. That of 
Cranberry possesses such excellence for making iron for special 
purposes — steam boilers for example, and steel of the finest quality, 
such as is adapted to making surgical instruments and the like — that 
a railroad forty miles long and costing more than a million dollars 
has been constructed through one of the most rugged parts of the 
mountain territory to reach it. Copper also is prominent among the 
metals of this region. The most noted mine is that of Ore Knob, in 

The effect of these mining enterprises upon the prosperity of this 
section has been marked. Labor has found emplo3'ment, a home 
market has been furnished to the farmer, and there has been some 
appreciation of property of every kind. 

The past few years have been remarkable for the success with 
which the difficulties presented by the want of transportation in this 
State have been grappled with and overcome. These achievements 
at once great and beneficent, will make this period a memorable one in 
the history of the State. Railroads are now entering the north- 
western part of the State in several directions. The completion and 
connection of these, and the opening up of this region, so rich in 

24 North Carolina and its Resources. 

elements of undeveloped wealth, is now regarded as the first and most 
imperative duty of the statesmen of North Carolina. 


The Piedmont Plateau region is intermediate between the Moun- 
tain region, already spoken of, and the Coastal Plain region, which 
extends to the ocean. It comprises nearly one-half the territory of 
the State. In passing into this region from either of the others, a 
marked change is at once observable in topography, in production, 
and largely in industrial pursuits. The tumultuous continuity of 
mountains subsides into gentle undulations, a succession of hills and 
dales, a variety and charm of landscape, alike different from the high, 
uplifted mountain elevations and the flat monotony of the plains or 
levels of the east. Every step brings to view some new charm, some 
new arrangement of the rounded hills, some nevv^ grouping of the 
tracts of forest Vv^hich still cover so large a part of the country. The 
hills, indeed, in their gracefully curving outlines, present lines of 
beauty with which the eye of taste is never satiated. These are 
attractions which depend upon permanent features of the landscape, 
and which, though infinitely heightened in their effects by the 
verdure of spring and summer, are only brought into fuller relief by 
the nakedness of winter. The variations of surface, though less 
defined at first, become more marked towards the west, and towards 
the Blue Ridge the country assumes a bold and even rugged aspect. 

The hand of improvement is more visible in this than in any sec- 
tion in this State. Almost the entire region is now dotted over with 
thriving villages and towns. The homes everywhere indicate a high 
degree of thrift and comfort. An unusual proportion are built in 
modern style, and tastefully painted. Nestled amidst yards and 
gardens, enclosed with neat painted palings, flanked with orchards 
of fruit trees, in which a space is generally allotted to choice grape 
vines, they give abundant proof of ease, plenty, and, in many 
instances, of no small degree of luxury. 

It is in this section that the great water-power of the State — esti- 
mated by the late State Geologist, Prof. W. C. Kerr, at three million 
horse-power — finds its greatest development and employment. It is 
through this section that flow the upper waters of the Dan, the Roanoke, 
the Tar, the Neuse, the Cape Fear, the Yadkin, and the Catawba, 
and their numerous affluents. All of those have been partially utilized 
oy the erection of corn, flouring and saw-mills in every neighbor- 
hood, and cotton and woolen mills on almost all of the rivers and their 
tributaries. Within the last few years the number of cotton-mills has 

Piedmont Plateau Region. 25 

largely increased. Those erected lately are spacious buildings, and 
equipped with the best machinery. Within the same period all or 
nearly all of the older ones have been enlarged and new machinery 
put in. The fact begins to be more and more recognized that within 
the cotton States there are advantages for the manufacture of that 
staple that cannot be found elsewhere. Here the cotton is at the 
door of the manufacturer, and the prime cost of the material is there- 
fore less. Wages are less here than in the northern States, and a 
lower rate of wages here affords a more comfortable living than a 
higher rate there, for the necessaries of life are cheaper, and less of 
food, clothing and fuel are required. I^ess fuel, too, is required for 
heating the mill in winter. The laborer can make substantial 
additions to his means of subsistence from his garden, which is 
always allotted here to the head of the family. Here there is no 
obstruction to machinery from ice in winter, and no greater suspen- 
sion of work from drought in summer, for our rivers are as long as 
those of New England and have as many tributaries. The original 
cost of the site and of the building here is very much less than the 
same cost there. The force of these reasons cannot be long resisted, 
and, indeed, the phenomenal growth of cotton milling now observed 
in the State fully asserts the truth of the claims set forth. 

In subsequent chapters in this volume the water powers and 
manufacturing will be treated at more length. 

The soil of this Piedmont Plateau presents a blending of the soils 
of the Eastern and Western regions, the tertiary formation of the first 
pushing itself sometimes far towards the west until it comes into 
proximity with the older formations of the Piedmont region, and 
often, in its extreme western extension, partaking of the character of 
the formations of the mountains. A soil so composed or diversified, in 
connection with favorable climatic conditions, offers great agricul- 
tural possibilities, and in this section we find the widest range of 
production. It is here that we find the largest area devoted to the 
cultivation of the most profitable varieties of tobacco, and it is here 
that the culture of cotton is largely extended and profitably pursued; 
and it is here also that all the cereals and all the grasses are culti- 
vated in their highest perfection, enlisting the leading agricultural 
interest of the population. Here also the fruits of the temperate 
zone find congenial home — apples, peaches, pears, cherries, the small 
fruits and grapes being unexcelled in excellence, variety and abund- 
ance. In this section are also widely distributed the richest veins 
and deposits of the valuable ores and metals, including the precious 
metals, gold and silver, iron, copper and lead, and the only two coal 

26 North Carolina and its Resources. 

formations found in North Carolina. These ores, and the mining 
operations connected with them, will be treated of in a chapter in this 
work. This region also abounds in varied and extensive forest wealthy 
which will be referred to in its proper place. 


The whole eastern portion of the State consists of a vast plain, 
stretching frjom the sea coast into the interior of the country, a dis- 
tance of from one hundred to a hundred and fifty miles. Traversing 
this section from north to south are tracts of country which vary 
little from a perfect level. The Carolina Central Railroad has a 
stretch of one hundred miles where there is neither curve, excavation 
nor embankment. From east to west the surface rises by easy grada- 
tions at the rate of a little more than a foot to the mile. The rise, 
however, is not perceptible to the traveler. But though level in 
parts, it is in general relieved by slight undulations. Along its 
western border, as in the county of Moore, it attains an elevation of 
about five hundred feet. 

The western boundary may be roughly defined by a line extend- 
ing from the western part of Warren, through Franklin, Wake, 
Cumberland, Chatham, Moore, Montgomery and Anson. This line 
marks what, at an earlier period of the earth's history, was a line of 
sea-beach. Over this whole section the primitive rocks are covered 
with a deep stratum of earth, principally sand. Along the western 
border there is a broad belt of unequal width, but generally from 
thirty to forty miles across, where granite, slate and other rocks are 
sparingly distributed, mainly near water- courses, where the more 
recent formations have been removed by the erosian agencies. The 
belt of primitive rock here mentioned extends to the Wilmington and 
Weldon Railroad, from the Virginia line to Goldsboro, and from thence 
to a line drawn through Averysboro to the South Carolina line about 
where the Pee Dee enters that State. From the line there indicated 
to the sea coast not a stone of any size, except along the water- 
courses, and scarcely a pebble, except at a few points, is to be met with. 

A bed of shell limestone underlies some portions of the region, 
cropping out at intervals. It forms a good limestone, suflSciently 
pure for all the common purposes of building, and in quantity large 
enough to supply a wide extent of country with quicklime. Exam- 
ples of this are found nine miles below Waynesboro, in the north-west 
corner of Jones, in the northern part of Onslow, at Wilmington, and 
on the north-west branch of the Cape Fear to a distance of forty 
miles above. 


Coastal Plain Region. 27 

This section is made up of beds of clay and sand, witii vast 
quantities of shells imbedded in them. The soil varies in character 
to the extent that the one or the other predominates; and to the 
extent that the shells, when intermixed with it, have undergone 
decomposition. The upland soil is for the most part a sandy loam, 
easily accessible to the sun's rays, easily worked and very productive 
in the crops there cultivated. There are, however, extensive areas of 
country where sand predominates to such a degree that the surface 
to a considerable depth is a bed of white sand. Yet this kind of land 
is the favorite habitat of the long-leaf pine. When cleared, it 3d elds 
good crops of corn and cotton for a few years without manure, and 
always with slight help from proper commercial fertilizers, and con- 
siderable areas, as in Moore county, have been found to be valuable 
for small fruits and orchards. There are other extensive areas Vv'here 
clay enters so largely into the soil as to form a clay loam. The 
counties on the north side of Albemarle Sound — a very fertile tract 
of country — are examples of this class. The alluval lands of this 
section — lands alwaj^s in the highest degree productive from the fact 
that all the elements of fertility are intimatelj' intermingled by 
having been once suspended in water — are of unusual extent and 
importance. The grain grown there supplies food not only for people 
of other parts of the State, but large populations in other States. 
There are also extensive areas when the marls of the tertiary forma- 
tion come near the surface and increase the fertility of the soil. 
This is the case from the eastern part of Jones county to the Cape 
Fear river, and in portions of many other counties. Another class of 
lands in point of fertility equalling anj^ in the world is that reclaimed 
from some of the swamp and lake areas in the extreme eastern 
portion of this region. These lands seem to be well nigh inexhausti- 
ble. The cultivation of three-quarters of a ' century has made no 
change in their productive capacity. To the lands reclaimed from 
the borders of marshes — so frequent near the shore — the same remark 
may be applied. 

Another class of land remains to be mentioned which will be a 
resource of inestimable value in time, perhaps not distant. Border- 
ing on the sea and sounds are extensive tracts of country designated 
as swamps. Though so-called, they differ wadelj^ in their character- 
istic features from an ordinary swamp. They are not alluvial tracts, 
neither are they subject to overflow. The land covered by many of 
them lies for the greater part quite low; but this remark seldom 
applies wholly to any of them — to some does not apply at all. On the 
contrary many of them occupy the divides or water sheds between the 

28 North Carolina and its Resources. 

rivers and sounds, and are elevated many feet above the adjacent 
rivers of which they are the sources. These latter are susceptible of 
drainage, and when reclaimed some of them have every element of 
exuberant and lasting fertility. Bay River swamp, between Pamlico 
and Neuse rivers, and Green swamp, in Brunswick and Columbus 
counties, may be mentioned as examples. The elevation of the 
latter is forty feet above the sea level. The work of drainage is 
simple. From the border of the swamp, which is always the high- 
est land, the bottom slopes in every direction gradually, almost im- 
perceptibly, to the centre. A canal cut through this border into the 
swamp, and carried to some neighboring stream, lays bare an exten- 
sive belt along the entire border. The aggregate territory in the 
State known as swamp lands is between three and four thousand 
square miles. When drainage shall be properly carried out over 
this great territory — a work which on account of the slight difficul- 
ties to be encountered as compared with those which they encoun- 
tered and overcame, would be deemed trifling by the laborious 
North German and the indefatigable Hollander — hundreds of square 
miles of land of surpassing fertility will be added to the area now 
in cultivation. 

Throughout this entire section cotton, corn, oats, sorghum, peas, 
peanuts, potatoes, especially sweet potatoes, are the staple crops; 
the culture of tobacco has been lately introduced with success. Upon 
the rich alluvions and the reclaimed lake and swamp lands, corn, 
with peas planted in the intervals between the corn, forms the ex- 
clusive crop. Occasionally on the broad low-grounds of the Roanoke, 
wheat is grown to a considerable extent. In the counties on the 
north of Albemarle Sound it is one of the staple crops. On the low- 
grounds of the lower Cape Fear rice has long been the staple crop, 
and during recent years its culture has been extended northward 
along the low lying lands of the rivers and sounds. I^The upland 
variety of rice has been introduced within a few years past with en- 
tire success. This section is everywhere underlaid with marl — a 
mixture of carbonate of lime and clay formed by the decomposition 
of imbedded shells — sufficient in quantity, when raised and applied 
to the surface, to bring it to a high pitch of fertility and maintain 
it so. 

In the counties of Duplin, Sampson and New Hanover valuable 
deposits of phosphates have been discovered, which are now being 
mined and ground for fertilizing purposes. They are known to exist 
in the adjoining counties, but to what extent has not been yet ascer- 
tained. From the similarity of the geological conditions throughout 

CoASTAi, Pi,AiN Region. 29 

the Bastern Section, there is little doubt that a systematic explora- 
tion there will lead to further extensive discoveries. 

The use of marl, on account of its lower value in comparison with 
its bulk and consequent cost of transportation, must be mainly, if 
not wholly, confined to the section in which it is found. Phosphates, 
on the other hand, on account of their high fertilizing power, admit 
of transportation to any distance, and may be used anywhere. 

Dr. Kmmons remarks: "The swamp soils of North Carolina 
show a greater capacity for endurance than the prairie soils of Illinois, 
notwitstanding the annual crops are somewhat less per acre; and, on 
the score of location, we are unable to see that the Illinois soils have 
the preference. Nor, as regards health, are our swamp soils more 
subject to malaria than the country of the prairies," He refers to 
the remarkable fact that "persons live and labor in swamps with 
impunity or freedom from disease. ' ' This statement is fully sustained 
by the reports of our engineers who have had charge of the 
construction of railroads in that section, as well as by the general 
healthfulness of the inhabitants of the region, and especially so by 
those who use cistern water. 

The swamps, in their natural state, afford abundant pasturage. 
They are covered in part by a dense growth of reeds, which supply 
excellent food for cattle, winter and summer. 

That eminent agriculturist, Mr. Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, 
who studied this section of the State with care, expressed a high 
appreciation of the tidewater region for the cultivation of grasses. 
He said: "There is no better country for grasses east of the mountains. 
In small lots I saw dry meadows of ochard grass and clover that 
would have been deemed good in the best grass districts." It is 
evident, from the humid character of the climate in that region, and 
from the fact that the heats of summer are tempered by sea-breezes, 
owing to the proximity of the ocean, that the conditions are such as 
to favor the growth of this family of plants. 

Among the resources for future use along the seaboard country, 
peat is entitled to a prominent place. It exists over hundreds of 
square miles in area, and to the depth of many feet. At no distant 
day it will be extensively used, both as a fuel and fertilizer. 

If the indications of nature are to be relied on, North Carolina 
was plainly marked out as the land for vineyards. In the sober 
narrative of the voyage of Amadas and Barlowe, made in 1584, to 
North Carolina, then an unbroken wilderness, the author tells us, in 
most graphic language of the abundance of grapes : * 'so full of grapes- 
as the very beating and surge of the sea overflowed them. ' * 

30 North Carowna and its Resources. 

Upon the visit of the voyagers to the house of the Indian King, on 
Roanoke Island, wine was set before them by his wife. It is further 
mentioned that, " while the grape lasteth, they (the Indians) drink 
wine;" they had not learned the art of preserving it. Harriot, a 
distinguished man in an age of distinguished men, of whom it was 
justly said that he cultivated all sciences and excelled in all, visited 
the same coast in 1586, where he was struck with the abundance of 
grape vines, and he was impressed with the fact that wine might 
be made one of the future staples of the State. "Were they," 
he writes, " planted and husbanded as they ought, a principal com- 
modity of wines might be raised." This State has proved to be far 
richer in this respect than it is probable even he suspected. Grape 
vines were found in equal profusion in the original forest throughout 
the State. They often interlaced the trees to such an extent that 
they were a serious impediment to the work of clearing away the 
forest, catching and suspending the trees as they were felled. At 
this day, if a tract of forest is enclosed, and cattle ^of every kind 
excluded, they spring up spontaneously and thickly over the land, 
Some of the finest wine grapes of the United States, the Scuppernong, 
the Isabella, the Catawba and the I^incoln, are native to this State. 
But it was long before the bounty of nature in this regard was 
improved. This was probably due to the fact that the State was 
settled almost wholly by emigrants from the British Isles, who knew 
nothing of the culture of the vine. It was planted here and there to 
yield grapes for table use; but it was not uutil within thirty years 
that a vineyard was known in the State. Within that period several 
of large and a great number of small extent have been planted. 
Grapes in season are abundantly supplied for domestic consumption, 
and shipped in hundreds of tons. The wines of the established 
vineyards are held in high and just repute. In a broad commercial 
sense, the possibilities of the Scuppernong, as a wine grape, is yet to 
be developed: North Carolina should supply the bulk of the wine 
used in this country. 

All the cultivated fruits and berries grow here in great perfection 
with the exception of the apple. This, though by no means an 
inferior fruit, is yet not equal in size and flavor to that of the Pied- 
mont Plateau and Mountain regions. Among the swamps the cran- 
berry is found in profusion. The melons are of every variety and of 
peculiar excellence. 

Climate. 31 


It will be conceded witliout question that the influence of climate 
on human progress is supreme, because its happy or adverse condi- 
tions affect all that relates to comfort, health, energy and success in 
the occupations of life. Those regions most abounding in fertile soil 
and exuberant vegetation, which favor the growth of many valuable 
productions of nature, often have those treasures closed against the 
efforts of industry by unfavorable climatic conditions, an excess of 
heat and moisture, and an air poisoned with miasma, leading to loss 
of vigor, health, or of life itself, On the other hand the frigid regions 
of the north are equally unsuited for the permanent abode of 

The greatest nations have all developed in the regions of the 
temperate zone, which possess the most variable climate. Varia- 
tions of heat and cold, of moisture and dryness, within extremes not 
too great, are essential to the best development of vegetable as well 
as animal life. Man especially, requires the inspiration of the 
changing seasons, the summer, warm enough to assure the rewards of 
labor by the abundant yield of the fruits of the soil, the winter, 
with its bracing cold, giving a period of rest and renewal of 

It is common to find the most extravagant claims made for the 
climate of favored localities. The splendid climate of North Caro- 
lina will be best described by presenting to the seeker for a new 
home a i&wfacis in regard to the chief climatic features, which may 
be easily verified by reference to the excellent publications of the 
North Carolina State Weather Service, where more detailed informa- 
tion may be sought. 

North Carolina lies on the same parallel of latitude as the central 
Mediterranean basin, that climatically most favored region of the 
globe. Though this position in the warm temperate zone determines 
the chief climatic features of the State, these are modified by various 
causes, most important of which are the proximity of the ocean in 
the east and the mountain system in the west. The State is naturally 
divided into three regions: the Coastal Plain, Piedmont Plateau and 
Mountain. The efi"ect of the prolongation of the first into the 
Atlantic is to give the climate of that region a more insular or marine 
character, the effect of the presence of the sea being to lessen the 
changes in temperature both diurnal and seasonal and to increase the 
amount of precipitation. Contrary to the prevailing impression, the 
nearness of the Gulf Stream h?is a minimum effect on the climate in 

32 North Caroi,ina and its Resources. 

the east, both because the Gulf Stream is separated from the land by fifty 
miles of cold water, and because the prevailing winds are from the 
southwest or northeast and do not blow the moist air of the Gulf 
Stream over the land, as is so often stated. The annual mean 
temperature of Southport, situated in the southeast corner of the 
State, is 64 degrees. Here vegetation of semi-tropical origin, as the 
palmetto and magnolia flourishes and rice is cultivated. The decrease 
in annual mean temperature towards the north is only to 59 degrees 
at Coinjock and Wei don. The land is level and fertile, and the 
earlier and more rapid development of vegetation has led to one of 
the most important industries of the State, that of truck farming. 
The shipments of truck and strawberries to northern markets begins 
before the middle of April. 

On the other hand in the Mountain region the influence of 
elevation predominates; the land rises in summits higher than any 
east of the Rocky Mountains; the summers are cooler, the winters 
more severe, but the dryness of the air renders the climate more 
salubrious. The highest point in the Blue Ridge, Mount Mitchell 
(elevation 6,711 feet) has probably a mean annual temperature of 38 
degrees, but the annual mean at Asheville (elevation 2,250 feet) 
which is 54 degrees, is nearer the average for the district. The 
white pine and the spruce, whose natural habitat is lower Canada, are 
abundant in the forests of the Blue Ridge. There are many pic- 
turesque and charming valleys, looked down upon by lofty peaks, 
which have a climate as mild as the less elevated Piedmont region on 
the east of the range. In certain mountain localities occur the 
remarkable thermal or frostless belts, regions where the season is 
known to be a month earlier in spring and later in autumn than in the 
valley below them, and where, above and below, frost works its 
blighting effect, leaving in vivid contrast horizontal belts of untouched 
foilage and blooming flowers. The Blue Ridge acts also as a barrier 
to all except the most severe cold waves from the northwest, which 
frequently advance around the south end, affecting the Gulf States 
before they reach North Carolina. 

Intermediate between these sections may be found all gradations 
in climate, as in soil, products and scenery, suited to every individual 
taste. The climatic conditions are favorable for the growth of a 
great variety of crops, as cotton, corn, tobacco, and small grains, 
which are the staple crops of North Carolina, as well as almost every 
kind of fruit and vegetable. Invalids also may find returning health 
at many of the now well known summer and winter resorts, while the 
pleasure seeker frequents the watering places along the east coast. 

Tkmpkrature. 33 


From records extending over a period of twenty five years the 
mean annual temperature of the State has been determined to be 59 
degrees Fahrenheit. The means for the three regions for the different 
seasons of the year are as follows :- 

Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter. Year. 

Coastal Plain 58 , .77 62 45 61. 

Piedmont Plateau 59 77 59 43 60. 

Mountain 56 72 56 40 56. 

For the State 58 76 60 43 59. 

For convenience of comparison the annual mean temperature at 
some of the most important places in the State is presented in the 
following table: 

Asheville 54 

Charlotte 60 

Chapel Hill.. 60 

Franklin 54 

Fayetteville . .61 

Greenville 61 

Greensboro... 59 

Goldsboro.. . .62. Newbern 62. 

Hatteras 62. Portsmouth. ..62. 

Highlands... .50. Raleigh 60. 

Kitty Hawk... 60. Southport 64. 

Ivcnoir 56. Tarboro 60. 

Murphy 56. Weldon 59. 

Morganton — 58. Wilmington. . 63. 

In the summer months the southern portion of the Piedmont 
Plateau presents higher monthly means and greater extremes than 
either the Coastal or the Mountain regions, probably in part due to 
the sandy nature of the soil. The warmest month is July, and a few 
stations sometimes have for that month a mean of over 80 degrees; the 
coldest month is January, and in the mountains the mean for that 
month sometimes is as low as 30 degrees. The extremes in tempera- 
ture for the State are considerable, but rarely does the temperature 
reach zero, except during such extraordinary cold periods as 
occurred in 1873, 1886 and 1893. During a normal winter the mini- 
mum temperature in the central portion of the State will sink to 10 or 
12 degrees, but such cold is usually of very short duration. During 
a normal summer the temperature will perhaps on two or three days 
reach 100 degrees. 

In respect to temperature Dr. Kerr stated: 
"Middle and eastern North Carolina correspond to middle and 
Southern France, and Western North Carolina to Northern France 
and Belgium. All the climates of Italy from Palermo to Milan and 
Venice are represented." 





.. .12.24. • • 





. .10.61. . , 



.. .11.71... 



34 North Carolina and its Rksources. 


The normal average precipitation for North Carolina is 53.29 
inches. The State therefore forms the northeastern limit of that 
region in the United States characterized by the largest amount of 
rainfall, the centre of which lies in the middle Gulf coast. Long 
records show a belt of minimum precipitation extending through the 
Piedmont Plateau; at the same time certain valleys west of the divide 
also have a small amount. On the east coast and over the southern 
portions of the Mountain region the annual precipitation becomes 
very large, over 70 inches. No station has a normal less than 40 

The average for the different regions are as follows: 

Spring. Summer. 

Coastal Plain 12.85 17.04. . 

Piedmont Plateau. . 12. 18 13.99 . . 

Mountain 13-69 14-95 - • 

For the State 12.94 15.87 . 

One advantage must not pass unnoticed, namely that the rainfall 
is uniformly distributed throughout the year, and that during those 
months when growing crops require the most moisture, the amount is 
greatest. The largest amounts occur in July and August, when the 
averages for the State are respectively 5.44 and 6.09 inches; the 
least amounts occur in October and November (3.66 and 3.40 inches) 
during which the weather is especially favorable for the final work of 
the farmer, before the much needed rest of winter begins. 

As illustrating extreme years with respect to total precipitation, 
it may be mentioned that the wettest year recorded occurred in 1877, 
with an average of 64.88 inches for the State. September, of that 
year, had the only average of over 10 inches for one month. During 
the year 1890, the total annual rainfall was 46.49 inches, and Novem- 
ber of that year had an average of only 0.35 inch. 

A few records of normal annual precipitation are presented 
below : 

I/OCATioN. Inches. Location. Inches. Location. Inches. 

Asheville 42.77 Chapel Hill 46.11 Charlotte 52.72 

Franklin 57-ir Greenville 50.66 Goldsboro 55-oo 

Hatteras 62.26 Highlands 76.29 Kitty Hawk 58.82 

Lenoir 51-64 Murphy 64.05 Morganton 47,96 

Mount Airy 48.95 Newbern 59-29 Portsmouth 69.14 

Raleigh 45-67 Southport 50.03 Tarboro 53-65 

Weldon 46.84 Willeyton 52.90 Wilmington 55.95 

Snowfall. 35 


As a matter of comfort in winter, snowfall is of more importance 
tiian rainfall. The amount of precipitation occurring as snow is rarely- 
sufficient to serve as a protection to small grain crops, the amount 
being both too small and remaining too short a time on the ground. 
The average snowfall for the State is about 5 inches. During severe 
winters much larger amounts occur, and may remain on the ground 
for a week or ten days, but during a normal season the ground will 
rarely remain white for more than two days at a time. Snows occur 
in the Piedmont and Coastal regions, most frequently with northeast 
or north winds, during the passage of storms up the coast, 


Considering Raleigh, the capital city, as representing the aver- 
age with respect to the probability of the occurrence of frost, it may 
be stated that the average date for the last frost in spring is April 
loth, though killing frost have occurred on rare occasions in May. 
In autumn, the first frost will generally occur about October 26th. 
Necessarily in the mountain region these dates are both much 
advanced, while in the east, the modifying effects of the many arms 
of the sea penetrating the land greatly diminishes the danger of 
killing frosts at the season when crops are growing. 

The formation of ice to any thickness only occurs during except- 
ionally severe winters. Ice has formed, however, as far south as 
Wilmington, to a thickness of half an inch, and even Albemarle and 
Currituck Sounds have been frozen over. But the normal winter 
yields opportunities neither for sleighing nor skating, except for very 
brief periods. 

There remains to be considered one special advantage possessed 
by the State, due to its position with reference to the prevailing course 
of cyclonic storms. The great path of these " weather breeders " is 
across the lake region and thence northeastward up the St. Lawrence 
Valley. North Carolina lies entirely out of this general path. Of the 
total number of storms charted from 1874 to 1890, only i6per-cent. 
crossed North Carolina. There are, therefore, longer periods of pleasant 
weather than can be experienced in more northerly states. Of destruc- 
tive tornadoes. North Carolina experiences not one in ten years. 

On the other hand, the State does lie in the path of the so-called 
sub-tropical storms which move up from the coast of Florida. These 
storms occur most frequently during the months of August, Septem- 
ber and October, and are usually accompanied by heavy rains and 

36 North Carolina and its Resources. 

much wind. The damage to crops and property is generally small, 
but they give to Hatteras a deserved reputation for gales dangerous to 
the ships and lives of mariners. 


The forests of North Carolina have for many years been one of 
the chief resources of revenue to the people of the State, the value of 
their products, including domestic fuel, timber for construction and 
such forest by-products as turpentine and its derivatives, amounting 
in 1893 at least to $25,000,000, and probably much exceeding that 
amount in the year ending March ist, 1896. The forests in their 
original distribution extended compact and unbroken throughout the 
length and breadth of the State, with the exception of unimportant 
savannas in the eastern section, covered with coarse grasses and 
sedges, and isolated mountain summits in the extreme western 
counties, which, bare of trees and shrubs, produced a close turf of 
vigorous and hardy but tender grasses; and at the present time, after 
the encroachment of field and pasture for over a century, nearly two- 
thirds of the area of the State is still under forest cover. 

The forests, which extend from the sea level in the eastern and 
southeastern sections to altitudes of 6,600 feet along the State's west- 
ern borders, where the Appalachian upheavals reach their culmina- 
tion, are made up of more or less distinctly marked regions having 
different kinds of trees, the different growth being due to the changes 
of temperature as the elevation varies and to the succession of differ- 
ent soils. There are three of these regions most clearly marked: 
the Coastal Plain with upland forests chiefly of pines; the Piedmont 
Plateau with forests of pine mixed with hardwoods, or belts of hard- 
woods with pine, alternating with belts of hardwoods without pines; 
and the Mountain, the forests of which lying above 2,000 feet eleva- 
tion are destitute of pine. 

The coastal forest region, in extent nearly coincident with the 
Coastal Plain and embracing about three-eights of the area of the 
State, lies east of a line drawn from Weldon to Raleigh, and from 
Raleigh to Wadesboro, the line being nearly southwest in direction 
and almost parallel with the Atlantic Coast I^ine. Its surface is undu- 
lating along the seaboard where it is usually raised only slightly above 
high water mark, ten to forty feet, and where there are numerous and 
extensive swamps; but it becomes rolling and even hilly adjacent 

Forests. 37 

to the water course along its western limits, where altitudes of 500 to 
600 feet are encountered. The upland soils of this region are sandy- 
loams, rarely stiff, moderately fine and even grained. To the north 
of the Neuse river loams and loose loams are the more frequent 
upland soils and the growth is loblolly pine (North Carolina pine*), 
with a subordinate growth of small oaks; while to the south of this 
river the upland soils are more sandy and the forests are of long-leaf 
pine, often to the exclusion of almost every other tree, but near the 
streams and larger swamps there are belts of loams having for the 
chief growth loblolly pines, often of a large size (rosemary and slash 
pinesf). The lowlands, which are either narrow strips of alluvium 
contiguous to the streams or, in the vicinity of the coast, are large 
and poorly-drained basins, have soils that are silty and clayey and 
compact, or sandy and loose with a large percentage of organic con- 
stituents. Where the soil is mellow throughout the year the low- 
lands have forests of loblolly pine, which is the tree of chief com- 
mercial value, mixed with many kinds of hardwoods, particularly 
ash, maple and gums. If the soil is more compact, the growth is 
chiefly oaks-water, willow, Spanish, swamp, white and overcup oaks, 
with elms and some gums. Where the soil is wet through a large 
part of the year, the largest sweet and black gums are to be found, 
and where flooded for a considerable part of the year the finest cypress 
occur, in places to the exclusion of other large trees. On peaty soils 
or sandy soils underlaid with marl occur white cedar and various 
bays forming "cedar" or "juniper bays." The lowlands form a 
large part of the timber yielding lands of this section of the State. 
The Piedmont forest region, which extends westward from the 
Coastal region to the foot of the Blue Ridge has a surface varying from 
gently rolling to rugged and broken near the larger streams, along 
most of which are narrow strips of alluvium. The upland soils vary 
from sandy and loose loams, superficially so at any rate, to stiff and 
rarely clayey loams, and are characterized by forests of hardwoods, 
particularly of oaks, hickories and dogwood, mixed with the short- 
leaf pine. There are occasional belts of hardwoods containing no 
pine, as the one which passes through Orange, Alamance, Granville 
and Person counties; the belt of magnificent oaks and hickories pass- 
ing from Greensboro southwest to Charlotte; and the similar belts in 
the western parts of Lincoln and Catawba counties. In a few places, 
as in the southern parts of Union county and in parts of Durham 
county, there is much more pine than oak in the forest, the post oak, 

*Lumbernien's name. 
f Local name. 

38 North Carolina and its Resources. 

black-jack and Spanish oaks of the original growth forming a lower 
story beneath the pines. 

The Mountain forest region has a topography that is broken and 
rugged, most of its area lying within the Appalachian plateau, the 
eastern boundary of which is the Blue Ridge. The valleys are 
generally narrow, circumscribed, and largely under cultivation. 
Most of the forest lands lie on the mountain slopes, where up to the 
present, but little land has been cleared for cultivation. The forests 
are largely of hardwoods; red, chestnut and white oaks, yellow poplar 
and chestnut all of which on the lower mountain slopes reach the 
largest size that these trees attain in the United States, and with these, 
particularly on the north slopes and at higher elevations, are lindens 
(the northern basswood or whitewood,) birches, hard and soft maples, 
beech, ash and wild cherry. On cold north slopes there are forests of 
hemlock, and on many of the mountains above an elevation of 4,000 
feet compact forests of spruce and fir are found. On the lower hills of 
the river basins, and especially on those lying near the Blue Ridge, 
white pine is found which is now being utilized for shingles and 
building material and more largely for box boards. No 5^ellow pine 
occurs on the mountains although, south of the French Broad river, 
it grows along the river hills and is used to a considerable extent for 
lumber and in construction. 

The richness of the sylva of North Carolina, almost unequalled 
in the variety of hardwoods and conifers by that of any other region 
in temperate climates having an equal area, is unapproached by that 
of any other State or Territory. The great variety of soils and 
climate has brought together trees from all parts of eastern America 
so that 24 kinds of oaks are to be found in the State, which is three 
more than occur in any state to the north of this one, and two more 
than are to be found in any state to the south of this one; of the 
nine kinds of hickories known to occur in the United States, eight 
are to be found in North Carolina; here are all six maples of the 
eastern United States, all the lindens, all six of the American mag- 
nolias, three of the birches, eight pines out of eleven, both species of 
hemlock and balsam-fir, three elms out of five, six arborescent species 
of plumb and cherry and three of pyrus (apple). 

In the eastern, and particularly in the southeastern part of the 
State, at the mouth of the Cape Fear river, the warm air, seldom 
below freezing, enables numerous trees which extend farther south, 
to Florida, Texas and even Mexico, to here make their northern 
limits, or to extend but little farther to the northward. This is the 
case with the palmetto, prickly ash, American olive (devil wood). 

Forests. 39 

mock orange and live oak, trees wliicli, in this State, occur only along 
and near tiie coast, but extend southward to Florida or to Texas. The 
bleak and exposed mountain summits, on the other hand, bear forests 
of trees which there find their southern limit, but extend north- 
ward through northern New York and New Kngland to Canada. 
Such trees are the black spruce (he balsam), striped and spiked maples, 
mountain sumac, which is really an apple, balsam-fir and aspen, all, 
unless sheltered by other trees or by the slopes of the mountain above 
them, rugged and dwarfed from the cold and constant winds to which 
they are exposed. 

Between these extremes, lie the commercial forests trees nurtured 
under no such adverse conditions. Some of these trees have wide 
distribution to the north of this State or to the south of it, or in both 
directions, and some of them are restricted in their distribution to 
North Carolina or to the region around the southern Appalachian 
mountains. In the coastal region, the pond pine, the great tupelo, 
barren willow oak, fork-leafed black-jack, over-cup and laurel oaks, 
are trees which extend farther to the south. The same is true of the 
long-leaf and loblolly (North Carolina) pines, the first of which trees 
can be worked for turpentine longer in this than any other State, and 
the latter forms here more compact forests and reaches a larger size 
than elsewhere. The southwestern red oak and water bitter-nut 
hickory (rice field hickory), trees common in the lower Mississippi 
valley, occur sparingly in this State. The mossy cup, yellow 
and shingle oaks, white linden and big shag-bark hickory, prominent 
trees of the central states, extend as far to the southeast as central 
North Carolina; while trees of the north, like the hemlock, sugar or 
hard maple, northern red oak, cherry birch and Vv^hite pine and of the 
northeast, like the pignut hickory, chestnut, northern pitch pine and 
balsam enter more or less largely into the composition of the forests 
of the western parts of the State. 

Many trees of wide distribution, and among them some of the 
most valuable, extend from the State in all directions, the white, post, 
black, scarlet and Spanish oaks, the red and white maples, the white 
hickory and brown-heart and shag-bark hickories, short-leaf pine, 
yellow poplar, red cedar, black cherry and black walnut. The 
cypress, water and willow oaks, downy poplar, swamp-white oak 
(Q. Michauxii, Nutt.) southern elm, and planer tree are trees having a 
great range to the south and southwest. A few trees are found only 
in this State, or extend but a short distance beyond its boundaries, 
the yellow-wood, the large-leaved umbrella tree, the Carolina he - 
lock, the clammy locust, the last being entirely confined to this State. 

40 North Caroi^ina and its Rbsource;s. 

But if nature has been lavish in the variety of forms it gave, it 
has been no less prodigal in material wherewith to build them, for an 
equitable climate and an abundant rainfall have vied in rearing trees 
no less magnificent in size than valuable for the quality of their 
timbers. No less than twenty trees reach in North Carolina the 
greatest size which they attain, among them some of the most 
important trees of the American forests, viz: the white and rock 
chestnut oaks, the cucumber, black cherry, yellow poplar, the hemlock 
and chestnut. All of these attain their greatest dimensions on the 
cool moist slopes of the mountains. One species the loblolly (North 
Carolina) pine, reaches its greatest size, and forms its most compact 
growth, along the lowlands or on the moist uplands of eastern North 

Altogether there are 153 kinds of woody plants, which form a 
simple upright stem and attaining arborescent proportions growing 
naturally within the State; and of these over seventy are trees of the 
first size, and fifty seven are trees of great economic value. Fourteen 
of these are known to attain in this State a height of over 100 feet, 
three of them a height of over 140 feet, sixteen of them reach in this 
State diameters of five feet or over; and five reach diameters of seven 
feet or over. The largest and finest specimens of individual 
development are to be found in the extreme eastern and western 
regions in places where the soil is not only deep and fertile, but 
where during the greater part of the growing season it remains moist 
or at least mellow. Such conditions are furnished by the lower 
slopes of the higher mountains, particularly the northern slopes and 
by many of the swamps of the coastal region. 


Pinus palustris, Mill., the long-leaf pine, occurs commercially in 
the fifteen counties of the coastal region lying south of the Neuse 
river, where it is found on the driest and most sandy soils unmixed 
with other trees, or on better soils with a lower story beneath the 
pine of dogwood and small post and Spanish oaks, the oaks being 
suitable for cross ties. From this pine, by boxing it, that is remov- 
ing a thin layer of the sap-wood so that the resin contained in the tree 
may exude and be caught in a hole or "box" cut in the trunk of the 
tree near its base, crude turpentine, as the resin is called, is obtained. 
By the distillation of the crude turpentine spirits of turpentine is 
gotten as the volatile part, while rosin is the residue left in the re- 
tort. This industry of tapping the pine for resin and the distillation 

The Forest Trees. 41 

of that, gives employment to several thousand men in this State, and 
the annual value of the resinous products sold from this State aggre- 
gate over $1,500,000, being, in fact, about one-third of the entire 
product of these commodities in the world. Tar is obtained from 
this tree by slow combustion in a closed kiln of pieces of its heart- 
wood impregnated with resin; and from tar, pitch is made by boiling 
it with a fixed proportion of crude turpentine. 

The long-leaf pine is a tall and slender tree, with a long clear 
stem, the trees frequently being 100 feet high, but rarely three feet 
in diameter. The wood is even grained and strong, stronger than 
that of any other American pine and nearly twice as strong as that of 
the white pine. It is exceptionally free from knots, wind-shakes, 
heart-cracks, red-heart and other timber defects, takes a good polish 
and is particularly suited for flooring, wainscotting and outside work; 
and on account of its resistance to decay, for tank plank, trestles and 
framing. The sap-wood is very thin. 

Pinus taeda, L-, the loblolly pine, occurs from the coast as far 
west as Granville and Anson counties. Although it makes its best 
development, reaching its largest size and forming its best wood, on 
the moist land bordering streams and swamps, mixed with hardwoods 
of various kinds, it nevertheless grows well on fresh uplands, 
particularly in old fields, where, unmixed with other trees it grows 
rapidly and forms a good timber. It is the largest of southern pines, 
reaching a height of 140 feet and a diameter of 4.5 to 5 feet above the 
swollen base and forming a long, clear, tapering trunk. The wood 
is coarser grained than that of the long-leaf pine and is especially 
suitable for panneling, wainscotting, and ceiling. It also makes 
excellent flooring when rift sawed as it does not sliver. For such uses 
the smaller and "sap trees" make the best lumber as the kiln dried 
sap-wood lumber takes paint better than the heart-wood. The large 
trees, which in a great part are heart-wood, are used for heavy 
framing and in naval construction. The lumber is marketed largely 
in eastern cities and chiefly as North Carolina pine, but the common 
field name for the tree in North Carolina is short-leaf or old-field 
pine, though swamp and slash pine are frequently applied and 
rosemary pine is the name given to the largest stocks with a small 
proportion of sap-wood. The sylvicultural possibilities of this tree 
make it one of the most important of eastern American trees as it has 
a strong and valuable wood, rapid growth, is liable to but few injuries, 
is readily reproduced, and grows well under divers conditions of 
treatment and on various soils. Young trees where they occur should 
be protected as they soon become large enough for use, and the 

42 North Carolina and its Resources. 

growth should be kept as thick as possible that the lower limbs may 
be shaded of and clear stems formed. From 3,500 to 4,000 feet, 
board measure, per acre is considered an average yield for this pine. 

Pinus echinata, Mill., the short-leaf pine or yellow pine, as it is 
usually called in this State, occurs throughout the Piedmont forestal 
region, and south of the French Broad river in the Mountain region. 
It is found as a forest tree, neither on the most fertile uplands nor on 
the lowlands, but occupies soils which are poor or of medium fertility. 
It reaches its largest size, however, on the better class of loamy soils, 
often being 80 to 90 feet high and 2.5 to 3 feet in diameter, where it 
is associated with the white oak and various black oaks, the red and 
white-heart hickories and dogwood, but it is far more abundant on close 
or shallower soils growing with the post and black-jack oaks, which 
often form a lower story beneath the open upper story of pines. The 
wood is yellow, soft, rather light, even grained and easy to work and 
is largely used as a building material where ever the tree occurs. It 
is sawn for shipment but not to so large an extent as either of the 
pines previously described. The timber of the regrowth of this tree 
in old fields and waste places is largely sap-wood, and when kiln- 
dried, makes a lumber in no way inferior to that of the loblolly pine. 
Although there are many places where this tree does not occur in the 
forests, yet its young growth is generally disseminated where ever 
fields have been abandoned or woods closely culled, so that the sig- 
nificance of the term "oak lands" no longer holds strictly true. 
These old-field sap pines, when allowed to grow and reach a large 
size, form a heartwood as large and equally as good as that of the 
original growth of pine in the forest. Although this pine makes a 
fair growth when growing alone, unmixed with other trees, its most 
rapid growth and the largest stocks, freest from knots and limbs and 
with the greatest yield of timber from each tree, are secured when the 
tree is associated with the white and black oaks and the hickories. 
When associated with these trees the crown rapidly pushes upward 
to get to the light, leaving behind a slender, clear stem, which, when 
suitable light conditions are assured, rapidly enlarges. When growing 
unmixed with other trees the trunks are apt to be knotty and limby. 

Four other yellow pines occur in North Carolina; one in the 
Coastal region, Pinus serotina, Mx., the savanna pine, and three in 
the Piedmont and Mountain regions, Pinus Virginiana, Mill., the 
cedar or scrub pine, P. rigida, the northern pitch pine, and P. 
pungens, Michx. f., the Table Mountain pine. These are sometimes 
sawn into lumber, but the trees are small or not common, so the wood 
is little used. 

The Forest Trees. 43: 

Pinus strobus, I^., the white pine, occurs along and near the 
Blue Ridge and over local areas to the west of it. It is locally used 
for building and especially for making shingles and box lumber. 

Taxedium distichum, Rich., the cypress, is one of the largest 
trees of Eastern America. It grows along the margins of streams or 
iu swamps, with the sweet gum and black gums, but reaches its 
largest size in swamps along and near the coast, too deep for these 
trees to reach their largest dimensions. Trees are often cut which are 
five or seven feet through above the swollen base. The wood is dark 
brown in color and only slightly resinous. It stands exposure 
remarkably well and shrinks and swells but little when subject to 
alternations of temperature or of moisture and dryness. Such 
characteristics make the timber peculiarly suitable for shingles, doors, 
sashes and exterior trimming, and a large amount is manufactured in 
this State for such purposes. Much is also sawn for boat and tank plank, 
buckets, tubs, etc. On account of its durability in contact with the 
soil, it is adapted for telegraph and telephone poles, ties, posts and 
similar uses. Taxodium distichum imbricaria, (Nutt.,) Ashe,* is a 
smaller tree growing in ponds which dry up during summer. Its 
timber is rarely used, where better can be secured. 

Juniperus Virginiana, T,., the red cedar, is frequent throughout 
the State except in the higher mountains. It is most abundant on 
and near the coast and there reaches its largest size sometimes being 
fifty feet high and three feet through, generally, however, it is far 
smaller. The wood, in contact with the soil, or when exposed, 
resists decay a long time and for this reason is largely used for buck- 
ets, posts and ties. It is of slow growth, but reproduces itself abund- 
antly and young trees are to be found where ever there are old ones. 

Chamaecyparis thyoides, (L,.) B. S. P., the white cedar or juni- 
per, occurs in swamps in the Coastal region having a sandy or peaty 
soil in the eastern zone. It is not generelly diffused, but where it 
does occur is quite abundant, often forming a great part of the growth, 
small bays and gums usually growing with it. The wood is light, 
soft, white, very durable, the sap-wood lasting nearly as long as the 
heartwood. It is largely used for woodenware, shingles, telegraph 
poles. It grows rapidly and is one of the most valuable of American 
trees, being put to many uses for which no other wood is so well 
suited. No where in the United States is it common and the supply 
of it is rapidly being exhausted. The young growth where found- 
should be protected as it soon becomes large enough to be used. 

*Cupressus disticha var. imbricaria, Nutt. Gen. ii, 224. 

44 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

Tsuga Canadensis, (L.) Carr., the hemlock, is one of the largest 
trees in the State, being frequently over loo feet high and sometimes 
as high as 140 feet. It is very common along the brinks of streams 
in the high mountains. The timber is of the same quality as that of 
the tree farther north, coarse grained and suitable only for framing 
and for coarser uses. The most valuable part of the tree is the bark, 
from which is obtained one of the best and most widely used tanning 
extracts. Except around Cranberry, in Mitchell county, but little 
timber has been cut in this State for this purpose. It is one of the 
most wasteful practices, as, after the bark is removed, no use is made 
of the rest of the stock. 

Tsuga Caroliniana, Engel., the Carolina hemlock, is a much 
smaller tree than the preceding, and while resembling it some in 
general appearance, instead of having its light, graceful aspect, is 
stiffer and looks more like a spruce or fir. It is quite rare, being 
found at intervals along and near the Blue Ridge from Georgia to 
Virginia, growing on dry ridges and exposed cliffs. The bark has 
tanning properties similar to those of the true hemlock. Both of 
these trees are known under the local name of spruce pine. 

Picca Mariana, (Mill.) P. S. B., the black spruce, or he balsam 
as it is called in the mountains of this State where it occurs, is found 
along many of the high mountains, forming on them dense sombre 
forests. The trees are as a general thing not large, though occasion- 
ally specimens may be three feet through and eighty or ninety feet 
high. It has been used to some extent in the mountains for a 
building material but it is too inaccessible for general use at the 
present time. 

Abies Fraseri, Pursh, the Carolina balsam is found on many of 
the highest mountain summits. The wood of this tree has considera- 
ble resonant properties, and is eminently suitable for the manufacture 
of sounding boards to musical instruments. The balsam or fir resin 
is found in blisters in its bark. It is used medicinally and is 
gathered to some extent. 

Nine white oaks occur in North Carolina; seven of these are 
large trees, one is a medium sized tree, and one is a shrub. 

Quercus alba, I,., the white oak is decidedly the most valuable 
oak which occurs in this State. It is found in every county 
but is most abundant in the Piedmont region, though it reaches 
its largest size on the lower slopes of the mountains, where 
however above an elevation of 3,000 feet, it seldom occurs. In 
the Coastal it is rare except on moist loamy soils, being altogether 
absent from the river and swamp lands and equally so from the loose 

The Forest Trees. 45. 

sandy pine lands. But througliout the Piedmont region it is to be 
found on nearly all soils, either in company with other oaks and 
hickories, or with pine, and is very often the most prominent feature 
in the forest, particularly in second growth woods on a good soil. 
Trees four feet in diameter with clear stems of from forty to sixty 
feet are not infrequently cut. The qualities of its timber are well 
known: tough, compact and elastic, light brown in color, with a thin 
sap-wood. In contact with the soil it is one of the most durable 
woods and cross ties made from it last from seven to eight years. 
Some rims are made from it and a great many felloes and wagon 
spokes. Quarter-sawed to show the silver grain, it is used for 
furniture and office finishing. Its bark is considered one of the best 
for tanning and it is largely used for that. When the wood is to be 
bent or split young and vigorous trees are preferred as being tougher 
and more elastic, many barrel staves being split from it, for which 
purpose it is preferred to the other oaks. Its growth is rapid and it 
reproduces itself rapidly both from seed and stump-shoots. 

Quercus monticola, Michx., the rock chestnut oak, is somewhat 
similar to the white oak in the qualities of its timber; but the wood 
is darker in color, harder and more difficult to work. This tree 
grows only in the upper districts, usually along dry ridges with 
various red oaks, and in such situations becomes only a medium sized 
tree; but along the foot hills of the higher mountains, on a more 
fertile soil, individual specimens are often found five feet in diameter. 
This tree is rarely unsound, and for this reason is preferred to all 
other of the inland oaks for ties and posts. The bark, which is gray, 
deeply furrowed and thick is better than that of all the other eastern 
oaks for tanning and there are several tanneries in the western part 
of North Carolina which are extensively using it. The supply in all 
of the higher mountain counties is large, as in none of these counties 
has bark ever been gathered. A great waste of timber goes on where 
ever trees are cut for their bark as the wood is rarely utilized. On 
dry and rocky soil the chestnut oak makes a shade tree scarcely 
surpassed, retaining the thickness of its foliage until the trees are 
old and have reached a large size. 

Quercus Michauxii, Nutt., the swamp chestnut oak and Q. lyrata, 
Walt., the over-cup oak, are both found in the swamps of the Pied- 
mont and Coastal regions. The swamp chestnut oak reaches a larger 
size than any other of the southern white oaks. On the alluvial 
lands of the Cape Fear river, specimens of this tree are to be seen 1 8 
to 20 feet in circumference, breast high, with cylindrous or tapering 
trunks which are free from limbs for fifty or sixty feet. Although 

46 North Carolina and its Resources. 

these trees look quite dissimilar in their bark, leaves and acorns, yet 
their wood has qualities that are alike, the wood of both being rather 
coarse grained, open and porous and liable to check and warp in drying, 
and inferior to that of the other white oaks. It is well suited how- 
ever for furniture and paneling, and large numbers of white oak 
staves for the West Indias are made from it. 

Quercus minor, (Alarsh.) Sarg., the post oak, is very abundant 
on dry soil throughout the Piedmont region. In the Coastal, it is 
frequently found on loamy soils, especially to the north of the Neuse 
river, and in the mountainous region below an elevation of 2,000 feet. 
It is a small tree reaching a height which seldom exceeds 50 to 60 
feet, with a diameter of 1 8 to 20 inches, although on fertile soils on 
the Piedmont plateau, it reaches a height of 90 feet and a diameter of 
4 feet. It is especially suited for ties and posts on account of its 
small size and the durability of the wood in contact with the soil, 
where it will remain sound as long as that of the white oak. The 
post oak grows rapidly and its young growth is abundant wherever 
the mature trees occur. 

Quercus prinoides, Willd., the chinquepin oak, is a frequent 
shrub in the Piedmont region. The three other arborescent white 
oaks, Ouercus prinoides acuminata, (Michx), *Ashe, the yellow oak; 
Q. macrocarpa, Michx., the mossy cup oak; and Q. platanoides, 
(lyam.) Sud., the swamp white oak, are infrequent trees occurring 
along streams in many parts of the State, but on account of their 
infrequence, are of little economic importance in North Carolina. 
Their timber, except that of the first, is inferior in quality to that of 
the other white oaks, being weaker and more porus. 

There are nine kinds of red and black oaks found in North Caro- 
lina. Of these only seven can be classed as timber trees and only 
the first five of those mentioned below are of economic importance in 
this State. 

Quercus rubra, ly. , the northern red oak, is common in the moun- 
tains along moist slopes or at a high elevation, even on dry ridges, and 
is found as far to the eastward as Wayne county, along streams and on 
rich, cool hillsides; but it becomes more infrequent to the eastward. 
In the mountains, it reaches its largest size, often being 100 to 120 
feet high, with a circumference, breast high, of 15 to 22 feet, the 
tapering trunk free from limbs for two-thirds of its length. Between 
five thousand and six thousand feet of boards have been cut from a 
single tree in Jackson county. The wood which is brownish-red in 

*Q. Prinus var acnminata Miclix. Hist. Chen. Am. 5, /. 8. 

The Forest Trees. 47 

color and coarse grained, is considered one of the best for furniture 
making, since it works easily and takes a good polish. 

Quercus volutina, I^am., the black oak, is a large tree 2 to 3 feet 
in diameter and 50 to 80 feet in height, found in nearly every county 
in North Carolina, but infrequent in the southeastern counties and 
around the higher mountains. It is in the deep red and gray loam 
soils of the Piedmont region that it becomes most abundant and 
reaches its largest size. On these loams, associated with the white, 
Spanish and post oaks and red-heart hickory, it becomes the con- 
spicuous feature in the forest. The wood is not so even grained as 
that of the northern red oak, which it much resembles, but it is more 
easily worked and furniture manufacturers in the towns in the middle 
part of the State find it well suited to their requirements. 

Quercus velutina coccinea, (Wang.), Ashe,* the scarlet oak, bears 
some resemblance to the black oak, but is a smaller tree in every way. 
In North Carolina it is usually called spotted oak, on account of its 
light gray bark with black stripes or spots on it near the base of the 
trunk. The wood is coarser grained and more brittle than that of 
the black oak and is not so highly valued. In many places, however, 
it is preferred for fellys and for clapboards, which when made from 
it are said "to never wear out." 

Quercus digitata (Marsh.) Sud,, the Spanish oak or southern red 
oak, is a large tree common in the Coastal region on loamy soils and 
in the Piedmont region, but not common in the mountainous. It has 
wood resembling that of the preceding red oaks, but it checks in 
drying and decays more rapidly on exposure. Most of the red oak 
Staves made in the eastern part of the State are from the wood of 
this tree. 

Quercus digitata pago daefolia, (Ell.), Ashe,t the swamp red 
oak, is a tree having a general resemblance to the Spanish oak, but 
it occurs only on the margins of streams in the Piedmont and Coastal 
regions. The wood is similar to that of the Spanish oak, and is 
put to the same uses. 

Quercus Texana, Buckley, and Q. palustris, Duroi, are oaks 
found along streams in the Piedmont plateau region. They are red 
oakSj but are not frequent enough to have distinctive names given 
them in this State. 

Quercus Catesbaei, Michx, the forked-leaf black-jack and Q. 
Marylandica, Muench, the black-jack oak are common on poor land 

*Q. coccinea Wang. Am. 44, t. 4, f. 9. 

fQ. falcata var. pagodasfolia Ell. Bot. S. C. & Ga. ii, 230. 

48 North Carolina and its Resources. 

in the Piedmont and Coastal regions of the State, the first being con- 
fined to sandy soil in the latter region. 

There are four water and willow oaks in North Carolina. None 
of them are large trees and all have wood coarse grained and porous 
and liable to check in drying. 

Quercus aquatica (Lam.) Walt., the water oak and Q. phellos, 
ly., the willow oak, are found throughout the eastern half of the State 
along and near water courses. The wood of the willow oak is better 
than that of the water oak and is largely used for fellys. Both trees 
are abundant, especially eastward and young trees are common where 
ever there are old trees. Their trunks are rarely over three feet in 
diameter, and 60 to 70 feet is about the average height of the trees. 

Quercus laurifolia, Michx., the laurel -leaved oak, occurs only 
along and near the coast. Its foliage is evergreen, or nearly so. 
The wood is somewhat better than that of the water oak and the tree 
is usually larger than the water oak. 

Quercus imbricaria, Michx., the shingle or turkey oak, is a 
medium-sized tree found on the banks of mountain streams; and Q. 
brevifolia, Michx., is a small tree which grows on the sandy lands in 
the eastern part of the State. 

Quercus Virginiana, Mill., the live oak, is a large tree found 
only along the coast. It is short bodied, the trunk rarely being over 
ten feet long, but becomes four or five feet in diameter. The wood is 
very hard and is susceptible of a fine polish, but is difl&cult to work 
and is heavier than that of any other of the oaks of the eastern 
United States. 

Castanea sativa Americana, W. and C, the chestnut, is one of 
the largest trees in North Carolina, reaching frequently a diameter of 
seven or eight feet. The wood is soft and splits easily and straight, 
and in contact with the soil or when exposed is extremely durable. 
Ties made from it last from eight to ten years. It takes a good 
polish and is suitable for cabinet work and interior finishing. On 
account of its durability it is largely used for ties, telegraph posts, 
and fence rails. It is one of the most abundant trees in the moun- 
tain region, but is rare to the east of the Blue Ridge. It sprouts freely 
from the stump and young growth is common near mature trees. The 
gathering of its sweet edible fruit is an industry of some importance 
in the mountain counties in the late autumn if it has been a fruitful 

Fagus ferruginea. Ait., the beech, is a medium-sized tree occur- 
ring along streams or on wet hillsides throughout the State. The 
wood of the beech is compact, and diflScult to split; in color it is 

Thk Forkst Trees. 49 

nearly white. It is used for making shoe lasts and tool handles. 

Betula lutea, Michx., the yellow birch, is very abundant in the 
cool, moist hollows of the higher mountains, where it reaches a 
diameter of four or five feet. Its white wood is frequently wavy 
grained Or curly and is largely manufactured into veneering for pianos 
and furniture. 

Betula lenta, T,., the cherry birch, is more frequent in the moun- 
tains than the preceding tree. The wood, light red in color and 
susceptible of a fine polish, is sawn in many places on the mountains 
and used in furniture making, for which it is well suited. From the 
bark is distilled birch oil, used as a substitute for wintergreen in 

Betula nigra, L,., the black birch, is a small tree, with a porous, 
coarse grained wood, very common along streams in most parts of the 
State. The wood is well suited for the manufacture of trucking 
barrels and crates. 

The two most common ashes in the State are Fraxinus Americana, 
I^., the white ash, and F. Pennsylvanica, Marsh., the green ash, the 
first being found along water courses in all parts of the State, and the 
latter in the Piedmont and Coastal regions. The wood of the white 
ash is better than that of the others, but there is not much difference. 
The wood is light, soft and elastic. F. Caroliniana Mill., the water 
ash, is a small tree growing in deep swamps in the eastern part of the 

Robinia pseudacacia, L,., the yellow locust, is, as a forest tree, 
confined to the mountains, where, on rich slopes, it becomes a tree 80 
feet high and 3 feet in diameter. The firm wood, which is very 
durable, is largely used for pins, posts, treenails and in turnery. 
The locust has been planted and become naturalized all through the 

Prunus serotina, Bhrh., the wild black cherry, is found through- 
out North Carolina, but it is only on the cool slopes of the higher 
mountains that it becomes large enough to be considered a timber 
tree. In such situations, however, it often forms a trunk four feet 
through and sixty feet long, and forms a considerable part of the 
forest. It attains its largest size in this State. The beautiful 
reddish wood is extensively used for making furniture. 

lyiquidambar styraciflua, L., the sweet gum, reaches a height of 
100 and a diameter of five feet and ranks among the largest trees. 
The red or brownish wood takes a fine polish and is used to some 
extent in the making of furniture and for flooring. Its most serious 
defect is that it is liable to warp but this can be prevented by careful 

50 North Carolina and its Resources. 

drying. In the form of veneer it is largely used for making packing 
boxes, crates and truck barrels. It is found only in swamps or near 
streams but in such situations is extremely common, except in the 
Mountain region. 

Three elms occur in North Carolina, Ulmus Americana, L,., the 
white elm; U. alata, Michx., the southern elm; and U. fulva, Michx., 
the slippery elm. The white elm is the largest and most abundant of 
these trees. It is found in swamps in the Piedmont and Coastal regions 
where it becomes a large sized tree. Except for making hubs and fruit 
crates the timber is put to but few uses. All of the elms are much 
used as shade trees. Celtis occidentalis, L., the hack berry, is a large 
tree growing along streams in most parts of the State, with foliage 
resembling that of the elm. The wood however is weak and heavy 
and is rarely used except for fencing. 

Morus rubra, L^., the mulberry, occurs in moist places in nearly 
every part of the State. Although the bright yellow wood takes a 
beautiful polish, it is little used. 

Platanus occidentalis, ly., the sycamore or buttonwood, is a large 
tree, becoming six feet through, found along streams in all parts of 
the State. The strong heavy wood is used for making boxes for plug 
tobacco, and quarter sawed, when it shows a beautifully marked 
grain, for panels for furniture and interior finish. When turned into 
veneer it shows handsome markings and in this form is used in house 

Juglans cinerea, L., the butternut or white walnut, is not a very 
common tree even in the mountain counties where it occurs most 
frequently. The light brown wood is sometimes used for furniture 
making. It takes a polish nearly equal to that of the black walnut. 

Juglans nigra, I^., the black walnut, grows in all parts of the 
State along streams or, in the mountains, on rich, cool hillsides. In 
the Piedmont and Coastal regions there are few trees remaining except 
around dwellings and along fence rows, but a great many are yet 
standing in the mountain counties. Trees have been cut in the 
mountains four feet in diameter and seventy feet to the lowest limb, 
but the average diametor is not over two feet, with a clear stem of 40 
or 50 feet. It is a tree of rapid growth and would well repay 
extensive planting. 

Hicoria aquatica, (Michx. f.) Brit., the rice field hickory and H. 
minima, (Marsh.) Brit., the bitternut hickory, are found along water- 
courses or in moist places, the first only in the southeastern part of 
the State and the last throughout. Their wood is softer and more 
brittle and inferior to that of the other hickories. H. alba, (ly.) 

Thb Forest Treks. 51 

Brit.,* the white-heart hickory is one of the most common kinds and 
although it does not become as large a tree as the others, has wood 
of a superior quality, being very elastic and tough. The wood of 
this species is largely white; of all the others brownish. It is pre- 
ferred to the others, particularly for buggy spokes and rims, tool 
handles and hoops. The other kinds are, however, largely used for 
these purposes when the white-heart cannot be obtained. H. 
laciniosa, (Michx.) Sarg., the great shag-bark, is found at intervals 
through the middle part of the State. 

Hicoria ovata, (Mill.) Brit. ,t the shag-bark hickory, is a large 
and valuable tree found along streams and on rich hillsides through 
the Piedmont region and to a less extent in the mountains. The 
brown wood splits exceedingly straight and easily and for this 
reason it is considered excellent for hoops. H. odorata, (Marsh.) 
Sarg., the red-heart hickory, is the common large upland hickory. 
The bark is sometimes scaly and for that reason, it is called scaly 
bark in the eastern part of the State. The wood is considered 
scarcely inferior to that of the white-heart hickory and is put to the 
same uses. It is very common, particularly on the deep red loams in 
the Piedmont region. H. glabra, (Mill.) Brit., the pignut hickory, is 
a smaller tree than the preceding, and grows generally on poorer 
or rockier soil. The wood is inferior to that of the red-heart hick- 
ory in elasticity and strength. It is common in parts of the State, 
but in other sections quite rare. 

There are two species of Tilia or linden, whitewood or basswood 
of the north, which are abundant enough to be of economic import- 
ance. These are the linden and white linden, both abundant in the 
mountains. The wood of both is white and soft, and is used for ceil- 
ing, in furniture and buggy manufacture. It also makes good wood 
pulp. The southern linden, which is found along the coast is a small 
and rare tree. Aesculus octandra, Marsh., the buckeye, has soft 
wood suitable for ceiling and such uses. It reaches in the mountains 
a large size, four feet in diameter and eighty feet high, and is 
abundant there. 

There are four large maples in North Carolina. The red maple, 
Acer rubrum, I/., is the most frequently met and is the only one in 
any part of the Coastal region. The wood, nearlj'- white, is softer 
than that of the other species, and is sawn for finishing the interior 
of cars. 

*Carya tormentosa, Nutt. 
f Carya alba, Nutt. 

52 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

The Acer barbatum, Michx. the sugar or rock maple, is as abundant 
in the mountain counties as the red maple is in the eastern; it is found 
to some extent in the middle counties and sparingly in the eastern. 
It is the largest of the maples. The wood is light brown and hard. 
The bird's eye and curly forms of it are frequently met with. The 
black maple, Acer nigrum, Michx., is an infrequent tree confined to 
the mountains. Acer saccharinum L.,* the white maple, or hard 
maple as it is sometimes called, is a large tree with wood something 
like that of the sugar maple. It is confined to the western part of 
the State. There are three other arborescent maples in North Caro- 
lina, but their timber has no commercial value. 

I^iriodendron tulipifera, I^., the yellow poplar, attains its largest 
dimensions in North Carolina, where in the mountain counties it 
grows to a height of 120 feet or over, with a diameter, breast high, of 
seven or eight feet. It is found, however, throughout the State and 
is largely used for building material, furniture, making packing boxes, 
crates and wood pulp. Magnolia acuminata, I/., the cucumber tree, 
a large tree found frequently in the mountains, has wood similar to 
that of the yellow poplar and applicable to the same uses. There are 
five other species of Magnolia occurring in the State, but they are, 
from their infrequence or small size, of no economic importance here. 

Hard-wood trees, like dog-wood, persimmon, iron wood and horn- 
beam are common in all parts of the State, and the same can be said 
of sassafras and black gums. 


Biltmore Estate was the first one in this country to establish a 
Department of Forestry and to manage its forests upon a practical 
forestry basis. 

The United States is behind all other civilized nations in the 
manner for caring for its timber lands. The government lately has 
waked up to this fact, and realized that the only way to save our 
forests was to place them under forest management. On the Biltmore 
Kstate, the endeavor has been to carry out only those principles of 
forestry which apply as well to the government forests, or those 
owned by a lumbering firm. Forestry that does not pay is no 
forestry at all; hence, many methods which are considered of first 
importance in the forests of France and Germany are denied to us, 
for the simple reason that forestry in this country is still in its 

*Acer dasycarpum, Elirh. 


Forestry on the Biltmore Estate. 53 

The Forest Department of the estate has under its charge 
about 110,000 acres of wood lands, a much larger tract than is usually- 
assigned to any one forester. These wood lands are divided into 
two distinct parts; the first, containing 10,000 acres, lies in the valley 
of the French Broad river and is known as the Biltmore Forest; the 
second part, containing nearly 100,000 acres, lies almost entirely 
in the mountains, and is known as Pisgah Forest, so called from Mt. 
Pisgah which has an elevation of over 5,000 feet. These two forests 
cannot be treated upon the same system. In Biltmore Forest the 
main obj ect has been to increase the value of the growing stock, to 
protect the more valuable from the faster growing species, and gradu- 
ally to secure an even aged wood, which is important, as it facilitates 
the management of the forests in a great degree. Before Mr. Vander- 
bilt bought Biltmore Forest, most of the large timber trees had been 
cut down, so it was decided, as there was a good sale in fire wood in 
both Biltmore and Asheville, to grow only trees for fire wood. The 
forest was composed almost entirely of oak and pine. The pine is a 
much faster growing tree than the oak, and the oak is the more 
valuable of the two, hence something had to be done to help along 
the oaks. This was accomplished by either giving the oaks a start in 
their youth, by sowing them in distinct groups, or by cutting back 
the pines when threatening to over-top and kill the oaks. A suflS- 
ciently dense covering must be kept at all times, in order that the 
soil may not deteriorate. 

Pisgah Forest has never been lumbered out. Here the timber 
has reached a large size, and the Forest Department is growing only 
timber trees, as it would not pay to bring fire wood from so great a 

Mr. Vanderbilt has bought a band saw mill at Asheville; splash 
dams will be built on the creeks in Pisgah Forest, and the logs will 
be splashed into the French Broad river and carried on down to the 
Mill. The amount of timber which shall be cut in Pisgah Forest 
each year, and the same holds good for the amount of fire wood in 
Biltmore Forest, is fixed by what is known as the "sanctioned annual 
yield." This is the amount of wood that is added to the tree each 
year, and from this we are able to find the amount of wood added to 
the whole forest each year. If we cut no more than this our forests 
will surely not be diminished. 

Then too, there has been a great improvement over the usual 
methods of lumbering. Every tree that is to be cut is selected by the 
forester; no trees under a certain diameter are taken. The mother 
trees are left to seed the ground again, which they do most liberally 

54 North Carolina and its Rbsource;s. 

in this climate, but most important of all, the undergrowth is 
especially looked after. Every tree is felled carefully, and the 
smallest possible amount of damage is done. 

I have only stated here the simplest principles, but by these 
means the forests of the Estate are improving year, by year. 


A little more than six years ago a nursery was established on the 
alluvial deposits of the Swannanoa river, at Biltmore, for propagating 
large numbers of native and hardly exotic forest trees and shrubs, 
and, as this industry has developed into one of the largest and most 
complete and consistent establishments of its kind, an outline of the 
progress and results obtained, together with the future plans, may be 
of general interest. 

Up to the time of the founding of the nursery very little was 
known regarding the capabilities of the soil and climate of the locality. 
Barring the tangible evidence of the indigenous species and a few 
foreign plants that were sparingly used about the homes of the 
residents, the plan of procedure was largely based upon the available 
meteorological data. That the scope of the undertaking might not 
be circumscribed by lines falling within the possibilities of the natural 
surroundings, considerable freedom was exercised in ordering the first 
consignments of stock plants. Orders were placed with the leading 
nurseries of the world for woody plants coming within the range of the 
definition above explained; in fact, everything of this nature that 
could be procured from the commercial nurseries and likely to thrive 
in the locality was included. 

It will readily be admitted that the first season's work was one of 
experiment. Every precaution was taken to encourage the plants to 
produce a well balanced growth and thoroughly ripen the same before 
the time of killing frosts. Finally, the ground was placed in the best 
mechanical condition to withstand the effects of winter. With intense 
interest, every stage of development and effect being carefully 
recorded, the entire aggregation of plants was watched. The first 
winter, fortunately, was not severe, and although some losses were 
sustained, the majority of the species entered upon their second 
season with increased vigor. On the advent of the second winter the 
stock could not have been in better condition to withstand the hardships 
which followed. The winter was very severe, accompanied by several 
remarkable depressions of the thermometer. With such a test it is 
evident that the surviving plants will serve as an invaluable criterion, 
to the planter in the mountain district. 

BiIvTmore; Nursrey and Aborktum. 55 

Having thus gained the key to success, the employees are kept 
busy propagating the desirable species and varieties, and a glance at 
the great range of glass, frames and land leads one to believe that the 
annual output might reach vast and astonishing numbers. Since the 
erection of the first propagating house, between three and four 
millions of forest trees and shrubs have been turned over to the plant- 
ers. In addition to this, at the present writing, nearly two millions 
of plants are in course of development, and the annual output may 
now be estimated at something over two millions of plants. 

Although the list of species and varieties in cultivation on the 
nursery is a large one, it is not complete. Many kinds of plants 
known to science have never been cultivated, and are, consequently, 
only procurable through the agency of collectors or botanical 
exchanges. Here again, the nursery, through its paid collectors 
and generous contributors, is constantly adding rare or little known 
plants to its collection. Among the extremely rare plants recently 
introduced into cultivation are two from the State of North Carolina, 
species which were but imperfectly known to botanical science, 
namely, the dwarf sumach (Rhus michauxi, Sargent) and the 
deciduous kalmia (Kalmia cuneata, Michaux). 

A pertinent question might arise as to the intrinsic value of many 
of the plants thus neglected or not in cultivation. A direct answer 
could not be given at the present time, but their value in pleasing 
combinations of foliage or Soever in landscape planting or home 
decoration is possible. To the student of certain branches of natural 
history they have an added charm, and when it is considered that the 
efforts of the nursery in this respect are preliminary steps towards the 
establishment of a vast museum of living trees and shrubs, to be called 
the Biltmore Arboretum, in which will be illustrated examples of 
every species and sub-species of woody vegetation that will thrive 
unprotected in the soil and climate of the locality, its future object 
will be better understood. 

To facilitate the compilation of the list of plants to be represented, 
their identification and subsequent classification necessary for their 
distribution in the arboretum, a magnificent library and several 
herbaria (collections of dried plants) have been installed in the nursery 
buildings as a nucleus for the great undertaking. The library 
already contains a large number of the masterpieces in botanical lit- 
erature, and additions will be made as rapidly as suitable v/orks can 
be procured. Among the herbaria represented is the type collection 
of Dr. A. W. Chapman, upon w^hich he based his work, the "Flora 
of the Southern United States. ' ' The botanical collectors are now en- 

56 North Carolina and its Resources. 

gaged in preparing thousands of botanical specimens illustrating tlie 
flora of Western Nortk Carolina, and it is expected to offer these 
specimens and many others from our vast country, either living or 
dried, in exchange for material not represented in the present collec- 

Although no planting has yet been done on the arboretum, 
active work has been in progress for some time; the energy being 
expended in laying out the line and making the necessary clearings, 
la effect, the arboretum will appear as a line of road traversing the 
valleys and slopes for a total distance, including several loop roads, 
of about twelve miles. On either side, and extending back for two 
hundred feet or more, will be planted the trees and shrubs it is 
intended to exhibit, first, in isolated specimens, second, in small 
masses, and third, in bulk. To plant this vast area with suitable 
specimens and to provide a living blanket to protect and cover the 
intervening ground and space beneath the spread of the greater trees, 
it will require possibly more than ten million plants. 

Beginning with the first species coming within the classification 
to be adopted, one may pass along the line and view the ligneous 
plants of many temperate countries in botanical sequence, at least so 
far as the peculiarities of soil and exposure will admit of such an 
arrangement. When the progress of the nursery and aboretum has 
sufficiently advanced and the proposed plantings have reached char- 
acteristic peculiarities, it is expected that the student and lover of 
plants may find ample field for study and recreation; the planter, the 
types of beauty appealing to his senses, and the artist, the shades and 
tints of Flora in her seasons. 


The flora of any region includes all the indigenous or native 
plants, and such foreign species as have been introduced and show 
their ability to maintain themselves without cultivation. A flora 
includes flowering or phaenogamous plants as well as flowerless or 
cryptogamous plants, but only such as grow wild. The specific con- 
stitution of a flora depends firstly upon the climate, and secondly 
upon the geology of a district. A third modifying force is composed 
of numerous smaller factors of less importance than either of the 
above; but which in the aggregate amount to a very considerable 
influence. Among such factors we may enumerate the following: 



Flora. 57 

(i) Age and condition of civilization. (2)Density of population. (3) 
Methods of agriculture. (4) Presence or absence of railroads and 
navigable streams. 

In a climate like ours virgin soils are usually covered by forest 
growth, which by its varying density shelters a greater number of 
species of low growing plants than un wooded land shows. As settle- 
ments grow older and population denser, the forest gives way to 
tilled fields and introduced crops which crowd out the native species 
of lesser economic value. Crops like cotton and corn, which require 
clean cultivation are far more destructive to the native species than 
are meadows and pastures where native plants have a chance to com- 
pete with the introduced grasses. Railroads and navigable rivers 
help to introduce and spread foreign plants and in so far they are un- 
favorable to the native flora. The introduced species now in North 
Carolina come from Europe, Eastern Asia, South America and the 
ISTorthem Middle States in about the order given. 

To most non-scientific persons the general aspect or physiognomy 
of a flora are of more interest than its specific constitution. 

A well watered and varied landscape covering hill and dale, with 
interspersed groves and green open spots is to all more agreeable than 
a monotonous stretch of woodland or plain. 

The total number of distinct species growing within a circle of say 
twenty-five miles diameter, in a fertile and well varied district, is from 
1000 to 1200, not including microscopic fungi. 

The great naturalist, Humboldt, after a long life spent in study- 
ing nature in all parts of the globe, wrote: " The character of nature 
in different regions is most intimately associated with the history of 
the human race and its mental culture. Climatic relations have to 
a great extent influenced the character of nations and the degree of 
gloom or cheerfulness in the dispositions of men. Who does not feel 
differently affected beneath the shade of a beechen grove, on hills 
covered by pines, and in a flowering meadow where the breeze mur- 
murs through the trembling foliage of the birch?" 

The same author classifies vegetation as directly afiecting land- 
scape, and indirectly human character, into sixteen forms represent- 
ing as many kinds of climate or geological formation. First there is 
the palm form characteristic of the moist hot climate of the tropics. 
Associated with this, we usually find the banana which furnishes the 
chief subsistence of the languid natives of torrid climes. The 
mallow form — most familiar to us in the swamp hibiscus, the garden, 
althea and holly-hock, and among economic plants, cotton and okra 
is characteristic of a warm, temperate, moist climate. The mimosa 

58 North Carolina and its Resources. 

form — trees with light green, pinnate leaves like the black locust — is. 
characteristic of a climate cooler and drier than that in which the 
mallow form luxuriates. The pine form, including all cone-bearing 
evergreens, is characteristic of a cold-temperate climate. The aerial 
orchid form is tropical as are also large leaved herbaceous plants such 
as the caladium and arum. The trailing form, or vines, is most 
common in the climate where the mallow form is at home. Ferns, 
sedges and grasses seem to possess greater powers of adaptation than 
any other plant families, but we find them most luxuriant in the 
torrid zone where grasses become tall, woody bamboos and ferns 
become trees. 

A comprehensive study of nature teaches us that where geological 
causes do not interfere all forms of organic life, except only 
mental and moral endowment, increases in its abundance, vigor and 
perfection from the poles to the equator. In traversing this distance, 
we find, however, that each zone has its own peculiar beauties and 
forms of life. In each zone, too, we find a certain co-ordination 
between the vegetal and animal life, and where men exist their 
social condition or the state of civilization. In the frigid zone where 
the somber pine form characterizes vegetation savage and untamable 
beasts abound, and the mental development of mankind becomes 
stunted, rigid and gloomy. In the torrid zone where vegetation runs 
riot, and there are no seasons nor apparent changes of foliage during 
growth, we find subtle and treacherous wild beasts like the panther. 
Here humans seem to become cruel as the beasts and as ungovernable 
as the unreclaimable forests and jungles among which they live. In 
the temperate zone with its succession of seasons, its deciduous flora 
and flowery meadows, we find native the teachable animals and the 
most advanced nations of men. 

In the temperate zone geological causes affect the composition of 
the native flora and the characters of the animals and men which 
inhabit therein much more powerfully than seems to be the case in 
either the frigid or torrid zones where climate is all powerful. In 
the temperate zone where ever we find an arid or barren soil there we 
find also the more puny animals and men with minds and characters 
as meagre as their lands. 

The moral of all this is, that in seeking a new home, we should 
consider carefully the unmodifiable factors of climate, geology and 
locality as shown at least in part by the nature of the indigenous flora. 

The State of North Carolina lies between the parallels 33° 50* 
and 36° 33^ of north latitude. Its eastern side, 187^ miles long, is 
washed by the Atlantic Ocean; its furtherest western extension i& 

Flora. 59v 

503^ miles inland, the average elevation above the sea level is 640 
feet. The highest point is Mitchell's Peak, 6,888 feet. The total 
area is 52,286 square miles, of which 3,620 square miles are water, 
and 48,666 square miles land. Climatically, about two-thirds of the 
State belongs to the northern or temperate type, and the remainder 
to the southern or sub-tropical tj^pe. The State is divided by geo- 
logical causes into three well-marked districts each having a distinct 
and different flora. The Coastal Plain region consists of a low, 
sandy plain of about 150 miles in width, which in comparatively 
recent times, geologically speaking, has emerged from the sea. !Ex- 
tensive swamps fringe the coast along its whole extent. 

The long leaf or southern pine, — Pimcs Australis, Mx. is the pre- 
dominant growth, with the loblolly pine, — Pinus iaeda, Mx. and scrub 
oak Quercus Catesbaei as secondary factors. The herbaceous growth 
is chiefly wire grass, — Aristida sficfa, Mx. and A. purpurea, Mx. 
Plants of the composite or aster family abound in their seasons, the 
most common genera being Chrysopsis, Silphiuni, Aster, Peterocaulon, 
Helianthus and Liatris. Legtmihious plants, chiefly Liipinus, 
Tephrosia and Stylosanthes abound, but as a whole the drier portion 
of this region is very poor in species. Along streams, "branches" 
as they are called, we find a more luxuriant growth. Here, in addi- 
tion to the above species, we find among trees and shrubs oaks of 
many species, Sour Gum, Nyssa aquatic a L.; Sweet Bay, Gordonia 
Lasianthus, L; ditid. its c\oSQ.XQ.\^tiwQ Stuartia Virginiea, Cav. — both of 
which belong to the camellia and tea family. The "he-huckleberry," 
Cyrilla racemiflora, Walt, abounds and the great bay. Magnolia 
Grandiflora, L. comes almost to the Cape Fear river. 

The palmettos, Sabal Palmetto, R. & S. and .S. Adansonii, Guerns. 
come as far North as the Cape Fear river. Among under-shrubs, 
the most common genera are the blue-berries, Vacchiium and Gaylussa- 
cia; stagger bushes, Andromeda; sumachs and related genera; the 
spice bush, Clethra; button bush, Cephalanthus; yopon, Ilex; alder, 
Alnus; pepper bush, Ilea, and Jersey tea, Ceanotkus. Among the 
climbing vines, we find in profusion the grape Vitis, four species; 
Smilax, seven species; Clematis, two species; Virginia creeper, 
trumpet flower, Tecoma; cross vine, Big7ionia; Carolina jessamine; 
wild ginger, Decumaria; and passion flower, Passiflora incara7ita. L. 
The southern cane grasses, Arundinaria gigantea and A. teda cover the 
banks of streams to the nearly complete exclusion of other species of 
this family. 

In the swamps the prevailing trees are the bald cypress Taxo- 
dium, disiichum, Rich, and white cedar, Cupressus thyoides, L. Along: 

6o North Carolina and its Resources. 

the coast, live oak Quercics virens, L. occurs. All of these trees 
within the influence of tide water are apt to be covered by the abun- 
dant festoons of the southern long moss, Tillandsia tisneoides^ L. 
which is not a moss at all, but an epiphytic plant closely related to the 
pine apple and to the aerial orchids of the torrid zone. We find in 
wet and boggy situations Saggitaria, Aletris, Tofieldia, Zigadenus, 
LacJnia7ithes, Pleea, Xyris, and the very rare spoon-flower, Xaiithosvia 
saggitifolia, Schoti. Here also we find quite a variety of interesting 
carnivorous plants. The most celebrated of these is the Venus fly-trap, 
Dioiieae viziscipula, Ellis. This does not occur north of the Neuse 
river nor much below the southern boundary of the State. It is most 
abundant around Wilmington, but the recent extensive development 
of truck farming in that neighborhood threatens the speedy annihila- 
tion of this plant. Besides Dioneae we find five species of carnivorous 
pitcher plants, viz. Sarracejiia rubra, Walt.; S. variolaris, Mx.; S. 
Jlava^L.; S. purpurea, L.; and a doubtful species, S.Drommondii, Croom, 
near the South Carolina line. There are also four species of sundew, 
Drosera filiformis , Raf; D. longifolia, L.; D. rohindifolia L.; and D. 
brevifolia, Ph.; Pinguicula luiea, Walt; and P. elatior, Mx. together 
with the closely related bladderworts, Utricularia injlata, Walt; U. 
vulga?'is, L; U. stibulata, L. and U. cor7i2ita. Mx. complete the list 
of carnivorous or insect eating plants found in this district. In like 
places we find a great abundance of bull-rushes, Juncus, lo species; 
cat-tails, 2 species; sedges, including about 18 genera and no 
species. Of grasses, besides the canes, Paspalu77i, 10 species; Pa7ii- 
CU771, 25 to 27 species; U7iiola, 3 species; A7idropogo7i, 7 species; 
Eriaiithus, 2 species; ElyTntis, 2 species; Arisdidia, 5 to 6 species; 
Sporobolus, 3 species; Leersia, 4 species and Ziza7iia^ 2 species. 

Of the flora of the Piedmont Plateau region we shall write more 
briefly. The region has been long settled and more thoroughly 
cultivated than either of the others, and the result is that the original 
indigenous growth has been here largely destroyed or supplanted by 
introduced species. This is now a country of rolling red clay up- 
lands whereon all the common plants and crops of the middle states 
are at home. Cotton, tobacco, grasses and cereal grains are the chief 
staples. Oaks, hickories and elms are the predominating trees with 
short leaf pine — Pi7ius 77iitis Mx. on the ridges separating the water 
sheds of difierent streams. The flora is a mixture of the flora of the 
eastern and western districts with a very large per cent, of intro- 
duced species familiar to dwellers in the middle states and Europe. 

The Mountain region of the State includes the foot hills and all 
vthe valleys and domes of the Blue Ridge and Smoky mountains. 

Flora. 6r 

This region has been until comparatively recent date quite inac- 
cessible, and hence the original growth is still every-^here to be seen, 
though the axe and fire of the lumberman is now only too frequently 
heard and seen in the land. The predominating forest growth is 
oaks, hickories, black-walnut, chestnut, cherry, white poplar 
(^Liriodendron) , magnolias — five species in the valleys; and white-pine, 
white spruce, hemlock spruce and balsam fir on the higher peaks. 
On the middle terraces birches, limes, elmS; ashes, maples, and 
willows complete the very northern forest flora. In this case the 
high altitude gives us a climate equivalent to that which high 
latitude gives to more northern States, and the forest growth partakes 
of the same character. The undergrowth, both shrubby and 
herbaceous, is however, very different from the corresponding flora 
of northern climes. Here beneath a characteristically northern 
forest growth we find a typical southern undergrowth. Besides the 
gorgeous flowers of the semi-shrubby magnolias, we find in profusion 
the even more striking bloom of the rhododendrons, of which there 
are eight native species. Here is the original home of the 
Rhododendron cataxvbiense, Mx. the parent of our finest cultivated 
rhododendrons. Of kalmia or "calico bush" there are three 
species, and related genera of the Ericaceoiis famil}" almost too 
numerous to mention. 

Cranberry bogs are frequent and Stiiartia peniagy^ia — a diSerent 
and less showy species than that found in the coast district — 
abounds. Spireas of several species; hydrangea, two species, 
and Viburmim, eight species are very abundant. The sen'ice berry 
— Amelanchier, is much esteemed for its fruit, w^hich is usually 
obtained by cutting down the tree which here grows 25 to 30 feet 
high. Among the climbers are grapes, three species; trumpet 
flower; Virginia creeper; honey-suckle, three species; smilax or 
green brier, three species; moon seed, (^Me7iisper77ni7fi)', poison 
sumach; Decumaria barbata, L.; wild ginger or dutchman's pipe, 
Aristolochia sipho, U Her, and Virgin's bower GlemaJis, two species. 

The herbaceous growth is particularly rich in composite plants. 
Nearly all the northern and most of the southern species of aster and 
solidago, or golden rod, abound. In early summer travelers by 
railroad often pass for miles through lands thickly covered by the bright 
yellow flowers of Senecio aureus, L. var. iomentosjis, Mx, supplanted 
later in the season by Bidens and Coreopsis. In cool moist spots violets 
abound in great profusion. Fifteen species are found, all of which 
grow to an unusual size. On rocky cliffs we find plants of the 
saxifrage family every where. The most common genera are 

62 North Carolina and its Resources. 

Saxifriga, five species; Astilbe; Heuchera, five species; Tiat'clla and 
Mitella. The pink family is represented by Silene, five species; 
Alsine^ three species; Spergula and Paronychia. The beautiful 
evergreen, and round leaved, Galax aphylla^ L. is fairly common. 
The long lost and much sought for plant Shortia galacifolia, Gray, 
has been recently found in several places, but has novi^ been nearly 
extirpated by the rapacity of collectors. lyily of the valley; 
terrestrial orchids, Lilm??i, three species; Trillium, five species; 
Acorus, Orontitini, and Arisaema are all very common. The 
partridge berry, Mitchellia; and liver leaf, Hepaiica with various 
grasses and ferns form the ground carpet. 

At the cryptogamic flora of the State, we must only glance. Of 
ferns our flora numbers 38 to 40 species. Ground pine, (^Lycopodium,) 
ten species; liver-worts, 70 to 75 species; mossess, about 200 species; 
lichens, about 220 species; algae and sea weeds, about 50 species; 
fungi, 2,500 species, of which nearly 100 species are edible mush- 

The total number of species of plants recorded from this State is 
about 5,500, but as the cryptogams have not been very exhaustively 
investigated, it is likely that the number of species will eventually 
reach over 6,000. 

No State in the Union, nor any country of similar area anywhere, 
can show a more varied flora than North Carolina, nor one which 
contains a greater number of indigenous plants of high economic 
value. From early colonial days, North Carolina has been the chief 
scource of the yellow pine lumber and naval stores consumed in or 
exported from the United States. This business has now, however, 
passed to virgin fields further south, and where the axe of the 
woodman and hacker of turpentine gatherer erstwhile resounded, we 
now see the plow and the pruning knife of the fruit grower and truck 
farmer. Our swamp lands still yield largely of cedar, cypress, gum 
and similar valuable timbers. While our mountains contain vast 
quantities of the most valuable hard wood suitable for furniture and 
cabinet work. This State has for over twenty years furnished the 
main supply of the sweet chestnuts sold in the stores — the spontane- 
ous product of our mountain slopes. 

For decades. North Carolina has been the chief source of the 
national supply of crude vegetable drugs. This industry has now 
reached an extension and volume, the importance of which but few 
outside the medical and phaimaceutical professions appreciate. The 
number of distinct species of important medical plants found growing 
wild in this State is about seven hundred. 

CATAWBA FALLS — McDowell county. 

Flora. 63 

"We liave already spoken of the influence of geological formation 
on the superimposed plant growth. A few words on the value of 
indigenous plants as indicators of the agricultural worth of the 
underlying soil will close this chapter. Plants, unlike animals, are 
unable to change their habitations and therefore in the course of time 
in accordance with the law of " survival of the fittest," each species 
becomes specially adapted to one kind of soil. The species which do 
not adapt themselves fail to hold their ground and are supplanted by 
the species which do. Hence the surviving and "fittest" species 
become trustworthy indicators of the nature of the soil — if we know 
on what kind of soil the species thrives best, or for which it is 
specially adapted. 

White oaks, hickories and elms and our most common northern 
shade trees, thrive best on a rich, strong clay upland soil. Such soil 
is best adapted, agriculturally, for grasses and cereal grains. The 
red oaks indicate a rather lighter and drier and poorer soil, better 
adapted for fruit. Walnut, gum and tulip trees thrive best on a 
rich moist soil, such as river bottoms. The buckeye, especially the 
sweet species, (Aesczilus Pavia) indicates a soil rich in lime or marl. 
The chestnut will not grow on soil containing much lime, but luxuri- 
ates in a potash rich soil. The dog-wood, black jack and scrub oak, 
indicate a very poor, stony or sandy soil of little agricultural value 
except for early truck farming and peach and grape growing for 
northern markets. 

Among herbaceous plants, the cockle burs and Jamestown weed 
indicate rich moist soil, and the rag weed indicates a poor one. 
Asters indicate a thin, dry soil, whereas sun-flowers and most golden- 
rods abound only on fertile lands. Sedges and ferns grow only upon 
soil too wet for agricultural purposes. "Broom sedges," grasses, 
Andropogon, indicate a much worn soil lacking in potash, while the 
Aristidias, or wire grasses indicate one naturally deficient in all the 
elements of plant growth. The Malvas, Hibiscus and all plants of 
the mallow, or cotton, family indicate a moist soil. 


The native living things belonging to a given region are called 
its Fauna and Flora, the former including all animals and the latter 
all plants. It is the Fauna of North Carolina that will now be 
briefly considered. 

64 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The distribution of North American land animals has been ably 
discussed by Dr. J. A. Allen, in the Bulletin, of the American 
Museum of Natural History, of New York, Vol. 4, 1892, and also by 
Dr. C. Hart Merriam, of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
in the publications of that department (see particularly, Year Book of 
the Department of Agriculture, 1894.) 

The classification adopted by Dr. Allen, for faunal areas, is more 
elaborate than is necessary for use here, and therefore the division of 
the North American Continent into primary "life zones," by Dr. 
Merriam, will be the system employed. They are as follows: 

The Artie Zone, lying north of the northern limit of tree growth, 
the land of the Polar Bear, Artie Fox and Reindeer and the Hudson- 
ian Zone, the home of the great Moose and embracing within its 
limits the upper part of the vast spruce forests of Labrador and cross- 
ing the continent to Alaska, are not represented in this State. 

The Canadian Zone takes in the northern part of New England, 
New Brunswick, Quebec and northern Ontario, the southern part of 
Newfoundland, and extends across the continent to the Valley of the 
Yukon, in Alaska and, in spite of our southern situation, the fauna 
of this zone occurs in North Carolina along the crests of the Blue 
Ridge and the Great Smoky Mountains. The boundaries of this 
division with us are, of course, determined by the altitude, the lower 
limit being about 4,500 feet, (see Brewster, on Birds of Western 
North Carolina, "Auk, "Jan. 1886). Ofanimals belonging to this fauna 
and having a range to the far north but occurring in this State may be 
mentioned — the Canada Lynx (^Lynx canadensis) and the Red Squirrel 
{Scmriis hudsonius'), the "Boomer' ' of our mountains. Among the sum- 
mer birds are the Carolina Snow bird {Jiinco hyejnalis caroliiiensis). 
Mountain Solitary Vireo ( Vireo solitarius alticola), Blackburnian 
"Warbler {Dendroica b lac kburjiiae) ,W\nier Wren ( Troglodytes hiemalis), 
Redbreasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis) ,^c. It is a remarkable feature 
of North Carolina animal life that a stretch of country lying between 
the paralells 34° and 37°, as this State does, should possess among 
its native animals and birds species that belong naturally to a fauna 
characteristic of the great forests of Canada and that reaches on its 
northern border to beyond 60° of north latitude. But to this great 
degree does the altitude of our mountain peaks modify their southern 
position. This is the region of such northern trees as the firs and 
spruces, forests of which cap the towering peaks 'of these North 
Carolina mountain chains. 

With its upper limit coincident with the lower limit of the 
Canadian, we come next to the transition zone — the Alleghanian Fauna 

Fauna. 65 

of Dr. Allen. This seems to be a region in whicli a mingling of 
southern and northern forms of life is evident, although its character- 
istic life is sufficiently well defined to admit of its recognition as a 
feunal division. Among the notable animals belonging to this fauna 
was, in olden times, the Elk or Wapiti {^Cervics canadensis)^ noble 
herds of which ranged the mountain sides and vallej^s of the western 
region of the old North State. But, alas, that was long ago, and 
unless reintroduced and afterwards protected, they will never range 
those mountain sides again. Here also we find that queer animal, 
the Star-nosed Mole, which is found even to the northern limit of the 
Canadian Zone. Among the summer birds are Wilson's Thrusli 
(JTurdus fuscescens'), Yellow-throated 'Sf'ix^o {Vireo flavifrons), Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak (^Habia ludoviciand) . We also find such southern 
Species of birds as Orioles, Catbird {Galeoscopies carolinensis), Brown 
Thrasher (^Harporhynchiis 7ufus~) and such animals as common Mole 
{Scalops aqtiaticus) and Cotton-tail Rabbit {Leptis sylvatictis^ mingling 
with the above. The lower limit of this fauna Mr. Brewster places 
at about 2,500 feet, but it must be understood that the boundaries of 
none of these divisions are, or can be, very sharply defined, as there 
is necessarily a great overlapping of species from one to the other, 
and this overlapping and mixing of the life belonging to one zone 
into that of another varies very much with individual localities. 
That celebrated weather prophet, the Woodchuck or Ground Hog 
belongs here and is by no means uncommon in suitable localities ia 
western North Carolina. 

Next we come to the zone that covers a greater amount of the 
State's area than any other — namely, the Carolinian. This is not a 
projecting spur from more northerly zones running down into the 
State only by way of the mountain ranges, as were the two former, 
but is more especially a fauna of the Piedmont Plateau region and 
of the western border of the Coastal Plain region of the State. It is, 
as its name implies, distinctively Carolinian in its character. The 
Opossum {DidelpJiys virginiamis) , the Gray Fox {Urocyoyi cinereo- 
argentatiis) , the Fox Squirrel {Sciurus niger), are animals character- 
istic of this division, and among the birds we find such well known 
southern forms as Carolina Wren ( Thryothoriis ludoviciamcs), Cardinal 
or Red-bird (^Cardinalis cardmalis,) Gnatcatcher (^Polioptila caerulea^, 
Mocking bird {Mhmcs polyglottos'). The Molly Cotton-tail (^Lepus 
sylvaticus'), is a common and inextinguishable characteristic feature 
here, and pretty much the same might be said of our chipper anr* 
lively little Bob White — our Partridge, in spite of what the ' ' quail 
hunters call him. 

66 North Carolina and its Rksources. 

Beginning near the coast at the extreme northeast corner of the 
State, running southward and westward and gradually widening on its 
way down as latitude modifies altitude we find a strip of country con- 
taining life features much more tropical in character than those pre- 
viously considered. This is the northern corner of the Austro-riparian 
or lyouisianian Zone. This zone includes the whole of the south 
Atlantic coast region, a wide expanse of country bordering the 
northern shores of the Gulf of Mexico and the whole of Florida with 
the exception of its extreme southern coast line. The Alligator 
{Alligator mississippieiisis) now begins to show himself and is plentiful 
and attains a large size along the southern half of our tide-water 
region. Several species of the smaller rodents belong to this zone, 
notably the Cotton Rat, Eice-field Rat and Wood Rat, and the 
Marsh Rabbit {Lepus palustris) reaches the northern limit of his 
range on the coast marshes of North Carolina. The peculiar Big- 
eared Bat is found associated with the above, and the change in bird 
life is as noticeable as that in mammals. The Chuck-will's widow 
takes the place of the Whippoorwill and formerly this zone received 
added brilliance in North Carolina by the presence of the gaudy and 
noisy Carolina Parroquet {Conurus carolinensis), now, unfortunately, 
almost confined to southern Florida. The great and rare Ivory-billed 
Woodpecker was also a former example of this life division, found on 
our coast at least as far north as Beaufort Harbor, but his day has 
also, apparently, gone by. Those interesting creatures the Ground 
and Diamond Rattlesnakes also come in here, and the Cotton-mouth 
Water Moccason {Agkistrodon piscivorus) is their equal as an awe- 
inspiring Austro-riparian representative. Siren and Amphiuma are 
two water animals quite characteristic of this zone, and their bites, 
like those of hundreds of other and equally totally harmless creatures, 
are regarded as deadly poisonous. The great Brown Pelican and the 
swift and graceful Swallow-tailed Kite, are both features of this 
division of animal life, and the Black Vulture, that very useful but 
not beautiful bird that seems equally at home in the pure ether a 
thousand fathoms above the earth, or in the dark and odorous interior 
of a dead mule, is always with us. 

It is a matter of interest, although having no bearing on present 
day fauna, that the huge Mastodon once roamed our fields and forests 
and the great prehistoric elephant {Elephas americanus,') nearly allied 
to the "mountainous Mammoth" of the Old World, was also a North 
Carolinian in days gone by. So, also were many other rare and 
interesting animals, now only known by their fossil remains. Loose 
bones of extinct whales, in some cases a good part of the entire 

Fauna. 67 

skeleton, have been found in numerous localities, and in Halifax 
county some huge fragments of the skull were sufficiently entire to 
give a good idea of the size of the complete animal. This whale was 
identified by Professor Cope and by him named Mesoteras Kerrianus 
in honor of its discoverer. Professor \V. C. Kerr, late State Geologist. 
Its length was estimated at 80 feet, the largest extinct baleen whale 
ever found. Another well knov/n fossil whale lay across the bed of a 
creek in the same county and was used, during low water, as a footlog. 

From the foregoing brief sketch it will be seen how widely varied 
is the character of the animal life belonging to North Carolina. As 
Dr. Merriam so truthfully says in his report as head of the Division 
of Ornithology and Mammalogy in the Year Book of the United 
States Department of Agriculture for 1894: 

"An accurate knowledge of the areas which, by virtue of their 
climatic conditions, are fitted for the cultivation of particular crops is 
of such obvious importance to agriculture that the Division of 
Ornithology and Mammalogy was early led to make a special study 
of the geographic distribution of the land animals and plants of North 
America, for the boundaries inhabited by native species were believed 
to coincide with those suited to the production of particular kinds of 
fruit, grain and tubers, and for the rearing of particular breeds of 
domesticated animals. 

"When the boundaries and life zones and areas are accurately 
mapped, the agriculturist need only ascertain the faunal area to 
which a particular crop or garden plant of limited range belongs in 
order to know beforehand just where it may be introduced with 
every prospect of success, soil and other local modifying influences 
being suitable; and in the case of weeds and of injurious and benefi- 
cial mammals, birds and insects, he would know what kinds were to 
be looked for in his immediate vicinity, and could prepare in advance 
for noxious species that from time to time suddenly extend their 
range. * * * =f= In short a knowledge of the natural life areas of the 
United States and of their distinctive species and crops, would enable our 
farmers and fruit growers to select the products best adapted to their 
localities, and would help them in their battle with harmful species." 

Such being the case, where, indeed, is the limit to the agricul- 
tural possibilities of a State in which the native animal life includes 
such widely difi"erent forms as, say, the Canada Lynx, with a range 
almost reaching the Artie Sea, on the one hand, and on the other, the 
great Florida Alligator, whose center of abundance is well within the 
limits of tropical America, the land of the cocoanut, the lemon and 
the orange. 

68 North Carolina and its Resources. 


Even the casual observer who travels across the State of North 
Carolina from its eastern shores to its western boundary will see that 
when he has gone about half way he passes from a region which is 
very level or gently undulating, and the surface of which is covered 
with sand and loam soils from which hard rocks are entirely absent, 
to another, the surface of which becomes more and more hilly until 
it culminates in mountains in the western portion of the State, and 
the soil of which is more or less mingled with the hard granitic and 
slaty rocks from which they have been formed. 

A little more traveling in this region will be sufl&cient to indi- 
cate that the geologic formations of the eastern half of the State, 
which has been designated as the Coastal Plain Region, are radically 
different and much younger than that of the western half, embracing 
the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions. The boundary line which 
separates these two great geologic divisions extends from near Weldon 
on the north by way of Raleigh to near Wadesboro on the southwest. 

In age instead of being contiguous the areas are widely separ- 
ated; the formation covering the Coastal Plain being one of the most 
recent, while those of the Piedmont Plateau (excepting the limited 
red sandstone or Trias areas) being among the oldest. 

The accompanying sketch map indicates in a general way the 
limits of these two general areas, and the minor geologic groups of 
the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions. Formations of the 
Coastal Plain are shown as a unit for the reason that notwithstand- 
ing that they belong to at least five successive geologic periods, 5^et 
being spread one directly on top of the other it is impossible to indi- 
cate them individually on a map of this character. 

The Coastal Plain region, as indicated above, along its eastern 
boarders contains the sounds, bays, the sand dunes and ridges, the 
swamps and marshes and other characteristics of a seashore region. 
Further inland it is generally level, and has more of the upland and 
less of the marsh. Toward its western boundary the swamps nearly 
or quite disappear, the upland predominates, the surface becomes 
more undulating and even hilly in places, and soils which further 
eastward were composed of fine sand and silt, along the western bor- 
der of this region contains a larger proportion of coarse sand or gravel 
mingled with clay. 

Along the banks of such rivers as the Cape Fear and Roanoke 
where these streams have cut down through the surface and left the 


high steep bluffs the material composing half a dozen geologic forma- 
tions are exposed to view, the oldest, the Potomac gravel, sands and 
clays, lying at the bottom on the irregular surface of granite and 
slates; cretaceous sands and clays; tertiary (eocene and miocene) 
marls and clays; the I^afayette yellow and brownish sands and loams; 
and the Columbia sands, gravels and clays, lying one successively 
above the other — the last of these, the youngest of all, being on top. 
Along the western border of these Coastal Plain formations occasional 
outcrops of hard granites and slates are exposed along the beds of 
streams where the once overlying sands and clays have been washed 
away, but besides these no large masses of hard rock are to be found 
in this region other than the limited beds of limestone which are 
exposed along the banks of the streams in a number of eastern 
counties, epecially in the southern portion of the state. 

In these southeastern counties, the limestone is exposed at the 
surface along the banks of the streams in a large number of localities, 
and this rock may be used for the making of lime, macadamizing 
roads, and in some cases it will do for building purposes. In a few 
places, as in the neighborhood of Castle Haynes, New Hanover 
county, this limestone contains numerous phosphate pebbles and over 
considerable areas the limestone has dissolved awaj*- and left the 
phosphate pebble in form of phosphate gravel, which has been 
worked for a number of years, and can be worked with equal success 
on the adjoining Hermitage property. Other phosphate deposits 
have been found in Duplin, Pender, Onslow and Brunswick counties. 

In the Piedmont Plateau region, the geology is much more com- 
plex. There are, however, two narrow belts of comparatively recent 
rocks; the triasic or red sandstone, the general outlines and location 
of which are best indicated on the accompanying map. The more 
eastern of these two belts, extending from Oxford, in Granville 
county, across the state through portions of Wake, Durham, Chatham, 
Moore, Montgomery, Richmond and Anson counties, has a maximum 
width of about 15 miles. In this formation are found the coal 
deposits of Moore and Chatham counties and the valuable beds of red, 
gray and brown sand-stone, which are described more fully under head 
coal and of building stone. The more western of these two belts is 
much more limited in area, extending from the Virginia line across 
portions of Rockingham and Stokes counties, and having a maximum 
width of four or five miles. 

The older crystaline rocks, (granites, gneisses and slates), extend 
in belts of varying width and length obliquely across the state having 
a general northeast and southwest course. The most marked of these 

70 North Caroi^ina and it.s Resources. 

is the great slate belt which extends across from Virginia, through Per- 
son, Orange, Chatham, Randolph, Stanley, Union and adjoining coun- 
ties. It has a maximum width of some forty miles; the rocks are every- 
where folded or broken, and tilted; and are penetrated by numerous 
dikes and veins; many of the latter being impregnated with gold 
bearing ores. And in the western part of this slate belt, especially 
in Davidson and Cabarrus counties, these gold ores have associated 
with them ores of silver, lead, zinc and copper. The region is one 
of hills and valleys and rapid streams, along which have been 
developed numerous excellent water powers. Just west of this slate 
belt, lies a belt of granite and other kindred rocks; extending across 
the state; having a width varying from ten to twenty miles. These 
rocks are also penetrated by numerous veins which carry gold bear- 
ing ores; and in some cases, especially in Guilford county, these are 
also highly impregnated with copper ores, and in some places this 
granite belt, as well as the slate belt, contains valuable deposits of 
iron ore. lyying west of this granite belt and extending from it to 
the foot hills of the Blue Ridge, is a large area, the rocks of which 
are of gneisses and granites, with here and there more limited belts of 
slate. The rocks are very old, belonging probably to the Archaen 
age. They are often deeply decayed, forming fertile loam soils. In 
some places, valuable and extensive beds of granite are to be found. 
At intervals throughout the entire region the rocks are penetrated by 
quartz veins which contain in many places gold bearing ores; the 
more noted gold bearing areas of this region being those in eastern 
Catawba; about the South Mountains in Burke, McDowell and 
Rutherford counties, and in the Western part of Caldwell county. 
There are also in this region valuable deposits of iron; notably those 
in Stokes, Gaston, Macon and Catawba counties. This region is 
exceedingly hilly, being penetrated by the Brushy mountains, south 
of the Yadkin, and the South mountains, south of the Catawba 

The geology of the mountain region is perhaps fully as compli- 
cated as that of the Piedmont Plateau. Over the larger part of the 
region are to be found the older crystalline rocks, greatly folded and 
turned on their edges; and they contain at intervals valuable deposits 
of iron ore: notably magnetic iron ores in the region about Cranberry 
in Mitchell county; in Ashe and Madison counties and in a number 
of places these rocks are also penetrated by veins carrying gold, 
silver and copper bearing ores. Along the line of the Blue Ridge and 
again along the line of the Great Smoky mountains are narrower belts 
of rocks, belonging to what has been designated the Ocoee period.. 



The age of these is not known, though it is certain that these rocks 
are much younger than the slates and gneisses which have just been 
described. These rocks of the Ocoee formation contain also in 
places deposits of minerals, especially the marbles and brown iron 
ores of Cherokee county. In this region, as in the Piedmont Plateau, 
the rocks are decayed to a considerable depth, thus producing deep 
soils which vary in character from sandy and gravelly loam to those 
containing a large proportion of clay in regions where the rock itself 
contains large proportion of hornblende. These soils are porous and 
fertile, and for the most part on the slopes of the mountains are still 
covered with virgin forests. 


1 Actinolite. 

2 Albite. 

3 Allanite. 

4 Altaite. 

5 Alunogen. 

6 Anatase. 

7 Andesite. 

8 Anglesite. 

9 Anthophyllite. 

10 Anthracite coal. 

11 Antimony. 

12 Apatite. 

13 Arsenopyrite. 

14 Arfvedsonite. 

15 Argentite. 

16 Asbestos. 

17 Auerlite. 

18 Augite. 

19 Autunite. 

20 Azurite. 

21 Barite. 

22 Barnhardtite. 

23 Beryl. 

24 Biotite. 

25 Bismite. 

26 Bismutite. 

27 Bismuthinite. 

28 Bitumenous coal. 

29 Bornite. 

30 Breunnerite. 

31 Bronzite. 

32 Brookite. 

33 Calamine. 

34 Calcite. 

35 Cassiterite. 

36 Cerusite. 

37 Cerargyrite. 

38 Cerolite. 

39 Chalcopyrite. 

40 Chalcocite. 

41 Chrysocolla. 

42 Chromite. 

43 Chlorite. 

44 Chloritoid. 

45 Chrysolite. 

46 Chalcanthite. 

47 Chalcedony. 

48 Columbite. 

49 Copper. 

50 Corundum. 

51 Covellite. 

52 Crocidolite. 

53 Crocoite. 

54 Cullasageeite. 

55 Cuprite. 

56 Cuprosheelite. 

57 Cyanite. 

58 Cyrtolite. 

59 Deweylite. 

60 Diamond. 


North CaroIvIna and its Resources. 

6i Diaspore. 

62 Dolomite. 

63 Dudleyite. 

64 Dufrenite. 

65 Enstatite. 

66 Epidote. 

67 Fergusonite. 

68 Fibrolite. 

69 Fluorite. 

70 Garnet. 

71 Galena. 

72 Gahnite. 

73 Genthite. 

74 Glauconite. 

75 Gold. 

76 Goslarite. 

77 Gothite. 

78 Graphite. 

79 Gummite. 

80 Halite. 

81 Halloysite. 

82 Hatchettolite. 

83 Hematite. 

84 Hiddenite. 

85 Hyalite. 

86 Hydro fergusonite. 

87 Ilmenite. 

88 Iron, (meteoric) 

89 Itacolumyte. 

90 Jefferisite. 

gi Kammererite (Var. penninite) 

92 Kaolinite. 

93 Kerrite. 

94 Ivabradorite. 

95 Lazulite. 

96 Leucopyrite. 

97 Ivimonite. 

98 lyucasite. 

99 Maconite. 
100 Maguesite. 
loi Magnetite. 
i02 Malachite. 

103 Marcasite. 

104 Margarite. 

105 Marmolite. 

106 Martite. 

107 Melanterite. 

108 Melaconite. 

109 Molybdenite. 
no Molybdite. 

111 Monazite. 

112 Montanite. 

113 Montmorillonite. 
'114 Muscovite. 

115 Nagyagite. 
ri6 Niter. 

117 Octehedri*-e. 

118 Oligoclase. 

119 Olivenite. 

120 Orthoclase. 

121 Opal. 

W2 Penninite. 

123 Phlogopite. 

124 Phosphuranylite. 

125 Picrolite. 

126 Pleonaste. 

127 Polycrase. 

128 Prochlorite. 

129 Psilomelane. 

130 Pseudomalachite. 

131 Pyrite. 

132 Pyromorphite. 

133 Pyrolusite. 

134 Pyrophyllite. 

135 Pyrrhotite. 

136 Pyroxene. 

137 Quartz. 

138 Rhodochrosite. 

139 Rogersite. 

140 Rutherfordite. 

141 Rutile. 

142 Samarskite. 

143 Saponite. 

144 Scheelite. 

145 Schreibersite. 

146 Scorodite. 

147 Serpentine. 

148 Siderite. 

149 Silver. 

150 Sillimanite. 

151 Smaragdite. 

152 Sphalerite. 

153 Sperrylite. 

154 Spodumeue. 

155 Spinel. 

156 Staurolite. 

157 Steatite. 

158 Stibnite. 

159 Stilbite. 

160 Stolzite. 

161 Succinite (amber) 

162 Sulphur. 

163 Talc. 

164 Tantalite. 

165 Tetradymite. 

166 Tetrahedrite. 

167 Thorite. 

168 Thulite. 

169 Titanite. 

170 Tourmaline. 

171 Tremolite. 

172 Troilite. 

173 Uraninite. 

174 Uranotil. 

175 Vermiculite. 

176 Vivianite. 

177 Wad. 

178 Wavellite. 

179 Willcoxite. 

180 Wolframite. 
i8r Xanthitane. 

182 Xenotime. 

183 Zircon. 

184 Zoisite. 

Gold, Silver and Copper. 73 


The total amount of the precious metals produced by the mines 
of North Carolina up to the end of 1894 is estimated at approximately 
$24,000,000.00. The production for the past ten years is ascertained 
to be $1,295,676. By far the greater proportion of this is gold, the 
amount of silver being insignificant. 

The area of the productive gold region in the State embraces 
some 8,000 to 10,000 square miles of the middle and western counties. 
It may be divided into six obscurely defined belts: 

I. The Eastern Belt. 
The Slate Belt. 
The Igneous Belt. 
The Kings Mountain Belt. 
The South Mountain Belt. 
The Mines West of the Blue Ridge. 

The gold occurs in placer deposits, in quartz fissure veins, and 
as impregnations in the country schists and slates. 

The gold is not uniformly distributed in the ore bodies; both the 
veins and schists having "chimneys" or "shoots" in which the gold 
is concentrated, leaving the intermediate parts relatively poor. The 
shoots have a pitch of their own in the ore body. 

(i). The Eastern Belt includes the counties of Warren, Halifax, 
Franklin and Nash. The present known area over which the mines 
are distributed is not less than 300 square miles. The country rocks 
are diorite, chloritic schists, and gneiss. The district is character- 
ized by a great abundance of narrow quartz veinlets from a "line" to 
i^ inches in thickness. The gold appears originally to have been 
in these narrow seems, which have been broken down in the process 
of weathering, the fragments being widely distributed through the 
soil, and generally most abundant on the bed rock, fifteen to twenty- 
five feet below the surface, or in favored sinks or channels. 

Among the more noted veins of the district are: the Portis, 
located near Ransom's Bridge, in Franklin count}'-. The operations 
consisted of surface sluicing and hydraulicking the surface soil to a 
depth of 5 to 30 feet. The upper decomposed rock layer is every- 
where auriferous to some extent. There are two main zones of ore, 
nearly at right angles, each about 9 feet in total width, consisting of 
reticulated quartz veins in diorite. Five miles southeast of the Portis 
is the Mann-Arrington mine. The ore body consists of quartz lenses 
up to 12 inches in thickness interlaminated in the schists. The depth 
of the shaft is 108 feet. Other mines in this belt are the Arrington, 
Thomas, Kearney, Taylor, Davis and Conyers. 

74 North Carolina and its Reisourcks. 

(2). The Slate Belt is an area of metamorphic slates and schists 
extending in a general southwesterly direction across the central part 
of the State, varying in width from 8 to 50 miles. The rocks are 
argillaceous, sericitic and chloritic, metamorphosed slates and 
schists, sedimentary pre Jura-trias slates, and ancient devitrified 
volcanic rocks. 

The copper ores of Granville and Person counties, are at times 
auriferous, and, although the contents of the precious metals is 
insignificant, they may form an important item of profit in a well 
conducted metallurgical treatment of these ores for copper. Assays* 
show from $2.50 to $10.75 per ton in gold and silver, and from 20 to 
48% of copper. 

This copper belt is approximately ten miles in length. The ore 
is chiefly chalcocite and bornite in quartz, and occurs in lenticular 
veins, from a few inches to 14 feet in thickness. The principal veins 
are the Blue Wing, HoUoway, Mastodon, Buckeye, Pool ,Gillis, Copper 
World and Yancey. 

The gold mines in Moore county are situated in the northern 
and western parts. At the Bell mine, eight miles northwest of 
Carthage, the mineralized country schists constitute the ore, which 
exists in several narrow belts containing siliceous seams from ^ to 4 
inches in thickness. The entire vein matter averaging 4 feet, is 
estimated to run $12.00 per ton. The Burns mine is eleven miles 
west of Carthage. The silicified sericitic and chloritic schists are 
here filled with quartz stringers and lenticles, both the quartz and 
portions of the schists being auriferous. Mining is done in large 
open cuts, 20 to 100 feet wide, to a depth of about 50 feet. The 
average yield of the ore is said to be $2.50 to $3.00 per ton, in free 
gold. The Cagle and Clegg mines are near the Burns, and the nature 
and character of the ores are similar. 

The Hoover Hill mine, in Randolph county, is seventeen miles 
south of High Point. The principal ore body is the so called 
" Briols " shoot; 12 feet wide and 70 feet long, entered by a shaft 350 
feet deep. The ore is worth $8.00 to $10.00 per ton. At the Jones 
or Keystone mine, eighteen miles southeast of Thomasville, the ore 
bodies consist of belts of mineralized schists, two of these being 50 
and no feet wide respectively. The mine is a series of open quarries; 
the average value of the working ore will not fall under $3.00 
per ton, of which about $2.00 is extracted by milling. Other mines 

*In all assays of this article gold and silver are calculated at their coining 
rates, usually gold, $20.67 and silver, $1.29, per Troy ounce. 

Gold, Silvkr and Copper. 75 

in Randolph, are the I^oftin, Winningham, Slack, Davis Mountain, 
Sawyer, Winslow and Uwharie. 

The Emmons mine is fifteen miles southeast of I/exington, in 
Davidson county. The ore body is from three to eight feet thick, 
and the ore is only slightly auriferous, and has been worked mainly 
for its copper contents. The main shaft is 416 feet deep on the 
incline. The Cid mine is i ^ miles northeast of the Emmons, and 
has ore similar to it. The shaft is 100 feet deep on the incline. The 
Silver Hill mine is ten miles southeast from Lexington. The two 
principal veins are known as the "East" and the "West," are 
parallel and about 28 feet apart on the outcrop. The gasson was 
worked for gold. Below the water level, however, the ores become 
a complex mixture of silver bearing sulphurets, mainly galena and 
zinc blende. The mine has opened to a depth of 760 feet. Some 
assays of the ores show: 



Gold, per ton $ 8.27]$ 2.07 

Silver " 20.36 4.65 

Pyrite I Galena 

$ 3-IO 

'•63I1 6.72$ 7. II 

10.34 I 4- 13 Is 6.20 

2-97 3-23 


|r3-3i|$ 7-36 $16.93 

5 4-13 


The galena bearing ores show from twelve per cent, to fifty-seven 
per cent, of lead, and from seven per cent, to thirty-five per cent, of 
zinc. The Silver Valley mine is five miles northeast of Silver Hill; 
the character of the ore is almost identical to that of the former. 
The vein is nearly twenty feet wide at the surface; below, the ore- 
shoot has a width of five to twelve feet, and consists of alternate 
bands of ore, slate and quartz, the ore seams being from three to 
eighteen inches thick. The mine has been opened to one hundred and 
twenty feet vertical depth. The galena and blende carry from $1 7.00 to 
$180.00 per ton of gold and silver, from fifteen per cent, to twenty-five 
per cent, of lead, and from eleven per cent, to thirty-two per cent, of 
zinc. These ores have been successfully smelted, using copper ores 
as a flux. The Welborn mine, two miles west of the Silver Hill, 
carries similar complex ores. The Conrad Hill mine is six miles east 
of Lexington. There are two systems of veins, carrying copper, 
pyrite and gold, in quartz and siderite. The mine has been opened 
to a maximum depth of four hundred feet, considerable bodies of ore, 
up to eighteen feet in maximum width, have been exploited and 
mined. The ore is essentially a copper ore, though it contains some 

The Russell mine in Montgomery county, is situated three miles^ 
north of Eldorado. The entire slate formation is gold bearing, but 

76 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

only certain belts are sufficiently rich to warrant mining. There are 
at least six of these belts within a distance of 2,000 feet across the 
strike. The ore bodies have been exploited and worked chiefly in 
large open cuts. It is stated that the average "run of mine" ore 
milled $3.00 per ton. There are streaks from four to five feet wide 
which went much higher. The Appalachian mine is situated near 
Eldorado. The ores are similar to those of the Russell. The depth 
of the last working was 160 feet. The Steel mine is two miles 
southeast of Eldorado. The ore body varies from nine to twelve feet 
in thickness, and occasionally rises to twenty feet. The most valuable 
part of the deposite consists of what is locally called "string veins," 
narrow seams of ore which run through the mass, more or less parallel 
to the slates. Some assays show from $20.00 to $100.00 per ton. 
The Sara Christian mine is twelve miles southwest of Troy. The 
gold is found in old channels, in gravel from one to three feet in 
thickness. It is generally in the shape of nuggets from five to one 
thousand penny weights. The aggregate yield of this mine in the 
past has been quite large, and may orove of value in the future. 

Other mines in Montgomery county are the Beaver Dam, 
Reynolds, Carter, Bright, Ophir, Dry Hollow, Deep Flat, Bunnell 
Mountain, Worth, &c. 

The Crawford mine in Stanly county is four miles northeast of 
Albemarle. It is a placer deposit of comparatively recent discovery. 
The gravel bed is from one-half to two feet in thickness, overlaid by 
two to four feet of soil. The width of the channel is about two 
hundred and fifty feet. During 1895 two notable nuggets were found 
here, weighing eight and a half and ten pounds respectively. 

The Parker mine is situated at New London. Numberless auri- 
ferous quartz stringer veins, from one to eighteen inches wide, 
intersect the country rock in all directions. The principal yield of 
gold has been from the ancient gravel channels. The aggregate 
production is estimated at $200,000.00. 

Other mines in Stanley county are the Crowell, Barringer, 
Haithcock, Hearne, lyowder, &c. 

Rowan and Cabarrus counties may be treated together. The 
Gold Hill group of mines is situated about fourteen miles southeast 
of Salisbury. This is one of the most noted mining districts in the 
State. The group comprises a number of mines situated in a belt of 
auriferous schists, nearly one and a-half miles long and two-thirds 
mile wide, in the southeast corner of Rowan county, extending into 
Cabarrus on the south, and Stanly on the east. The character of the 
ore bodies is that common to the "Slate belt" elsewhere. The 

Gold, Silver and Copper. 77 

schists are impregnated, over certain widths, with auriferous sul- 
phurets, accompanied by lenticuler stringers of quartz. There are at 
least ten well defined veins in the district. The Randolph, the most 
prominent of the ten veins under discussion, has been worked for a 
linear distance of one thousand five hundred feet, and to a depth of 
seven hundred and eighty feet. The width of the ore shoots is stated 
to be from six inches to seven feet. Some indication of the range of 
values is given in the following assays: 

Gold, per ton $25.84 $4.14 $568 

Silver " " ,.$ .49 .71 2.26 

$26.33 $4.85 $7.94 

Copper, per cent 0.85 2.59 5.96 

The McMackin veins are rich in silver ores. Up to 1874 it is 
estimated that the total production of the Gold Hill mines was 
$3,000,000.00, which represents about twenty-three per cent, of the 
assay value of the ores. 

The Rocky River mine is situated ten miles southeast of Concord, 
in Cabarrus county. A number of shafts have been sunk on several 
parallel lenticular quartz veins to a maximum depth of one hundred 
and thirty feet. The quartz assays from $3.00 to $6.00 per ton, and 
the enclosing schists themselves yield $3.00 per ton of gold. The 
ore contains also considerable galena and blende. Other veins in the 
slate belt of Cabarrus county are the Buffalo, Biggs, Furr, Widen- 
house, Isenhour, Mauney, Nugget, &c. 

The Crowell Mine in Union county is fourteen miles north of 
Monroe. The vein matter is cellular quartz, carrying galena, pyrite, 
and chalcopyrite. There are three veins varying in thickness from 
one to four feet. Assays show from $6.00 to $13.00 per ton. The 
I,ong mine is near the Crowell and the ores are similar. The Moore 
mine is three miles southeast of the Long. The quartz vein is stated 
to be five feet in thickness, with a four inch pay streak of calcite 
following the hanging wall. The ore contains besides free gold, 
galena, blende, chalcopyrite and pyrite. The Stewart mine is one 
and a half miles southwest of the Moore. There are three parallel 
ore belts, from a few inches to five feet in width. In general, there 
are numerous narrow ore seams; the ore contains pyrite and galena. 
Assays show values from $6.00 per ton and upwards. Other mines 
in the vicinity are the Lemmonds, New South, Crump and Battle- 

There are a number of mines in the neighborhood of Indian 
Trail, which are apparently located in two parallel series of veins 

78 North Carowna and its Resources. 

about one half mile apart, comprising in the first or western group 
the Henry Phifer and Fox Hill mines; and in the second the Black, 
Smart, Secrest and Thomas Hemby. About two miles south of 
Indian Trail is situated a group of mines comprising the Moore Hill, 
Falger Hill, Davis, Phifer, Lewis, Hemby and Harkness. This zone 
of auriferous schists is about three miles in length and one-half mile 
in width. For a distance of two miles there is an almost unbroken line 
of pits and shallow shafts. The gold is not uniformly diffused, but is 
carried mostly in narrow parallel seams, rarely more than one or two 
inches in thickness. The ore bodies as a whole, are from one to six feet 
wide. Assays show from $3.00 to $16.00 per ton of gold and silver. 

The Bonnie Bell Mine is one and a half miles north of Potter's 
Station. The general width of the ore bearing belt is stated to be 
fourteen feet, consisting of argillaceous schists intersected by small 
quartz veinlets. 

The Howie Mine is about one mile west of the Bonnie Bell. The 
ore bearing formation extends over a width of four hundred feet. 
Within this belt are as many as eight so-called "veins" or ore seams, 
varying from eighteen inches to sixteen feet in width. The ore 
seams run through a wide range of values. The average yield in the 
mill at one time was $13.00 per ton. 

(3). The Igneous belt lies on the west side of the Slate belt; 
the formation consists of massive igneous plutonic rocks, extending 
across the slate in a southwesterly direction, and having a width of 
from fifteen to thirty miles. It includes the greater portion of Guil- 
ford, Davidson, Rowan, Cabarrus and practically the whole of Meck- 
lenburg counties. The area of the auriferous portion, however, is 
scarcely more than one thousand square miles. 

The auriferous quartz veins, which are found in these rocks, are 
the fillings of undoubted fissures. The gold ores are often cuprifer- 
ous and rarely contain lead or zinc. 

The mines in Guilford county lie to the south and southwest of 
Greensboro. They carry highly cupriferous ores as a rule, and have 
been worked both for gold and copper. 

The Hodges Hill mine is six miles southeast from Greensboro 
and has a vein from six inches to twelve feet in width. The gold is 
distributed unequally through quartz siderite and chalcopyrite, the ore 
assaying from $1.00 to $40.00 per ton. The Fisher Hill and Millis 
Hill mines are five to six miles south of Greensboro. Fifteen veins 
are reported on the property, one system running north and south, 
and a second northeast and southwest. The ore bodies vary from four 
inches to ten feet in thickness. The ores are cupriferous. 

Gold, Silver and Copper. 79 

The Fentress mine is nine miles south of Greensboro. The 
deepest shaft is four hundred feet deep. The ore body varies from 
one to thirteen feet in width. The ores are chiefly sulphurets and 
the veinstone is quartz and siderite. The Garden Hill mine, three 
miles east of Jamestown, has a vein some three feet in width, the 
gangue being quartz and brown ore. It has been worked for a diotance 
of five thousand feet along its course the deepest shaft being two 
hundred and fifty-eight feet in vertical depth. Some of the ores 
carried as high as twenty-five per cent, copper, and ran $3.00 to 
$10.00 per ton in gold. The North State mine, two miles west of 
Jamestown, has a vein two to twenty feet wide, traced by its outcrop 
some three miles. Other mines in this county are the Lindsay, Deep 
River, Jack's Hill, Twin, Beason, Harland, Beard, Vickery, 
Lander, &c. 

The Lalor mine in Davidson county is two miles southeast from 
Thomasville. There are three shafts, the deepest of which is one 
hundred and forty feet vertical. The vein carries iron and copper 
sulphurets. Other mines in the vicinity are the Kureka, Loflin and 

In Rowan county a group of mines is found to the southwest of 
Salisbury, from two to nine miles distant. Among the principal 
ones are the Hartman, Yadkin, Negus, Harrison Hill, Southern 
Belle, Goodman, Randleman and Roseman. The workings of these 
mines have been comparatively shallow, 160 feet being the deepest so 
far as records go. 

Another and more important group of mines situated three to 
seven miles east and southeast of Salisbury, includes the four follow- 
ing: The New Discovery mine was worked to a depth of one hundred 
feet. The Dunn's Mt. mine has three veins. Work has been done to 
a depth of one hundred and ninety feet. The Reimer mine has been 
opened by three shafts, the deepest of which is one hundred and 
ninety-three feet. The average width of the fissure is three and 
one-half feet. The veinstone averaging this width, is quartz, and 
carries ten per cent, sulphurets, mainly pyrite. Ore probably 
averages $5.00 to $6.00 per ton, though some assays run very high. 
The Bullion mine is one and a half miles from the Reimer. A seven 
foot vein is reported at a depth of ninety feet, which runs from $7.00 
to $16.00 per ton. 

Another group of mines is situated eight to ten miles southeast 
of Salisbury. Among these are the Gold Knob, Dutch Creek, Atlas 
and Bame, There are about one hundred localities in Rowan known 
to be auriferous. 

8o North Carolina and its Resources. 

The Phoenix mine in Cabarrus county, is seven miles southeast 
of Concord. There are three parallel veins, two hundred and one 
thousand feet apart. The main Phoenix vein, which has been traced 
for twenty-one hundred feet on the surface and sunk upon to a depth 
of four hundred and twenty-five feet, varies from one to three feet in 
width. The filling of the fissure is quartz, carrying from three to 
sixty per cent, of sulphurets accompanied by barite, calcite and 
siderite. The shaft extends to a depth of four hundred and twenty 
five feet. The mill yield of the ores was about $10.00 per ton, with 
about $7.50 in the sulphurets. The ores also contain one and a half 
per cent, to three per cent, of copper. The extraction of gold by 
chlorination was ninety to ninety-five per cent, of the whole. The 
Tucker mine is one mile south of the Phoenix. The vein averages 
eight inches, and the ore carries about $15.00 per ton. The main 
shaft was 175 feet deep. Other mines in the vicinity are the Barrier, 
Faggart, Furness, Gibb and Quaker City. 

The Reed mine is ten miles southeast of Concord. It is of 
special interest as being the site of the earliest recorded discovery of 
gold in North Carolina. The placer deposits have produced many 
famous and valuable nuggets. One nugget recently found there 
(April, 1896,) weighed twenty pounds, seven ounces and six dwts. 
The auriferous quartz veins are confined to a large greenstone dike 
and are from four inches to three feet in thickness. 

Gold is probably as widely diffused in Mecklenburg as in any 
other county in the central part of the State. The productive area 
covers about six hundred square miles, within which are well nigh 
one hundred mines. About half a dozen of these are now worked, 
but only two or three with vigor. Among the many mines in Mecklen- 
burg are the following: Davidson, Blake, Point Clarke, Parks, St. 
Catherine, Rudisil, Smith and Palmer, McDonald, F. Wilson, Howell, 
Trotter, Carson, Taylor, Isenhour and others. 

The Rudisil mine is one mile south of Charlotte; has a vein 
fissure fifty feet wide, with two ore bodies or pay streaks, from two 
to six feet in thickness, one on either wall. Dov/n to the water level 
the ores are rich and easily treated. Below that level they are 
refractory, containing iron and copper pyrites. The lowest level is at 
three hundred and fifty feet. Three ore shoots have been explored 
and worked from thirty to one hundred feet in length. Assays of 
the ores show: 

Gold per ton $24.80 $29.97 $36.18 $45-47 $72-35 

Silver trace .19 .13 trace trace. 

$24.80 I30.16 $36.31 $45-47 $72.35- 

Gold, Silver and Copper. 8i 

The St. Catherine mine is in the northern extension of the 
Rudisil lode. It has been worked to a depth of four hundred and 
sixty feet. Below two hundred and fifty f-^et there are several large 
shoots of low grade ore. The occurrence may be briefly stated as a 
series of obscurely paralled seams of slate, with quartzose ore bodies 
two to six feet in thickness between them. Assays show: 

Sulphuretted Ores. 

Gold, per ton $35-i4 I52.i9 $72.41 

Silver 1.14 .5,5 .39 

$36.28 $52-74 j72.8o 

The Clark mine is two and a half miles west of Charlotte. 
There are two vein systems, the northeast and southwest running 
system was worked to a depth of seventy feet, for a distance of one 
thousand two hundred feet along the strike. The east and west 
running system was worked to a depth of seventy-eight feet. Assays 
show from ^5.00 to $30.00 per ton. 

A second group of mines is found five to ten miles west of Char- 
lotte, embracing the Hays, McGee, Brawley, Frazer, Hipps, Campbell, 
Todd, Arlington, Capps, McGinn, Means, Bennett, Stephen, Wilson, 
Gibson, Neal, Troutman, Prim, Abernathy, Alexander, Dunn, Sloan, 
McCorkle Cathey and others. 

At the Stephen Wilson mine there are ten well defined veins, but 
only two of these have been worked. Vein No. 2, is from two to 
three feet wide. The ores carry iron and copper pyrites. Assays 
show ores to range from $1.00 to $156 per ton. 

The Capps mine has two convergent veins, the Capps and the 
Jane, each probably three thousand feet or more in length. The out- 
crop of the vein at many points, still shows a width of twenty to 
tv>^enty-five feet. The greatest depth worked is one hundred 
and thirty feet, but drill holes penetrated to a depth of one hundred 
and forty feet where the vein is shown to be twenty feet diameter, 
assaying from $6.00 to $7.00 per ton. There are four well known ore 
bodies or shoots. Assays of the good ore from the third ore shoot 
showed from $11.00 to as high as $130.00 per ton. The McGinn 
mine adjoin the Capps. It is situated on three veins, the Jane, the 
Copper and an unexplored vein. The Jane vein has been vv-orked to 
a depth of one hundred and fifty feet, and the ore body v/as something 
like thirty-five feet wide, the ore ranging from $3 00 to $100.00 per 
ton. The copper vein has been worked for copper ores to a depth of 
about one hundred and ten feet. The ores range from $6.00 to $14.0'' 
per ton. 


82 North Carolina and its Resources. 

At the Dunn mine there are two shafts sixty and ninety feet deep, 
which have explored three or four bodies of ore composed of silicified 
slates, and having an aggregate thickness of about twelve feet. Assays 
show from $8.00 to $30.00 per ton. 

A third group of mines is found five to seven miles north of 
Charlotte, including the Henderson, Ferris, Hunter and others. The 
Henderson mine has been worked to a longitudinal one hundred feet. 
Three bodies of ore were worked from it, varying from one and one- 
half to four feet in thickness. At the Ferris mine there are several 
veins, the Garris vein, two to five feet thick, being the principal one 
now worked, is entered by two shafts, ninety and one hundred and 
twenty feet deep respectively. The ore consists of quartz seams up 
to twelve inches in thickness in a slaty gangue. 

A fourth group of mines located in Providence township, some 
five to ten miles southeast of Charlotte, embraces among others the 
Hunter, Fredinick and Ray mines. At the Ray mine there are five 
veins with an aggregate length of four miles. The Ray vein, six to 
eight inches thick, the best known, has been opened by six shafts, the 
deepest being two hundred and fifty feet. The ore consists of com- 
pact sulphurets. 

The Pioneer Mills group of mines of Cabarrus county extends 
into the southeastern part of Mecklenburg county. The Johnson, 
Stinson, Rhea, Maxwell, Simpson and Black mines belong here. In 
Clear Creek township, ten to twelve miles southeast of Charlotte, is 
another group of mines, comprising the Brafiford, Ellington and Sur- 
face Hill. 

(4). Kings Mountain belt occupies an area of indefinite and 
imperfectly knovv^n boundaries, adjoining the Igneous belt on the west. 
The principal counties embraced here are Gaston, lyincoln, Catawba, 
Davie and Yadkin. The country rocks are chrystalline schists and 
gneisses, and isolated bodies of siliceous limestone. 

The Kings Mountain mine in Gaston county, is one and a-half 
miles south of Kings Mountain village. The ore is a mixture of 
siliceous limestone and quartz, and exists in lenticular chimneys, five 
of which have been exploited thus far. In length they are about one 
hundred feet and width twenty feet. The deepest shaft is three 
hundred and twenty feet. The present average value of the ores is 
said to be from I4.00 to $6.oc per ton The Caledonia mine is four 
miles east of the Kings Mountain. The ore bodies consist of masses 
of chloritic and sericitic schists, intermixed with pyrite and chalco- 
pyrite. The width of the ore bearing ground is from eight to ten feet. 
The ores are low grade, running from $3.00 to $5.00 per ton. The 

Gold, Silver and Copper. 83 

I,ong Creek mine is six miles northwest of Dallas. There are three 
veins, the Asbury, Dixon and McCarter Hill. The Asbury, where 
worked, was from six to eight feet wide; opened to a depth of one 
hundred and forty feet. The Dixon has been worked by shallow 
pits, the thickness of the vein being a little over three feet. The 
McCarter Hill vein has been entered by three shafts, and sloped to a 
depth of one hundred and sixty feet in the ore shoot, which has a 
width of four to six feet. The assay value of the ore mined is stated 
at $8.00 per ton. 

Other localities in Gaston county are the Rumfeldt, Duffie, Derr, 
Rhyne, Burrell, Wells, Oliver, Farrar and other mines. 

In Lincoln the best known localities are the Burton, Hoke and 
Graham mines. 

The Suford mine in Catawba county, is four and a-half miles 
southeast of Catawba village. Some twenty acres of ground here are 
covered with auriferous quartz, and the soil is also auriferous. The 
schists and gneisses are penetrated by seams of auriferous quartz, 
which run in everj^ direction. 

Other mines are the McCorkle, Kngland, Rufty, Abernathy, &c. 

In Davie county are the Butler, Callahan Mountain, Isaac Allen 
and other mines of minor importance. 

In Yadkin county the only noteworthy locality is the Dixon 
mine, eight miles southeast of Yadkinville. The vein is quartz and 
shows a thickness of four feet on the outcrop; it pinches and swells 
spasmodically. The ore is supposed to run something like $7.00 per ton. 

(5). The South Mountain belt proper comprises an area of 
about three hundred square miles, extending from Morganton to Ruth- 
erfordton, and covering portions of Burke, McDowell and Rutherford 

The auriferous quartz veins of this district are true fissure veins, 
and vary in thickness from a mere line to four feet, the majority are 
from less than one to three inches thick. These veins appear to be 
concentrated in aggregates along certain parallel belts or zones, of 
which there are five. (i). The Morganton belt passing through 
Morganton and along I^ittle Silver creek to North Muddy creek. 
(2). The Huntsville belt, passing over the southern end of Huntsville 
Mountain. (3). The Pilot Mountain belt, passing over Hall's Knob, 
White's Knob, Pilot Mountain, Brackettown and Vein Mountain, to 
and beyond the Second Broad river. (4). The Golden Valley 
belt, passing across the upper end of Golden Vallej^ and crossing 
Cane and Camp creeks to the Second Broad river. (5). The Idler 
Mine belt, about three miles north of Rutherfordton. 

84 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The maximum breadth in a north and south direction across the 
ore bearing formation as a whole is about seventeen miles. The 
great majority of these veins are, of course, too narrow to be profita- 
bly worked individually, on any regular mining scale. When the 
ground admits the whole formation, which is usually decomposed to 
considerable depths, may be undermined and washed down in sluices, 
and thence to the mill for battery treatment and amalgamation. 
Some of the large quartz veins have been opened by shafts and under- 
ground drifts, as at the Vein Mountain and Idler mines. However, no 
vein mining of any magnitude has been prosecuted in the district. If, 
as reported, there are regular bodies of ore here, ranging from one and 
a-half to three feet in width and running from $5.00 to $15.00 per ton, 
these should form the basis of profitable mining enterprises. 

The placer deposits form by far the most important resources of 
the precious metals in this district. They are of three general classes: 
(i). The gravel beds of the streams and adjoining bottomlands. (2). 
The gulch and hillside deposits, or the accumulations due to secular 
disintegration and motion, and (3), the upper decomposed layer of 
the country rock itself, the rotton rock in place. In the first two 
classes the deposits are from a few inches to several feet in thickness. 
In the third class the thickness in the decomposed rock layer, carrying 
the small auriferous quartz veins, is very variable, from a few feet to 
as much as one hundred and fifty feet. 

The distribution of the stream deposits is very general along the 
bottoms, highlands and ridges drained by the streams of the region, 
and the centers of operation are at Brindletown, Brackettown and Vein 
Mountain. At the larger mines, hydraulicking is employed, under a 
pressure of fifty to two hundred feet, with twelve inch mains and one 
and one-half inch nozzle. The hj^draulic elevator has also been used 
successfully. The numerous mountain streams afford a fairly good 
and constant supply of water for mining purposes. There are several 
long ditch and flume levies in the region; one of these is over ten 
miles in length. 

The Handcock mine, in Burke county, is a placer digging at 
the foot of Hall's Knob. The thickness of the gravel bed is one and 
one-half to two feet, and that of the overlay twenty-five feet. A 
rough estimate of one of the pits showed a yield of fourteen cents 
per cubic yard. The Carolina Queen mine is situated on the north- 
eastern slope of White's Knob. A series of narrow quartz veins in the 
tipper decomposed rock layer, has been sluiced over a width of some 
three hundred feet, and to a maximum depth of fifty feet. The J. C 
Mills tract, at Brindletown, covers a very large territory, and is one of 

Gold, Silver and Copper. 85 

the most famous localities in the South Mountain region, a large 
amount of gold having been obtained here since the first discovery in 
1828. From Pilot Mountain and along its lower slopes, a number of 
gravel channels radiate in all directions. Some of these, as the White 
Bank and the Magazine mines have been worked as high as water could 
be obtained, but a large amount of virgin ground still remains that has 
not been worked. The total length of the several ditch lines on this 
property is about twenty miles. The head obtained at the mines is 
from sixty to two hundred feet. 

The Marion Bullion and Improvement Company, in McDowell 
county, owns an extensive tract at Brackettown. The principal work 
of importance here has been placer mining. In a general way, the 
gulch and hill side deposits range in value from four to fifty cents per 
cubic yard, while the gravel of the bottom land will run as high as 
^i.oo per cubic yard. A number of narrow quartz veins have been 
explored on the property. 

The Vein Mountain property comprises a large tract extending 
from Vein Mountain, on the second Broad river, in a northeasterly 
direction to Huntsville Mountain, a distance of four miles. The 
gulch deposits here have been hydraulicked to points as high as 
water could be obtained by the ditch lines. The value of the gravel 
ranges from five and one-half cents to ^1.25 per cubic yard. A series 
of as many as thirty-three parallel auriferous veins, mostly quite 
small, crosses Vein Mountain in a belt not over one-fourth mile wide. 
These veins are mostly only a few inches thick, one of them " the 
Nichols," is in places three feet thick, and has been opened up to a 
depth of one hundred and seventeen feet. Below the water level the 
quartz is impregnated with pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and blende. 
The average mill run of the ore is said to be $15.00 per ton. 

The Idler mine, in Rutherford county, is situated five miles north of 
Rutherfordton . As many as thirteen parallel veins have been explored 
within a distance of half a mile across the strike. The four larger 
veins are known as the Monarch, Alta, Carson and Glendale. The 
last work was done on the Alta vein some three years ago at a depth 
of one hundred and five feet. The thickness of this vein is said to 
average about fifteen inches, and the ore is said to yield in mill tests 
for $10.00 to $30.00 per ton of free gold. The Elwood and Leeds 
mines are situated in the neighborhood. 

The Polk county placer deposits, some 25 miles southwest of 
Rutherfordton, appear to be an extension of the South Mountain belt. 
The better known localities are the Pattie Abrams, Wetherbee, Red 
Springs, Tom Arms, Splawn, Ponder, Riding, L,. A. Mills, Carpen- 

86 North Carolina and its Resources. 

ter, Hamilton, Neal, Maclntire, Double Branch and Prince. These 
all had a good reputation in the past, while the deposits contiguous to 
water lasted, but at present none can be worked on a large scale with- 
out a larger supply of Vv^ater than can be easily obtained. 

The Miller, Scott Hill, Pax Hill and Baker mines in Caldwell 
county, are situated on the waters of Johns river, and might be con- 
sidered as belonging to the South Mountain belt. They are quartz 
veins and have been developed in a small way, though now idle, with 
one or two exceptions. The principal veins are from twelve to twenty- 
four inches wide, and carry besides gold, sulphurets, pyrite, 
galenite, &c. 

(6). The Gap River Creek mine is in the southern part of Ashe 
county on New river. There are three quartz veins of which only 
one, fourteen inches to three feet thick, has been worked to any ex- 
tent. The ore is complex; vitreous copper ore, malachite, chryso- 
colla, chalcopyrite and some pyrite, besides free gold. Assays show: 

Gold per ton $8.62 $34-79 $57-36 

Silver " " 2.26 25.50 14-53 

|;io.88 $60.29 $71-89 

Copper per cent 23.83 

The Boylston mine in Henderson county is situated twelve miles 
west of Hendersonville, on Forge Mountain. There are four princi- 
pal auriferous quartz veins, which are parallel to each other, varying 
in thickness from one to four and a-half feet. The principal work has 
been done on vein No. 2, which has been exploited by shallow shafts, 
drifts and open cuts. The average value of the ore is estimated at 
about $4.00 per ton. 

The gold obtained in Cherokee county is found: (i) in the 
gravel underlying the broad bottoms of Valley river and other 
streams; (2), in the schists and the included quartz stringers or veins 
of the more elevated country bordering these valle3^s; (3), in the iron 
ore beds which skirt Valley river along its whole length, and occur 
with several reduplications or foldings at intervals for several miles 
to the east; (4), in the limestone, which is usually closely associated 
with the iron ore beds, and contains gold in connection with galenite 
and possibly also in quartz veins, which traverse it. 

The placer mines, now worked, are situated in the drift which 
covers the spurs and terminal ridges, especially where they project 
into the bottom lands. 

The schists have not been largely prospected. The iron ore beds 
have not hitherto been regarded as gold bearing, but recent examina- 

Gold, Sil\^r axd Copper. 87 

tions point to the presumption that they frequently are. Assays of 

some of these brown hematite ores have shown from $1.80 to ^10.00 

per ton.* 


The mineralogical character of the iron ores found in the State 
includes magnetite, red hematite, brown hematite (limonite), siderite 
(spathic ore), and black band ores. The first three of these, however, 
constitute the important economic ores in North Carolina. 

In geographical distribution these ore deposits cover considerably 
over half the area of the State, being confined principally to the 
Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions. 

Geologically, the magnetites and red hematites are confined 
almost exclusively to the crystalline rocks. The limonites also occur 
here, as well as in theOcoee rocks of Cherokee and Madison counties. 
Isolated deposits of porous brown hematite are found in the more 
recent formations of the Coastal Plain region. These are the so- 
called "bog ores." Siderite or spathic iron ore occurs as a gangue 
mineral in some of the gold quartz veins in the central part of the 
State, but owing to its limited quantit}-, it is of little economical 
importance for the manufacture of iron. Tlie blackband ores are 
confined to the coal measures of the Triassic rocks in Chatham and 
Moore counties. 

The magnetite, specular and brown hematite ores in the eastern 
part of the crystalline area, in the so-called Gaston ore beds, are 
situated on the Roanoke river, one mile east of Gaston, in Halifax 
county. The ore is red hematite containing some magnetite. There 
are two principal deposits, of which the lower one only has been 
opened, where the thickness exposed was from eighteen to twent}'- 
four inches. It is stated that at low water a width of eight feet of 
ore is visible in the bed of P^.oanoke river. 

Analyses of the better class of ore show:- 

Silica 9.10 to 10.12 f^ Sulphur 0.03 to o.oS% 

Metallic Iron. .. ,49.00 to 58.00% Phosphorus.. .0.005 to 0.050% 

In Granville countj", fourteen miles northwest of Oxford, is a 
series of lenticular bodies of specular hematite, at times partially 
magnetic. Exploratory openings have exposed beds of ore measuring 
as much as twenty-one feet across, and the outcrop has been traced 
for several miles. Analyses of these ores show from 50 to 54 per 

*Note, — For a more detailed description of the gold deposits and mines, see 
Bulleiins 3 and 10, published by the North Carolina Geological Survey. 

88 North Carolina and its Resources. 

cent, of iron, from a trace to 0.9 per cent, sulphur, and from 0.7 to 0.9 
per cent, of phosphorus. 

Small deposits of specular hematite have been found in Person 
and Durham counties, but the ores are rather low grade, being quite 
siliceous and in places high in phosphorus. 

The Chapel Hill mine, in Orange county, is opened on a deposit 
of red hematite, containing a small proportion of magnetite. The 
deepest shaft is seventy-two feet. There are two veins crossing each 
other at an angle of about 60,° and standing nearly vertical. These 
veins are carried in a fine grained ferruginous quartzite, into which the 
ore appears to pass by insensible gradations. The widest portion of 
good ore observed is six to eight feet. Analyses of good ore show: 

Silica 43-04% Sulphur 0.153% 

Metallic Iron 65.77% Pliosphorus 0.170% 

The Ore Hill mines, in Chatham county, about forty miles south- 
east of Greensboro, on the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley railroad, are 
deserving of special attention as being the repositories of considerable 
bodies of brown hematite. The mines were first opened over one 
hundred years ago, during the Revolutionary war, and iron was made 
here by the Sapona Iron Co., during the late civil war. The property 
is at present owned by the North Carolina Steel and Iron Co., of 

The ore is brown hematite, and occurs in a number of veins, 
having more or less regular walls, dipping at steep angles and with 
variable strikes. The ore bodies have been opened by extensive pits 
and a number of shafts and tunnels. Analyses show the ore to vary 
from 39 to 60 per cent, metallic iron, and 0.038 to 0.833 P^^ cent, 
phosphorus. The silica is uniformly low from 2 to 7 per cent, and 
the sulphur from 0.05 to 0.34 per cent. It is believed that ores run- 
ning from 45 to 50 per cent, metallic iron, and 0.20 to 0.40 phosphorus 
can be mined here on a large scale for blast furnace use. 

The Titaniferous magnetites in the crystalline rocks of Rocking- 
ham, Guilford and Davidson counties extend from the head waters 
of Abbott's creek in Davidson county, across Forsyth and Guilford 
counties, to the Haw river in Rockingham county, a distance of 
about thirty miles. It consists of two parallel belts, the "Tuscarora' ' 
and the "Shaw," lying some three miles apart. Beyond the Haw 
river thej^ approach each other and are believed to unite in Rocking- 
ham county. The ore is granular, titaniferous magnetite. The 
gangiie is gneiss. Some of the ores coutaiu alumina in the form of 
corundum, becoming in places true emery ores. 






















Iron". 89 

The ore deposits consist of lens-shaped masses, contracting and 
enlarging in thickness from a few inches to six and eight feet. The 
principal bodies which have been worked are estimated to average 
four to five feet in thickness. These ores were worked as early as the 
Revolutionary War in Catalan forges. I^ater the Tuscarora and Dan- 
nemora mines were operated by the North Carolina Centre Iron Com- 
pany. A number of analyses of these ores show: 

Silica 1. 31 

Metalic Iron. .55.06 

Alumina 4.26 

Sulphur trace 

Phosphorus. . .trace 
Titanic Acid. . 13.60 

The magnetite and brown hematite ores in the central part of the 
crystalline area extend across the State in a southwesterly direction 
from Virginia to South Carolina; the principal deposits lie in Stokes, 
Surry, Yadkiu, Davie, Catawba, Lincoln and Gaston counties. 

In the Danbury region, Stokes county, the ores are chiefly mag- 
netite, and have been mined and smelted as long as one hundred 
years ago. They occur in a series of parallel belts, occupying a 
width of about four and a half miles, the outcrops of which have 
been traced over an aggregate distance of twenty miles along the 
strike. The ccuntrj^ rocks are talcose, micaceous and quartzitic 
schists and gneisses. The ores may be divided into three classes: 
(i), hard ore; (2), soapstone ore; (3), sand ore. The " hard ore " is a 
compact massive magnetite. The "soapstone ore" is composed of 
magnetite grains disseminated in a soft talcose matrix. This is the 
so-called " Catawbarite " of Lieber. The "sand ore" consists of 
granular magnetite in a friable sandy matrix. 

Among the most important localities in this region are: the 
William Nelson mine, four and one-half miles northwest of Danbury. 
The ore was originally mined for the Clements forge built near here 
in 1790. The ore is of the hard variety, and the thickness of the 
body as now visible is three to eight feet. Analj'ses of select ores 

Silica 17.83% Sulphur 0.023% 

Metallic Iron 53.24% Phosphorus 0.052% 

The Lee Nelson mine is three and one-half miles northwest of 
Danbury. The ore is of the soapstone class. The thickness of the 
deposit varies from three to nine feet. Analj^ses of good ore show: 

Silica 21.47% Sulphur 0.006% 

Metallic Iron 47.23% Phosphorus o.oSi% 















90 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The Rogers mine, two and one-half miles north of Danbury, was 
at one time the largest and best developed mine in the section. The 
main shaft is sixty feet in depth, and the ore in the bottom is stated 
to be eight feet in thickness. It is of the hard variety. The gangue 
is chloritic and micaceous. Analj'-ses show: 

Silica 20.00 

Metallic Iron. 52. 86 

Sulphur 0.0S4 

Phosphorus.. 0.016 

The Pepper mine is one and a half miles east of the Rogers. The 
ore is a hard, granular magnetite. An analysis shows 44 per cent, 
metallic iron and 0.033 per cent, phosphorus. The thickness of the 
ore body is stated to be six to eight feet. 

The Isaac Fagg mine is four miles northwest of Danbury. The 
ore is of the sandy class, which occurs in seams of variable and 
irregular thickness, reaching four feet. Analyses show from 42 to 48 
per cent, of iron, and from 0.079 to o. 11 7 per cent, of phosphorus. 

Other mines in the vicinity are the Becky Nelson, Cherrytree, 
Carlin, Simmons, &c. All prospects point to the existence of large 
and important deposits of magnetite ore. The nearest railroad point 
to Danbury is Walnut Cove, eleven and a half miles distant, at the 
junction of the Norfolk and Western and the Cape Fear and Yadkin 
Valley railroads. 

The magnetite ores of Surry and Yadkin counties consist of 
magnetite grains disseminated through mica schist and gneiss. The 
purer ores are alm^ost free from the gneiss, and pass from that degree 
of concentration by intermediate gradation steps into gneiss containing 
very little magnetite. The economic value of such leaner ores will 
depend largely on the cost of magnetic separation. The rock is 
usually decomposed to considerable depths and is therefore well 
adapted to easy and cheap crushing. Among the more important 
localities are: 

The Ferris mine, two miles north of Pilot Mountain P. O., two 
beds of ore, each about two feet thick, separated by one foot of mica 
schist, are reported here; containing from four to sixty-one per cent, 
of iron and 0.05 to 0.O9 per cent, of phosphorus. 

H3^att's mine is seven miles west of Pilot Mountain P. O. Ore 
was formerly mined here for a distance of one thousand feet along the 
strike, to a m.aximum depth of twenty feet. The thickness of the bed 
is stated to be six to eight feet. An analysis of the ore after it had been 
washed for the forge, showed sixty-three per cent, of iron and 0.03 
per cent, of phosphorus. 

Iron. 91 

The Williams mine is four miles northwest of Rockford. At 
the Stanley mine, ten miles from Elkin, the ore is limonite and red 
hematite, having a width of from four to fourteen feet and it contains 
fifty four per cent, of iron and only a trace of phosphorus. 

The Hobsen ore beds in the northern part of Yadkin county, 
have yielded considerable amounts of magnetite ore for the old forges. 
Analysis show from forty to sixty-seven per cent, of iron, and from 
a trace to 0.04 per cent, of phosphorus. 

To the north and south of Mocksville, Davie county, are several 
localities where magnetic ores are found, but nothing definite is 
known of the extent of the deposits, excepting some of them carry 
from eight to ten per cent, of titanic acid. 

One of the most important belts of ore in this central part of the 
State extends from Iron station, in I^incoln countj^, in a northeasterly 
direction to the Catawba river, in Catawba county, a distance of 
some twenty miles. The ores are magnetite, and were at one time 
extensively mined and worked in the primitive Catawba forges and 
charcoal blast furnaces. The country rocks are micaceous and 
quartzitic schists, in which the ores occur in lenticular deposits. 

The principal ores of the old ore banks were: The Big Ore 
bank, the Brevard, Stonewall and Robinson banks in Lincoln county; 
and the Morrison, Tillman, Deep Hollow, Mountain Creek, Aber- 
nathy, Little John and Powell banks in Catawba county. 

The Big Ore bank is four miles north of Iron Station. The 
"Eugene " shaft, one hundred feet deep, here exposed three parallel 
ore bodies, by cross-cutting; respectively eighteen, twelve and eight 
feet in width; the intervening schists being from three to four feet 
thick. Analysis of these ores show from fifty-eight to sixty-eight 
per cent, of iron, from 0.06 to 0.09 per cent, of sulphur, and o.oi to 
0.08 of phosphorus. This bank supplied ore for the Rehaboth, Madi- 
son and Vesuvius furnaces situated close by. 

The Powell bank is four and one-half miles southeast of Catawba 
station and the ores were smelted in the Catawba Valley forge. The 
main bed, opened to a depth of thirty feet, was three to four feet thick. 
An analysis shows metallic iron 64.21 per cent, and phosphorus 
0.009 P^i" cent. 

A similar zone of ores, and of equal importance to the above, 
occurs in Gaston county. It consists of four parallel belts: (i). That 
on which the Ormond mine is situated. (2). Little Mountain. (3). 
Yellow Ridge. (4). Crowders and King's Mountain. 

The Ormond mine, situated one mile west of Bessemer City, 
has probably been more extensively worked than any other iron mine 

North Carolina and its RESouRc:es. 

(the Cranberry excepted) in the State. The character of the ore is 
Taried, practically speaking there are four classes: (i). Hard block 
ore, with less than five per cent, water, and hence to be classified as 
turgite. (2). Bluish black powder ore. (3). Porous brown hematite 
or limonite, and (4). hard massive ore, slightly magnetic. All of 
these ores are slightly manganiferous at times. 

The ores occur in lenticular bodies in the schistose and gneissic 
country rock. In length, the ore formation is continuous over twenty- 
four hundred feet; transversely to the strike, the ore bodies occupy a 
width varying from fifty to one hundred feet. As to the size of the 
separate lenses, they vary in thickness from less than three to more 
than twenty-eight feet. Some analyses show: 

Silica 9.72 2.4S 4.27 1.55 

Metallic Iron.. .47.10 52.39 64.56 68.03 65.35 

Sulphur 0.048 .... .... 

Phosphorus 0-057 0.079 0.004 0.036 0.007 

The Little Mountain mine is situated three-fourths of a mile 
fe"om the Ormond. The ore is brown hematite, occurring in a distinct 
vein structure between parallel walls of siliceous slate. The gangue 
is quartz. On the outcrop the ore is very lean, the quartz predom- 
inating; but at the bottom of the sixty-foot shaft the quartz has 
nearly disappeared. In thickness the vein varies from three to ten 
feet. Analyses show. 

Silica 6.67 7.90 11.96 

Metallic Iron.... 54.32 53.75 52.70 

Sulphur o.oii .... 

Phosphorus 0.017 0.045 0.022 

In the Yellow Ridge belt are the Costner, Ellison, Ferguson, 
Frelenwider, and Yellow Ridge mines. These ores are magnetites 
somewhat similar in character to those of lyincoln and Catawba coun- 
ties. At times they are rather high in sulphur contents. The mines 
were worked in former years to supply the local forges, and the 
maximum depth reached was probably one hundred and twenty feet. 
In thickness the ore bodies are stated to be usually five to seven feet> 
Analj'ses of the ores show: from twenty-seven to sixty-one per cent, 
of iron, from 0.007 to 0.07 per cent, of phosphorus, and from a trace 
to 1.5 per cent, of sulphur. 

The ores of Crowder's Mountain are limonites and magnetites^ 
which have been but superficially explored; so that very little satis- 
factory information can be given concerning the value of the deposits. 

In the western part of Catawba and Lincoln, and in eastern 
Cleveland are several occurrences of magnetite ore, usually slightly 

Iron. 9g 

titaniferous. Such are the Barringer and Forney mines in Catawba 

Brown hematite ores occur in the cyanitic hydro-mica schists of 
eastern Caldwell and Burke, and western Catawba and lyincoln 
counties, but the deposits appear to be rather unimportant from an 
economical standpoint. 

The magnetite and brown and red hematite ores of the Blue 
Ridge mountains and their eastern foot hills may be considered next. 

Along the crests and slopes of the Blue Ridge in Watauga 
cotmty, there is a zone of schistose red hematite of considerable 
purity. The ore is mineralogically martite schist, and the 
enclosing rocks are grayish, greenish and pinkish siliceous schists, 
of probable eruptive origin. The principal locality is at Bull Ruffin, 
seven miles southeast of Boon. The developments are insufficient to 
establish the true size and extent of the ore bodies, although in 
places the beds appear to reach five feet in thickness. Similar occur- 
rences are found near Blowing Rock, and in a northeast direction to 
near the Virginia State line. Various analyses of this "martite" ore 
show from forty-four to sixty-eight per cent, of iron, and very low in 
both sulphur and phosphorus. 

In the central and northern parts of Caldwell county are several 
occurrences of titaniferous magnetite, the most noteworthy one being 
on the Curtis farm, sixteen miles north of I,enoir, in Richlands cove, 
where the ore body attains an apparent thickness as great as forty-five 
feet, and the ore contains from tweuty-eight to thirty-seven per cent, 
of iron, and from fifteen to thirty-six per cent, of titanic acid. 

The magnetite specular and brown hematite ores in the crystalline 
area v^'est of the Blue Ridge mountains, comprise an area of over 
5,000 square miles v/hich is the repository of some of the most 
important magnetic ore deposits in the State. 

The so-called Little River belt crosses the State line from 
Grayson county, Virginia, into the northeastern part of Alleghany 
county, North Carolina, and continues southwest across that county. 
The ore consists of magnetite in a talcose gangue. It is often slightly 
titaniferous (2 per cent, to 5 per cent). 

There are in Ashe county three main belts of magnetite ore; (i). 
the Ballou or River belt; (2). The Red Hill or Poison Branch belt. 
(3). The Titaniferous belt. 

The Ballou or River belt is the most easterl_, and crops out along 
the North Fork of New river. There are two parallel outcrops about 
half a mile apart. A series of old forge diggings extends from Piney 
creek to New river. The thickness of the ore beds varies from 

94 North Carolina and its Resourceis. 

thirty feet down. The more prominent localities are Weaver's, 
Halsey's, I^unceford's and Brown's ore beds. Many of these ores are 
soft, being in a micaceous gangue, and are hence susceptible of great 
improvement by washing, or better still, by magnetic concentration. 
Thus, some of this soft ore running 43.05 per cent, metallic iron, has 
been brought up to 67.35 per cent, by washing. 

The Ballon ore bed is probably one of the most important in the 
county. It is situated on the North Fork near the mouth of Helton 
creek. The ore is a hard, fine granular magnetite, disseminated in a 
gangue of hornblende, epidote and quartz. So far as exposed 
the thickness of the bed is twelve feet, dipping 37° southeast. 
Analyses of this ore show: 

Silica 17.88 to 20.79 Sulphur 0.02 to 0.002 

Metallic Iron. 50. 68 to 45.50 Phosphorus. . . 0.009 to 0.024 

The Red Hill or Poison Branch belt crosses from the north- 
western corner of Alleghany into the northeastern corner of Ashe 
county, and extends thence in a southwesterly direction a distance of 
some ten miles. Among the more important localities are: The I^ee 
and John L,. Pugh farms, on Ben's branch, where ore bodies from two 
to forty feet in thickness have been exposed. The ore is friable 
granular magnetite associated with hornblende schists. At times it 
is manganiferous. Analyses show from 43 to 45 per cent, of iron, 
from a trace to 4.6 per cent, of manganese, and is low in both sulphur 
and phosphorus. 

The Black property is situated on the southwest slope of Helton 
Knob. The ore is very friable, and was on this account much prized 
by the forge people. 

The Belvins Ore beds are situated on the western foot hills of 
Helton Knob. The ore is a hard magnetite in a gangue of hornblende 
and epidote. The thickness of the principal exposed bed is thirty- 
five feet, with three streaks of ore, aggregating fourteen feet in thick- 
ness, and containing thirty-two to thirty-six per cent, of iron and 
very small quantities of sulphur and phosphorus. 

The Red Hill deposits are directly to the southwest from the 
above. A number of shallow openings here have uncovered a rather 
complex and widely distributed ore formation, consisting in places of 
mixed masses of soft ore, hard ore and gangue, of great width, and in 
others of narrow bodies — five feet, &c. — of hard ore; pyrite is present 
in considerable quantities at times. Analyses show the ore to contain 
firom 20 to 51 per cent, of iron, from 0.07 to 1.6 of sulphur, and from 
0.004 to I.I per cent, of phosphorus. 

IROX. 95 

The McClure's Knob deposits are on the opposite side of Helton 
creek from Reo Hill. A number of openings expose a series of 
parallel ore beds, distributed over a width of some two thousand feet 
northwest and southeast, across the strike. None of these, however, 
so far as developed show a thickness over three feet. 

The Poison Branch ore bed is situated about one mile southwest 
from McClure's Knob. The thickness of the ore body is stated to be 
six feet. It is composed of hard magnetite ore in hornblende gangue, 
the ore containing from forty-five to sixty-one per cent, of iron, and 
being low in both sulphur and phosphorus. 

The Piney Creek ore bed is situated on Piney creek, one and a 
half miles above its mouth. The ore is course granular magnetite in 
a matrix of brownish black manganese oxide, It is exceptionally 
pure and practically free from gangue matter. The thickness of the 
upper part of the bed is six and one-half feet, beneath which is about 
one foot of soft highly manganiferous ore. The bed is probably even 
thicker than this, its full extent not being uncovered. Analyses show 
from fifty to sixtj^-five per cent, of iron, from 0.6 to 9.6 per cent, of 
manganese, and being low in both sulphur and phosphorus. A very 
similar ore occurs at the Francis mine, a half mile southwest from 
the above. The greatest thickness of the bed is ten feet. The ores 
carry a considerable amount of hygroscopic water, as high as forty- 
two per cent. 

The Graybeal ore beds, still further to the southwest, carry some 
similar ores to the Piney Creek, and Francis beds, the main bed, 
however, consists of hard, solid magnetite, some twenty feet in thick- 
ness, analyses of which show; fifty-five to sixty-three per cent, of iron 
and 0.005 to 0.009 ps^ cent, of phosphorus. 

The Horse Creek bed is one mile above the mouth of Horse 
creek, the ore is manganiferous magnetite, and the deposit is at least 
six feet in thickness. Analyses show from fifty-four to sixty-two per 
cent, of iron, three to seven per cent, of manganese and 0.006 to 0.02 
per cent, of phosphorus. 

The Wilcox ore bed is one-quarter mile northwest of Dredsen 
P. O. The ore is magnetite and epidote hornblende gangue. The 
width of the outcrop is tv/elve feet. Analysis shows the ore to 
contain fifty-three per cent, of iron, and 0.02 per cent, of phosphorus. 

The Titaniferous ore belt is the most northwestern belt of import- 
ance in Ashe county. It starts near the Virginia line and extends 
southwesterly to Helton creek, a distance of tw^o and one-half miles. 
The ores are titaniferous magnetites. The analyses show from forty- 
five to fifty-eight per cent, of iron, from five to nine per cent, of 

g6 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

titanic acid, and very little phosphorus and sulphur. The important 
points are: The William Young farm, one-fourth mile south of the 
Virginia line, where an outcrop of ore is found covering a width of at 
least twenty-five feet. On the adjoining McCarter farm, a bed from 
nine to twelve feet in width has been opened; and a half mile nearly 
west, another bed three feet in thickness. The Banguess ore bed, 
one-half mile south of McCarter's, shows five feet of ore which has 
a red color and streak. The gangue is epidote, feldspar and quartz. 

The Pennington property is about one mile slightly south of 
west from the Banguess. The ore bed is eight feet wide. On the 
Kirby place, near Sturgill P. O., a body of magnetite ore about 
fifteen feet in width has been uncovered, which is low in titanic acid, 
containing only a fractional per cent. 

In the extreme eastern portion of Ashe county the gossan ores 
(brown hematite) of the Ore Knob copper lode, bear mention. The 
thickness of this lode is about ten feet, and the gossan extends to an 
average depth of forty-five feet. 

The principal magnetite and specular ore deposits of Mitchell 
county are situated in the northern and northwestern parts on the 
slopes of Roan, Iron, Unaka and Pumpkin Patch mountains. Four 
belts maybe recognized: 

(i). The Bald Mountain Specular belt. 

(2). The Cranberry Magnetite belt. 

(3). The Roan Mountain Titaniferous belt. 

(4). The Pumpkin Patch Titaniferous belt. 

The Bald Mountain Specular belt consists of a heavy and exten- 
sive outcrop of specular red hematite on the head waters of Spring, 
Beans, Pigeon Roost and Hollow Poplar creeks, very near the Tenn- 
essee line. The ore is fine grained and compact; near the outcrop it 
is silicious, but becomes purer and almost free from gangue matter in 
depth. Its width is stated to be ten feet. The outcrop has been 
traced over a distance of seven miles. An analysis shows 52 per 
cent, of iron, and 0.09 per cent, of phosphorus. 

The Cranberry Magnetite belt contains by far the most important 
deposits of ore in this entire region, and has been most extensively 
developed. The eastern extremity is at Cranberry in the 
northern part of Mitchell county; thence it extends north 34° 
west for two and a-half miles to the Tennessee line; crossing 
the same it passes through the southern portion of Carter 
county, Tenn., deflecting gradually v/estward and then south- 
westward, to the head waters of Tiger creek, recrossing into North 
Carolina, and continuing in a southwesterly direction to the Toe 

Iron. 97 

river, a total distance of some twenty-two miles. The most impor- 
tant development in this belt, if not indeed in the State, is at the 
Cranberry mine, at the terminus of 'he East Tennessee and Western 
North Carolina railroad. The ore deposit is an immense lens of 
magnetite, associated with hornblende, pyroxene, epidote, quartz, 
feldspar, calcite, &c. The present workings of the Cranberry mine 
cover about eight acres on the slope of Cranberry ridge, and consists 
of tw^o tunnel openings and four main open cuts in successive levels 
Oi benches. Altogether the ore body has been opened up and 
explored in these main workings about eight huri Ired and seventy- 
five feet in length, by three hundred feet in breadth, by one hundred 
and sixty-five feet in average depth, representing approximately 
1,600,000 cubic yards. At a low estimate, this volume would 
contain 4,800,000 tons of ore material. The ore varies in character 
from very fine grained, dense, massive to soft coarse granular magne- 
tite. Analyses show the ore to vary from forty-five per cent, iron 
(run of mine) to sixty-eight per cent, from selected masses of ore. 
It is well within the Bessemer limit as to both sulphur and phos- 
phorus. The ores are smelted in a small coke furnace situated at the 
mine, and the pig iron is of a special Bessemer grade, averaging less 
than 1. 00 per cent, silicon and 0.025 per cent, phosphorus. It has 
attained a wide reputation for the manufacture of steel. The annual 
production has varied from about four hundred tons to a maximum of 
three thousand two hundred tons. The possibilities of the Cranberry 
mine as an ore producer have never been fairly demonstrated. It is 
without exception the largest deposit of Bessemer ore in the South, 
and its importance and value iu this respect are very great. 

The Iron Mountain ore beds are situated in the western part of 
Mitchell county. Among the principal deposits is the Jenkins mine, 
on Greasy creek, where the ore body is stated to be 18 feet in 
maximum thickness. The general Cranberry belt has been traced 
from the Jenkins place to the Toe river, a distance of eight and a half 

The Roan Mountain Titaniferous belt lies from three to five 
miles south of the Cranberry belt, and generally parallel to it. The 
Titaniferous belt of Pumpkin Patch mountain, north of Bakersville 
in Mitchell county, shows similar ores. 

There is only one locality of note in the magnetite ores of 
Madison county, namely, the Big Ivy or Heck mine, six miles 
north of Alexander, where an ore body some 50 feet in width has been 
exposed. The ore is very similar to that of the Cranberrv 

98 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The Brown Hematite ores of Cherokee county are among the 
most important in the State. The ore beds of value occur in the 
calc schists immediately below the quartzites, and above the marble. 
The principal deposits extend in a northeasterly direction from 
Murphy along Valley river for a distance of some sixteen miles. 
The outcrop is a double one. (i). Extending in a sharp synclinal 
bed underlying the quartzite, in a direction N. 40° K, from the 
Hiwassee river to Mason creek. (2). And in a flat synclinal bed along 
the crest of the low ridge running slightly north of east from 
Vengeance creek to Valley town. In the former the quantity of ore is 
naturally greater, as the members of the synclinal fold dip at steep 
angles, and in all probability the ore extends to considerable depth; 
its thickness is from i to 40 feet. In the latter the ore lies nearly 
flat, on or near the crest of the ridge, and is therefore contracted in 
its dimensions. Present explorations have shown a width of from 40 
to 175 feet, and a thickness of from 8 to 38 feet. 

The ore is everywhere well situated for mining, but most advan- 
tageously in the latter formation, where it can be mined almost ex- 
clusively by stripping and open work. Representative samples of 
these ores show: 

Silica 8.31% 9.08% 

Metallic Iron 54-94 50.02 

Sulphur 0.055 0.712 

Phoaphorus 0.476 1-423 

Similar ores occur in the western part of Madison county.* 



In the production of corundum, North Carolina leads all the 
other States, and indeed, during 1895, nearly all the corundum mined 
in the United States, came from North Carolina. With a single 
exception (Acme mine in Iredell county) the mines in the State which 
have been operated during the past few years, are located in a narrow 
belt of crysolite rock, which extends from Virginia across this State 
into Georgia, between the Blue Ridge and the Great Smoky moun- 
tains. The more important of these mines which have been recently 
operated, are the following: Corundum Hill (Cullasaja) mine and 
Hosea Moses mine in Macon county; Sapphire (Hog Back) mine in 

*NoTE — For more detailed descriptions of the iron ore deposits of the State, 
see Bulletin, No. i, published by the State Geological Survey. 

Corundum. 99 

Jackson county; Behr mine and Buck Creek (CuUakanee) mine in 
Clay county; Carter mine in Madison county, and the Acme mine in 
Iredell county. 

The first of these, the Corundum Hill mine, seven miles south- 
east of Franklin, is not only the best known, but has been the longest 
and most successfully worked of any of these mines. Operations were 
begun here by Col. C. W. Jencks, in 1871; andsince 1878, the annual 
output of this mine has been from two hundred to three hundred tons 
of clean corundum. Dr. H. S. Lucas is the present manager. The first 
mining here was chiefly for gems, and the work was done by hydraulic 
process, the soil and the decayed rock of the surface being washed 
through a series of sluice boxes inclined at a considerable angle. The 
lighter minerals naturally floated ofi", while the corundum and other 
heavy minerals remained in the box. The Hosea Moses mine, on 
Kllijay creek, a few miles north of Corundum Hill, was operated for 
several years by the same company that operated the Corundum Hill 
(Hampden Emery Corundum Co). The force employed at these two 
mines during the past few years has been somewhat variable, but is 
usually from thirty to forty men. 

The Sapphire mines, near the Great Hog Back mountain in the 
southeastern corner of Jackson county, were operated on a consider- 
able scale from 1892, to the latter part of 1893, from fifty to sixty 
men being constantly employed in mining and prospecting. The pro- 
duct in 1893 was over four hundred tons of material, one-fourth of 
which was said to have been nearly pure corundum cr5^stal. 

The Behr mine, five miles east of Hayesville, was opened in 1880. 
A steam cleaning plant was erected at the mine and considerable de- 
velopments and prospecting work was done. 

The Buck Creek mine is also located in the eastern part of Clay 
county. The inaccessibility of this mine has been one of the chief 
difficulties in the way of large mining operations at this point. Nearly 
all the corundum is in massive blocks associated with black horn- 
blende, and this makes it difficult to work, but corundum occurs here 
in large quantities, and one may reasonablj^ expect large mining 
operations here in the near future. 

The Carter mine is located in the southern corner of Madison 
county. The corundum occurs here in considerable quantities asso- 
ciated with spinel, feldspar and other minerals. 

The Acme mine, about three-fourths of a mile west of Statesville, 
was operated in 1893 to the extent of producing about 50 tons of clean 
corundum. Corundum was discovered here about 1875 by Mr. J. A. 
D. Stevenson, but active mining operations were not begun until 1893. 

loo North Carolina and its Resources. 

During the past few j^ears a considerable amount of prospecting 
has been done in the counties west of the Blue Ridge, especially in 
Jackson, Macon and Clay, and several new mines are being opened up 
at the present time. A few miles north of Franklin, on Cowee creek, 
hydraulic mining in search for gem corundum has been carried on 
during i895-'96, on a considerable scale. 


Mica mining in North Carolina has been carried on to a greater 
or less extent daring the past twenty-five years, mainly in the coun- 
ties west of the Blue Ridge. The majority of the mines are located 
in Mitchell, Yancey, Jackson and Macon counties. During the past 
few years the low tariff rate has permitted the importation of large 
quantities of mica from India, and this has had a tendency to decrease 
the North Carolina product, but the yield of these mines during the 
past year (1895) has approximated 36,000 pounds cut mica. Since 
1 891, the industry has received something of a stimulus by the intro- 
duction of the mica mill for the grinding of scrap mica, which prior 
to that date had been regarded as waste product; the quantity of 
ground mica produced has increased considerably since that time. 

The mica occurs usually in the form of large irregular crystals 
from one to three feet in length, and from a few inches to nearly two 
feet in diameter at its greatest width; these crystals are usually 
bedded in a matrix of quartz and feldspar in large irregular veins from 
a few inches to many feet in width, and sometimes traceable along the 
surface of the ground for a half mile or more. Generally in these 
veins, the quartz and feldspar predominate, and sometimes very little 
mica is present. In places, however, the crystals of mica occur in 
abundance, sometimes near the foot-wall, again near the hanging-wall 
and sometimes scattered irregularly through the central portion of 
the vein. The wall rock for these veins is usually either biotite mica 
schists or schistose gneiss. 

Probably the total value of the mica product in North Carolina 
since the beginning of the industry (1868) has not been much short of 
$3,000,000-00, of which the mines of Mitchell and Yancey counties 
have contributed by far the larger part, and nearly all the remainder 
has been produced in Jackson and Macon 


The mining of talc is confined largely to Swain and Cherokee 
counties. The principal deposits which have been worked in the last 



few years being those on the Nan;ahala river at Iiewetts, Swain 
county; and those on the Valley river at Tomotla, eight or ten miles 
north of Murphy, and those on the Nottely river some five miles 
southwest of Murphy. At each of these places mining operations 
have been in progress during the past few years, and mills have been 
erected for the grinding of talc prior to shipment. Specimens of talc 
have been found in a number of other counties, and recently a 
deposit ofthis matter has been described as occurring in Chatham county. 
Agalmatolite — pyrophyllite (silicate of alumina) sometimes 
erroneously classed with talc (which is a silicate of magnesia) is found 
in deposits of considerable magnitude in Chatham, Moore and Orange 
counties, where, indeed, it occurs as a white or greenish slate or 
schistose rock, which can be mined e.sily and cheaply. 


A few years ago monazite was regarded as one of the rare 
minerals found at but few places in North Carolina and elsewhere, 
and of no special economic value; but since the discovery of the fact 
that the small percentage of thorium (i to lo per cent.) which it con- 
tains is the best material for use in the manufacture of the Welsbach 
incandescent gas lights, monazite has come to have a considerable 
economic value, and has been mined on a considerable scale in North 
Carolina. The production and value of monazite mined in the State 
during the past three years was about 1,500,000 pounds, valued at 
more than $100,000 at the mines. 


The larger part of this monazite has been mined in Burke, 
Cleveland, Rutherford and McDowell counties. The best sands 
(highest in thoria) came from Burke and Cleveland counties, though 
some of special high grade has been reported from McDowell county. 
The price of monazite has varied from twenty-five cents per pound in 
1893, to as low as three cents for the poorer grades and six to ten 
eents per pound for the better grades sold in i894-'95. 

I02 North Carolina and its Resourcks. 

This monazite is found along the narrow valleys near the head 
waters of the small streams, mingled with the gravel and sand which 
lie directly upon the rock. In some places, however, the soil on 
the slopes of the adjacent hills is found to be quite rich in monazite. 
It is mined with the shovel and pick, the soil and underlying gravel 
containing the monazite being thrown upon a perforated iron pan at 
the head of a sluice box, and as this is washed down by a current of 
water the monazite, which is nearly twice as heavy as ordinary sand, 
quickly settles to the bottom and is easily separated from the latter. 
The separation is completed by a slight additional washing. The 
black grains of magnetic iron sand and some other impurities are 
removed by a strong magnet, and the dried monazite is then ready 
for shipment. 


In the majority of the counties in the Coastal Plain region, shell 
marls are found sufficiently near the surface to render it possible for 
them to be mined and used for agricultural purposes, and for many 
years these marls were used extensively in this connection. They 
are composed largely of fossil shells, with more or less admixture of 
sand and clay. Analyses show many of them to contain from fifty to 
ninety per cent, of carbonate of lime, and where these are used for 
agricultural purposes they are usually scattered over the fields at a 
rate of from fifty to two hundred bushels per acre. During the past 
few years, however, the price of agricultural lime has been so low 
that the majority of the planters have considered it cheaper to pur- 
chase lime for spreading over their fields than to mine and haul the 
marls which they have on their farms. 

Deposits of phosphate rock have been found in Duplin, Sampson, 
Pender, Onslow, Brunswick and New Hanover counties; but in only 
one of these counties (New Hanover) have these phosphate deposits 
been mined up to the present date. At Castle Hayne, ten miles 
north of Wilmington, phosphatic pebbles from the size of a pea to an 
inch in diameter are found mixed \v th sand and clay in beds from 
one to six feet in thickness at a depth of from three to ten feet below 
the surface of the ground. The phosphate pebbles in such cases 
usually make from ten to fifty per cent, of the aggregate mass of the 
material, the remainder being sand and clay. Associated with this 
phosphate gravel is usually found a lime rock in which is imbedded 
phosphate pebbles of the same size and character as those found in 
the sand, this being generally designated phosphate conglomerate. 

The phosphate pebbles mined at Castle Hayne, are there washed 

Coal. 103 

and dried, and shipped to Wilmington, Norfolk and Baltimore, where 
they are manufactured into commercial fertilizer. 

On the Hermitage plantation, adjoining the Castle Hayne tract, 
phosphates of similar character are found extending over a consider- 
able area. The phosphate rock in Sampson and Duplin counties 
occurs in much larger blocks, from a few inches to two feet in diame- 
ter, highly water-worn and overlaid by from six to ten feet of sand. 
Thus far, the deposits of this rock discovered, have not been mined 
on any considerable scale. 


The coal fields of North Carolina are confined to two limited 
areas or belts of triassic sandstone. The smaller or Dan river belt 
having a width of from two to four miles, and a length of nearly 
thirty miles in northeast and southwest directions. The other, the 
Deep river sandstone belt, extends along a trough, narrow at each 
end and some fifteen miles wide at its central point, and extends from 
Oxford, in Granville county, southwestward across the State. In the 
former belt tracings of coal are found throughout almost its entire 
length, and at several places near Walnut Cove coal is exposed; 
the formation carrying merchantable coal, however, is limited to the 
region from the southern part of Chatham, ten or twelve miles into 
the northern part of Moore. 

In the Dan river basin, the most promising outcrops for coal, 
are those along the line near the wagon road from Walnut Cove to 
German ton. The coal bearing vein there is said to have a thickness 
of from two to seven feet. It is exceedingly friable and crumbles 
readily when exposed to the atmosphere, but like the Cumnock coal, 
it cokes readily and makes an excellent gas coal. In composition it 
is semibituminous. The outlook for occurrences here of workable 
seams of coal is fairly good. 

The quality of the coal in the Deep river region resembles 
somewhat, but seems to be superior in character, to that in the Dan 
river region. In the Deep river basin, the -^oal with its shales, 
outcrops along the northern margin of the belt at various points for 
more than fifteen miles, and a number of shafts have been sunk to 
and through the main seam. In this basin, Kmmons reports five 
seams of coal, separated by black shales and slates, black-baud iron 
ore and fire clay; and estimates the area of this coal field at three 
hundred square miles. In this region a considerable amount of 
prospecting work has been done from time to time during the past 
few years, and the principal coal seam reaches from three to five feet 

I04 North Carolina and its Resources. 

in diameter; it also cokes we'l and is an excellent gas coal. The 
only mine operated on any considerable scale is the Cumnock, or old 
Egypt coal mine. 


The Cumnock mines in Chatham county are the only operating 
colleries in North Carolina. These mines, originally opened years 
since, were operated in a desultory and primitive manner prior to 
1888, when Samuel A. Henszey, of Philadelphia, Pa., obtained pos- 
session, organized a company, and vigorouslj'- proceeded to re-open 
the mines upon an extensive scale, install a modern and efficient 
plant and introduce business methods, absence of which had accounted 
for previous indifferent success. Encountering many obstacles, the 
restoration and development proved slow and expensive, but by deter- 
mined and persistent effort the property has been finally placed in a 
position that assures success. The underground works have been 
opened upon a large scale and in a most permanent manner for 
economical operation. The machine plant, both underground and on 
the surface, has been perfected with the most modern appliances for 
hoisting, pumping and ventilation, and every available safeguard for 
the protection of life and property has been introduced. 

The colliery is operated by two perpendicular shafts — one for 
ventilation only, measuring 8 x 10 feet, tapping the vein in the 
"rise " workings at a depth of two hundred and twenty feet, and the 
main working shaft, 8 x 12 feet, four hundred and sixty-four feet 
in depth. The present plant has a capacity of one thousand tons per 
diem. Direct connection is had with the Cape Fear and Yadkin 
Valley railway at Cumnock and the Seaboard Air Line at Colon by 
means of the Raleigh and Western railway, an extension of which is 
well advanced toward a connection with the Southern railway system 
at or near Randleman, in Randolph county. The yield is a clean, 
shining bituminous coal, igniting easil3% burning with a bright, clear 
combustion, leaving very little purplish, grey ash. It swells and 
agglutinizes, making a hollow fire. 

The following analj^ses made at different times and from sampling 
of the mine at various points attest the uniformity of qualitj^: 

Dr. G. C. J. H. Dr. H. 

Jackson. Schaefer. Cremer. Endemaa. 

Volatile matter 34.80 32.70 27.85 31.42 

Fixed Carbon 


Moisture . 

60 60.70 64. 19 63.32 

60 5.30 4.24 4.12 

• • . 1.95 I-I4 

1.30 1.77 1.99 


Graphite. 105 

The Cumnock company owns four thousand three hundred acres. 
The workable veins aggregate six feet in thickness, lying in two 
benches of four feet and two feet respectively, separated by two feet 
of black band iron ore, the point of contact being plain and admitting 
of clean mining. The specific gravity of these coals as ascertained 
by Dr. H. B. Battle, Ph. D., is for the upper seam 1.31 and the lower 
1.43. Using this basis, competent authorities estimate 11,000 tons to 
the acre, or 47,300,000 tons within the land owned by this one com- 
pany. The coal is equally suitable for manufacture of gas, generation 
of steam, blacksmithing and domestic use. The Greensboro Gas 
Company in a recent letter says: "This coal made nine thousand 
seven hundred cubic feet of gas, eighteen and one-half candle power, 
and forty-nine bushels of good, clean, hard coke. ' ' For locomotive use, 
Mr. William Montcure, now Superintendent of the Central Division 
Seaboard Air lyine, made an exhaustive test some time since and in 
submitting the result said: "I made a test of your coal as com- 
pared with Pocahontas, using the same engine, pulling the same 
trains with the same crew, with the following result for the same 
service: — Pocahontas 52,000, Cumnock 40,000 lbs. As a blacksmith 
coal it is now being shipped to local points on the Norfolk and 
Western railroad. As a grate coal it is without a superior, burn- 
ing with a bright blaze, emitting no smoke and with entire absence 
of soot. 


This mineral, in small quantities, is quite widely distributed in 
North Carolina in the crystalline rocks, both slates and gneisses, and 
there are beds of a more or less impure slaty and earthy variety in 
several sections of the State, the principal of which are two: one in 
Gaston, Lincoln and Catav/ba, as a constant associate of the argilla- 
ceous and talcose slates and shales which belong to the Kings Moun- 
tain slates, and the other in Wake count}'. 

The Wake county beds are the most extensive, as well as the 
best known, graphite beds in the State. They extend in a northeast 
and southwest direction for a distance of sixteen or eighteen miles, 
passing two and a- half miles west of Raleigh. The thickness is two 
or three, and occasionally four feet. The eastern (and longitudinally 
the most extensive) bed is nearly vertical. It was opened at a num- 
ber of points many j^ears ago and has been worked on a small scale, 
at intervals, during the past few years. It is a bed of quartzitic and 
argillaceous slates, which are more or less graphitic, from about 
twenty to sixty per cent, graphite. 

io6 North Carolina and its Resources. 


At various places in the older rocks of middle and western North 
Carolina are to be found extensive veins or dikes composed largely of 
feldspathic material which has decayed from the action of atmospheric 
agencies, and which decayed material is generally designated as 
Kaolin. Generally in these dikes there is an admixture of feldspar, 
quartz and mica. In places the mica occurs in considerable quan- 
tity, and in crystals of sufficient size to permit of its being mined for 
commercial mica, and in such cases the deposit is designated as a mica 
vein. In other cases, quartz is the predominant material, and in still 
other cases, where the best kaolin is produced, the proportion of both 
quartz and mica are small, and the feldspar is the prevailing material. 
These dikes vary considerably in size, ranging from a few inches to 
several hundred feet in thickness, and up to several hundred yards in 
length. They are generally, though not always, parallel to the 
schistosity of the crystalline rocks. 

The kaolin in these dikes, which occur in the Uaka or Smoky 
mountains, is said to have been mined by the Indians, "packed" 
across the country to the seaport and shipped to Europe during the 
early settlement of the country. From several of these dikes near 
Webster, in Jackson county, the kaolin is being mined at the present 
time, washed and dried, and shipped to Trenton, N. J., and other 
pottery centers. The most noted of these kaolin dikes in Jackson 
county, is that being mined near Webster, by the Harris Clay 
Company, which dike has a thickness of nearly two hundred feet, 
and has been traced for a distance of more than half a mile. The 
kaolin is mined from a depth of from sixt}^ to one hundred and twenty 
feet, below which point, the original feldspar is not sufficiently soft- 
ened by decay to permit of cheap mining operations. 

Many similar, but far smaller feldspar and kaolin dikes are to be 
found in various counties of both the Mountain and Piedmont Plateau 
regions; but none of these have been worked to any considerable 
extent for either feldspar or kaolin. 

There are also many deposits of clay, varying in shades of color, 
from white, like kaolin, to purplish, yellowish brown, resulting from 
the decay of granite, gneisses and crystals in schists in these regions. 
These claj^s, of course, vary in composition both with the character 
of the rocks from which they have been formed, and with the extent 
to which the materials of the original rocks have been separated by 
the sorting action of water in transporting materials from one place 
to another. They are frequently a reddish or yellowish color owing 
to the oxide of iron present, though at many places their colors are 

Gems and Gem Stones. 107 

lighter. These clays are used on a small scale in almost every region 
where brick are needed for the construction of houses or chimneys, 
but only at a few places, such as Biltmore, (Buncombe county,) 
Pomona, (Guilford county,) and Goldsboro, (Wayne county,) have 
they been used extensively in the manufacture of tile, drain and 
sewer pipes. 

Fire brick are also manufactured at Pomona; and the clay beds 
near Grover (Gaston county) are said to make fire brick and vitrified 
brick of excellent quality. 

The most extensive beds of clay known in North Carolina are 
those found in the Coastal Plain region. In the Potomac (lower Creta- 
ceous) formation, there are extensive beds of laminated, dark-colored 
clays, exposed along the banks of rivers crossing the Coastal Plain 
region, notably on the Cape Fear river for fifty miles below Fa3'ette- 
ville. These clays are usually dark in color owing to the vegetable 
matter which they contain; and, in some cases, they are highly 

Along the western border of the Coastal Plain region, especially 
in Moore and Harnett counties, there are limited exposures of silici- 
ous deposits (over-lying the Potomac series, and capping some of the 
sand-hills) which have recently been tested for fire brick with very 
satisfactory results. These deposits are from five to fifteen or more 
feet in thickness, and are overlaid by but a few feet of loose sand. 
In a few places the material has all the qualities of fullers earth. 

Among the Miocene deposits, there are, in places along theriver- 
bluflfs in the Coastal Plain region, especially on the Roanoke and the 
Tar, somewhat extensive exposures of "blue marl," a calcareous 
clay which may prove to be of some value, but of v/hich no practical 
tests have yet been made. 

The Lafayette (Pliocene) materials, which are spread over so 
large a portion of the Coastal Plain region, are generally sandy in 
composition, with a large admixture of loam in many places. No 
extensive deposits of clay have been observed among the materials of 
this formation, though doubtless limited deposits of clay will be 
discovered as more extensive explorations are made. 


Many of the varieties of precious stones or gems of commerce 
are found in this State, and have been searched for in spasmodic 

loS North Carolina and its Resources. 

exploration for a number of years. The accidental discovery some 
fifteen years ago of emerald and hiddenite in Alexander county, where 
gem mining on a considerable scale was conducted for several j-^ears, 
may be considered the beginning of this industry. The indications 
rarely justify the expenditure of much capital, and the existing con- 
ditions barely justify the rating as an industry. Yet it is a source of 
revenue to a few persons who wash the gravel or gouge out the 
crystals from the mother rock. 

The largest plant operated for gems exclusively was that in 
Alexander count}'^, where emerald, hiddenite, beryl, rarely termi- 
nated rutile, and exquisite shades of garnets were found; and next to 
this should be mentioned Corundum Hill in Macon county, where 
rubies, sapphires, beryls and garnets are gathered incidentally in 
washing corundum for the markets. Again, garnets, beryls, rubies, 
sapphires, hj^acinth, emerald, citrine topaz, amethyst and rare quartz 
gems are taken incidentally in McDowell county, on the property 
of tbe Marion Improvement Company, under the skillful manage- 
ment of Col. H. C. Demming, of Harrisburg, Pa. And in a desul- 
tory way, in Mitchell, Yanc3% Macon, Buncombe, McDowell, Burke, 
Alexander, Iredell, Lincoln and other counties various gem stones 
are gathered and sold to local and foreign dealers. 

Diamond. — There is recorded the finding of thirteen small 
diamonds in the State. Seven of these are credited to the auriferous 
gravel beds of Burke, McDowell and Rutherford counties centering 
about the Brindletown 'region. The largest one of these weighed 
four and one-third carats, and was found in McDowell county. The 
remaining six are credited to the following counties: Lincoln i; 
Mecklenburg 2 ; Franklin 2 ; Richmond i . There is but small indica- 
tion that diamonds may be found v/ith more frequency in the future, 
yet the forest clad hills may one day give to the diamond hunter 
rewards little dreamed of now. 

Hiddenite. — This is an emerald-green variety of spodumene, 
found only in Alexander county, when it occurs sparsely in the soil 
and gneissoid rock, along wdth emerald, monazite, rutile, allanite, 
dolomite and quartz crystals of generally smoky color and rare modi- 
fications. At one time a considerable amount of mining was done by 
the Emerald and Hiddenite Mining Company in search of these gems, 
and with gratifying success, as crystals of hiddenite and chrome- 
green ber^d of exceptional size and conspicuous beauty were obtained. 

Hiddenite was named after Mr. W. E. Hidden, of New Jersey 
(a mineralogist of note who has done much valuable work in this 
State), by Prof. J. Laurence Smith, who identified the mineral. To 


2.. 5A\OKY TOPAZ^. 

3. 5APPH1RE-.. 

■H. 5AGEMTEi_-. 


6, A/^EThY6T 



sons liATlVE GE/A5. 

Gems and Gem Stones. 


the energy and enterprise of Mr. Hidden is due the introduction of 
hiddenite as a gem of rarity and with an established commercial 


value of $100 or more per carat for richly colored specimens; but speci- 
mens of the natural crystal were exhibited in the cabinet of Mr. 
J. A. D. Stevenson, of Statesville, N. C, for several years prior to 
Mr. Hidden 's exploitation. The gem is justly esteemed for its great 
beauty of color, its superiority over the emerald in the splendor of its 
fire, and in its being the rarest of the precious stones. (See colored 
plate; this crystal now in the Harvard Museum.) 

Emerald. — Beryls of chrome-green color have been found 
in many localities in Mitchell, Yancey, Macon, McDowell, Burke, 
Iredell and notably in Alexander county. The most celebrated 
specimens are still uncut in the hands of collectors outside the State. 
One of the finest crystals ever found here was taken from the property 
of the Emerald and Hiddenite Mining Co., and is now in the private 
collection of Mr. C. S. Bement, of Philadelphia. It is eight and 


a-half inches in length and weighs nine ounces. (See colored plate.) 
There were other handsome crystals doubly terminated, and perhaps 


North Carolina and its Resources. 

of better color found, but somewhat inferior to this in size. Mr. J. 
A. D. Stevenson secured a crystal (fractured) a few years ago with an 
outside border or coating of rich chrome-green color, which weighed 
very nearly twenty-seven ounces. This specimen offered fine material 
for the lapidist, but its lack of symmetry and absence of terminations 
lessened its scientific value. 

Aquamarine. — Pale bluish, bluish-green, pale green, greenish- 
yellow, yellow, golden yellow and limpid white beryls are found in the 
mica veins of Mitchell, and in feldspathic and micaceous rocks and in 
the soil in Yancey, Macon, McDowell, Burke, Alexan- 
der, Iredell and other counties. These tints are more 
abundant than the chrome-colored, and are sought 
after by those living in proximity to the localities 
and offered to collectors; eventually finding their 
way into cabinets or the show cases of gem dealers. 
Many of these crystals are of great scientific 
interest because of the remarkable terminations, 
oftentimes rivalling the lapidist in the number and 
brilliancy of the facets presented. A few of these 
remarkable geometric figures are presented here, 
through the courtesy of the American Journal of 

Many fine crystals and fragments of various shades of coloring, 
and ranging in size from the minutest forms to those of more than two 
feet in length and as much as seven inches 
in diameter have been found at the mica 
mines, and some specimens from other locali- 
ties. These immense crystals are opaque 
and generally bluish or greenish in color, 
and are of value only as specimens. 

Ruby. — The ruby is derived from the red 
crystals of corundum, and the finest specimens 
in the State so far discovered are from Macon 
county, and the majority from the Corundum Hill mines. A few are 
found in Clay, Jackson, Iredell and Gaston counties. There have 
been but few found of the coveted pigeon-blood color. 

Sapphire. — Ivike the ruby, sapphires come from crystals 
of corundum, and they are to be found at the same localities 
designated for ruby. Many nice gems have been found in the State. 
(See colored plate.) The term "oriental" is applied in commerce to 
ruby, sapphire, emerald and topaz, and in speaking of oriental sap- 
phire, it is meant that it is a corundum sapphire, and so on through 



Gems and Gem Stones. hi 

the list. Coruudum is next to diamond in hardness, and gems from 
that source are more highly prized on that account. 

CyaniTE. — This mineral is not very rare in its occurrence in this 
State, and comes from practically the same localities designated 
above for corundum gems. It is of an exquisite deep-blue color 
much resembling sapphire, but of a softer substance, yet hard enough 
for gem purposes. The finest specimens are found at Yellow 
mountain, in Mitchell county. 

Garnet. — This material is widely distributed in the State and 
is a constant constituent of many of the micaceous and other igneous 
rocks, and in flattened crystals in muscovite and biotite crystals as 
inclusions. It is found massive and in trapezohedron crystals 
weighing from six to eighteen pounds each, and through many 
intervening forms down to the small fractured masses in Kinzigite 
and in sands. In color it ranges from black into red, cherry, 
cinnamon, almandine, purple, rose and other pale tints. (See colored 
plate.) The most desirable shades for gems come from Macon 
and Alexander, but good gems are found in Mitchell, Yancey, 
McDowell, Burke, Caldwell, Catawba and other counties. Pyrope 
and massive garnet for conversion into abrasives is found in 
McDowell and Burke counties. Massive manganiferous garnet is 
found in Rutherford, Lincoln, Gaston, Rockingham, Stokes, Chatham 
and other localities. 

Quartz. — The widest distribution characterizes this material. 
It is comparatively abundant in about one-third of the area of the 
State. Many rare and interesting forms are to be found, as well as 
some remarkably large crystals; in fact crystals approaching three 
hundred pounds in weight are credited to Ashe county. Caldwell 
county furnishes some beautiful and perfectly limpid specimens. 
Alexander county is a more prolific source and supplies specimens of 
many shades in color and of great scientific interest because of rarely 
modified terminations. Both Mr. J. A. D. Stevenson and Mr. W. 
K. Hidden have forwarded fine collections ranging in color from 
almost black through varying tints of brown and yellowish-brown to 
limpid white, to Germany at the request of an eminent crystallographer, 
the late G. von Rath, of Bonn, who carefully studied and figured 
them, announcing in his results many new forms or planes hitherto 
unknown to science. 

Under the general head of quartz, reference may properly be had 
to several gems belonging to this classification. 

Sagenite, Venus' hair, arrows of love and rutilated quartz, are 
the names usually applied to one of the most striking of the quartz 

112 North Carolina and its Resources. 

gems. It occurs as a crystal or taass of quartz holding as inclusions 
scores of acicular crystals of rutile; these are brown, red and yellow 
in color and are meshed in confusing lines of fiery brightness which 
are very effective in artificial light. Iredell county has supplied 
many fine specimens; as have Alexander, Catawba and Burke 
counties. (See colored plate.) 

Citrine topaz — yellow quartz — is also found in Burke and adjoin- 
ing counties; but rarely in deep, rich color. It makes a striking 
gem when the coloring is good, and is much esteemed. The reproduc- 
tion in the colored plate is from the collection of Mr. A. M. Field, 
at Asheville. 

Smoky topaz — cairngorm — occurs in many shades of brown, from 
very deep — almost black — through varying rich tones and fading into 
limpid white. This gem, while of low price, is much admired in 
some of its richer colorings. 

Amethyst — purple quartz — is widely distributed, almost as great 
in extent as quartz. It occurs in deep and pale shades of purple, 
and is too well known to demand extended notice. Catawba and 
lyincoln counties have produced handsome crystals in clusters. 

Some few specimens of opalescent quartz have been found which 
imder the lapidist's wheel have turned out fair results. Cabarrus 
county has supplied the best of this variety of quartz. 

In addition to the above there have been found many quartz 
crystals with inclusions of various substances, which have presented 
when cut, attractive gems. Some of the prettiest of these came from 
the property of the Marion Improvement Company in McDowell 

Other Gem Stones. — There are a number of gem bearing 
stones, which while affording occasional gems, are not sought like 
the foregoing. Among these may be mentioned zircon, which occurs 
in small crystals in many localities. Some limpid white gems (smrJl) 
have been cut, but no large gems of any color 
have been discovered. 

Agate also occurs in the State, and some 
material fit for cutting has been found in Cabar- 
rus and Mecklenburg counties. Some speci- 
mens of moss agate are reported from Orange 

Rutile of fine texture has been cut into 
srems — much resembling black diamond in 


effect — but is not often found flawless erough basal terminations. 
for the purpose. Specimens of malachite, tourmaline, spinel, chryso- 

C-^ V* i 


BuiLDiKG Stones. 113 

lite, lazulite, carnelian and jasper have all been four.d, and occasion- 
ally acceptable gems result from these sources. Also from fresh water 
mussels in creeks and rivers are occasionally secured pearls of fair 


Building materials are quite widely distributed in middle and 
western North Carolina, though all the better grades of building 
stones are to be found in the middle counties, or the Piedmont Plateau 
region. Roughly speaking, the State may be divided into a series of 
geologic belts, extending in a general northeast and southwest 
direction. Three of these belts may be said to carr}^ most of the 
stone of economic importance. 

Sandstone belts, one of which includes the brown stone of Anson, 
Moore, Chatham, Wake, Durham and Orange counties; and the 
other includes the brownstones of Stokes and Rockingham. 

The eastern granites and gneisses, including the gneiss of Vance 
and Wake counties, the granites of Franklin, Granville and Warren, 
and the smaller areas of granite in Wilson, Edgecombe, Richmond 
and Anson . 

The Piedmont granite belt, which consists of the granitic and 
syenitic rocks of Person, Caswell, Alamance, Guilford, Forsyth, 
Davie, Davidson, Rowan, Iredell, Cabarrus, Mecklenburg and Gaston 

The gneisses and granites west of this Piedmont Granite belt, 
but still within the limits of the Piedmont Plateau region, are some- 
what isolated. The ordinary rocks of the country are gneiss, which 
at intervals are sufficiently granitic in character to permit of their 
being used for building purposes, and at intervals throughout this 
area, as at Mt. Airy, considerable masses of typical granitic material 
are found. In the Mountain region, the rocks are generally gneissic 
in character, but in many places, as about Flendersonville, at Troy's 
quarries, this gneiss proves valuable for architectural purposes, and 
at a number of places, notably at Stone mountain, in Wilkes county; 
in the neighborhood of Hickory Nut Gap; and on the French Broad 
river below Asheville, there are masses of true granite surrounded 
by gneisses. 

The browstones are largely limited to the eastern sandstone belt, 
which extends from Oxford, in Granville count}', in a south v.'esteiiy 

114 North Carolina and its Resources. 

direction across the State, with a maximum width of about fifteen 
miles. Tiie rocks of this belt are all of triassic age, belonging to 
the same geological formation, which with Connecticut, Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey, furnish the famous brownstone for northern and 
eastern cities. Within the limits of this belt are many exposures of 
a fine, compact, light and dark reddish brownstone, not at all inferior 
to the better grades of brownstones from the States just mentioned. 
Quarries have been opened up at a number of different places, the 
more important of which, are the following: The Frank Hammond 
quarry, two miles south of Wadesboro; the I^inehan quarry, one 
mile north of Wadesboro; and the Wadesboro Brownstone quarry, 
about one mile northwest of Wadesboro. The stone from all three of 
these is homogeneous, fine grained and compact, varying in color 
from a reddish brown to a grayish brown. 

Near Sanford, there are also several brownstone quarries; that of 
the Aldredge Brownstone Co., one mile south of Sanford, being the 
largest and most actively worked of the region. This quarry has a 
branch railroad connecting with the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley and 
the Seaboard and Air Line railroads at Sanford, and is now quarrying, 
sawing and shipping brownstone of excellent qualit}'' to a number 
of States. Other quarries which have been operated to a greater or 
less extent in this region during the past few years, are the Goenella 
Bros, quarry, about one and one-fourth miles south of Sanford and 
near the Seaboard Air Line railroad; the Carolina Red and Brown- 
stones Company's quarry, where a mill has been erected for sawing 
the stone, and the Carolina Brownstone Company's quarry, about one- 
fourth mile west of Sanford. There are also other places near 
Sanford where brownstone of good quality has been discovered and 
opened up to a limited extent. 

Near Carthage, in Moore county, on the property of Messrs. 
Grimm, McNeal & Bros., are several outcrops of brownstone which 
promise to be of excellent quality. 

Near Cumnock (Egypt) is a large exposure of a brownish red, 
compact sandstone, which is exposed along the banks of Deep river 
for a distance of half a mile. Also about one mile east of Guilford 
along the banks of Deep river, is a fine to medium grained sandstone; 
and in other places near by sandstones of color varying from olive to 
gray and buff, have been found in considerable quantities, and are 
being quarried by the Gulf Buff Stone Company. 

Also along the line of the Raleigh and Western railroad, between 
Cumnock and Colon, medium fine grained brownstone of good quality 
has been quarried to a limited extent. 

.m^^^$- r 41.: -^^??^. 






Building Stones. 115 

At several points in the western part of Wake count}-, as, near 
Brassfield, and in Durnam county, sandstone of good quality has been 
quarried to some extent. The Dukes' quarry is located about one 
mile east of Durham, and the Rogers quarrj' is located near the 

Concerning the granites, the following brief statement can 
mention only some of the more important quarries and places. In 
Wake county there are near the city of Raleigh important beds of 
granitic gneiss which were worked at the "Capitol Quarry" in the 
eastern edge of the citj^ from which the material was obtained for 
the construction of the Capitol. The penitentiary quarry, inside the 
enclosure of this institution, furnished the stone for the foundation 
and walls of the prison, and for a number of other purposes. On Dr. 
Lewis's farm, two miles northwest of Raleigh, is a hard, tough, fine 
grained, gray gneiss, which has been worked at intervals for many 
purposes. At Wyatt, on the Raleigh and Gaston railroad, is a pink 
granite; and near Rolesville, some fifteen miles northeast of Raleigh, 
are extensive deposits of gray biotite granite with pinkish feldspar. 

In Franklin county there is a quarry at Louisburg; and extensive 
beds of gray biotite granite, medium grained, on the Freeman Mill 
place in Nash county, about tv^^elve miles west of Springhope; this 
stone is of good quality, and would doubtless work in a satisfactory 

In Granville and Warren counties granite of good quality has 
been worked to a limited extent at a number of different places in the 
vicinity of Oxford; at Warrenton, and again about one mile north 
of Warren Plains. About two miles northwest of Warren Plains is 
another outcrop of gray granite, which has been used for making mill 
stones, and for other purposes. 

In Wilson county, a few miles south of Wilson, on the Wilmington 
and Wei don railroad, and on Moccasin river, are considerable beds of 
coarse, red, feldspathic granite, which splits readily, takes a beautiful 
polish, and closely resembles the red Scotch granite. Granite deposits 
of quite similar character are to be found along the line of the Sea- 
board Air L,ine railroad in Anson and Richmond counties. In Wil- 
son county, it should be mentioned also that on the Wilmington and 
Wei don railroad, two and a-half miles above Toisnot, a medium to 
coarse grained granite of dark gray color occurs in considerable 

In the Piedmont Granite belt, building stone of excellent quality 
occurs in great variety, and is widely distributed. The two more 
important regions where active quarrying has been in progress during 

11 6 North Carolina and its Resources. 

the past few years are in tiie Dunn's Mountain region, in Rowan county, 
and about Mooresville, in Iredell county. The more important granite 
quarries and deposits of Rowan county lie along the line of Dunn's 
mountain ridge, which extends in the northeast and southwest course 
for a distance of about twenty miles, in the eastern portion of the 
county and closely parallel to the main line of the Southern railway. 
The stone here outcrops in broad exposures of several acres extent and 
has been quarried in a dozen or more places, at all of which there 
are large outcrops capable of furnishing immense quantities of stone 
without stripping. With the exception of Dunn's mountain proper 
all the stone of this great ' 'boss' ' is of medium fine grain and light-gray 
speckled, with occasional small crystals of magnetite and pink 
feldspar, the latter in places becoming so abundant as to give a 
uniformly, warm pinkish tint, as at the Kirk mountain quarry, and 
Dunn's mountain proper. Stone from this latter place was used in 
building the Federal Post Office, at Raleigh. This is an exceedingly 
valuable and extensive granite area and is destined to be, in the near 
future, worked on a large scale. 

The more important of the quarries of this region are those of 
the Pink Granite Company; the Hambley quarry; the Stone Mountain 
Granite Company's quarry, and the Kirk Mountain Granite Com. 
pany's quarry, all four or five miles east of Salisbury and tapped by 
the Yadkin railroad. And the Wyatt quarry several miles south- 
west of this point. 

In the neighborhood of Mooresville, three quarries have been 
opened up during the past two years, two for monumental stones, and 
one that has been worked to some extent for building material. The 
stone is fine grained biotite granite, for the most part containing little 
or no injurious material. Handsome monuments made from this 
stone are to be seen in the cemeteries at Raleigh, Charlotte and a 
number of other places. The three more important deposits are 
those at the quarry of the Charlotte Granite Co., about one mile 
south of Mooresville; the J. N. Breed quarry, one and a-half miles 
southwest of Mooresville, and the Biddell quarry, three miles east of 

Excellent granite is also to be found in Davidson, Davie, Cabar- 
rus and Alamance counties. In Davie county there is an exceed- 
ingly unique and beautiful stone which has been called "Orbicular 
granite" or Augite, occurring at Coolomee. 

The Mt. Airy granite quarry in Surry county is the best known 
and the most extensively worked at the present time. The stone is 
nearly white granite of uniform grain and texture, and free from in- 


Public Roads. 117 

jurious material. It works easily in three tracks, and is so located 
as to be entirely free from quarry water. The stone is exposed over 
an area of more than fortj^ acres, so that no stripping is necessary in 
quarrying operations. The quarry equipment is extensive and com- 
plete in every direction. Operations have been carried on during the 
past several years on a large scale by the Mt. Airj'- Granite Com- 

Stone Mountain on the line of the Blue Ridge in the northern 
part of Wilkes county is an enormous massof gra},^ granite, which has 
recently been purchased by a new company, which purposes to con- 
struct a railroad to that point and quarry the stone on an extensive 
scale. The color and texture are quite uniform and the stone 
appears to be free from injurious materials, and will doubtless make 
an excellent material for architectural purposes. 


The question of good roads has occupied the attention of the 
people of the State for about ten years, but has only recently taken 
sufficient hold upon the public mind as to show itself in good works. 
The question is of vital importance to the farmer and trucker, and 
indeed to every industry. Ample provision is now made by law, so 
that any county or township maj^ begin the permanent improvement 
of its roads. In addition there are many special acts of the last few 
sessions of the Legislature for separate counties. These vary in their 
details, but in nearly every case they retain in part the requirement 
that able-bodied citizens shall be liable for labor on the public roads 
for a limited number of days, and with this they combine provision 
for a varying rate of taxation for road purposes. In a few of the 
counties the money necessary for the new road work is paid out of the 
general county fund. In a few cases the old labor system has been 
abolished entirely, and the roads are being worked bj'' taxation alone. 
In nearly all of the counties convict labor is employed in the road 
improvement, and in the majority of cases a limited amount of 
improved machinery and implements have been purchased and are 
being used in the work. The construction of stone roads has been 
undertaken in Mecklenburg, Wake, Alamance, Cabarrus, and to a 
lesser extent in Forsyth, Rowan and Durham counties. Buncombe 
has purchased a complete outfit of machinery, and has begun to 
macadamize. The work in other counties has thus far been limited 

ii8 North Carolina and its Resources. 

largely to the improvement of earth roads by grading, draining, and 
in some cases changing the location of the old roads. 

In Mecklenburg county the work has now been in progress for 
some years; during which time nearly forty miles of roads have been 
graded and drained, and nearly as many miles have been macadam- 
ized. The general plan adopted, and which has been adhered to, was 
to start at the city limits of the county-seat and to grade and macad- 
amize all of the important public roads from this point out tov/ard the 
township and the county limits. These roads have a width of forty 
feet for the first two miles from the city limits, and beyond this point 
a width of thirty-six feet. They have a maximum grade of four feet 
in one hundred. For cross drains sewer pipes are used in all cases 
where practicable, and strong wooden bridges with stone piers have 
been put in wherever needed. The average cost of these roads, 
including the macadamizing and grading, is about $2,000 per mile. 
The average number of convicts employed is about eighty, and the 
average cost of this labor per convict, including their food, clothes, 
medical attention and guarding, is from twenty to twent3'-two cents 
per day. In charge of the work is one superintendent and one 
engineer (part of the time) and six guards. The rate of taxation in 
the county has been eighteen cents on the $100 worth of property, 
and the entire amount raised in this way for the support of the convict 
force in road-improvement work during the past year was about 
$18,000. In addition to this, each township levies a tax varying from 
seven to fifteen cents on each $100 worth of property. 

In Wake county, Raleigh township has been working its roads by 
taxation and labor during the past six years. It has a steam-roller, 
road machine, crusher, spreading carts, and a complete list of smaller 
implements for road work. The number of convicts employed varies 
from fifty to sixty, and the average cost per convict per day, includ- 
ing food, clothes, medical attendance and guarding, is about twenty 
and one-half cents. All the county prisoners whose terms are less 
than ten years can be used in this v/ork. Convicts do every kind of 
the work except the most difficult part of the bridge construction- 
Twenty-eight miles of road have been graded and eighteen miles 
have been macadamized, the work having been divided betvv'een the 
principal roads in the township, starting from Raleigh. By special 
law the work has been extended beyond the township boundary. 
Excellent truss bridges are being built across all the streams and 

In Alamance, Cabarrus and Rowan counties a limited amount of 
macadamizing has been done, and many miles of earth roads have 


Public Roads. 119 

been greatly improved by grading and draining. These counties use 
their convicts in working their important roads. 

Buncombe county, out of its general tax fund, maintained an aver- 
age force of about sixty convicts at work on its more important public 
roads, for several years, at an average cost of about thirty-five cents 
per day per convict. For general road work, the old system still 
prevails. Many miles of earth roads have been regraded and drained 
and in places relocated. A complete outfit for macadamizing work 
has been purchased, and a limited amount of work has been done. 

In the other counties mentioned above the question is now being 
agitated, and in the near future they will doubtless begin to con- 
struct stone roads. In all of them the earth roads have been 
improved, to a greater or less extent, by grading, draining and 
changes in the location of roads These improvements are increasing 
the popularity of the movement. One of the most encouraging feat- 
ures of the movement has been its growth in several of the eastern 
counties during the past few years. 

Several years ago the strongest opposition to the movement came 
from these eastern counties, where the surface of the country is level, 
and where the stone for macadamizing purposes is scarce or entirely 
absent; but during 1893, and years following, Wayne, Lenoir, Edge- 
combe and New Hanover counties, adopted plans for improving their 
earth roads and have pushed the work forward with vigor and success, 
accomplishing results of decided benefit at a small expenditure of 
money. This has resulted in arousing considerable interest in the 
subject in a number of adjoining counties. 

In New Hanover, by the expenditure of a small sum annually, a 
limited amount of grading and draining is being accomplished, and 
the sandy road surface is being improved by the admixture of clay, 
and, it is believed that in the near future these roads will be still 
further improved by being covered either with crushed stone or with 
oyster shells from the adjoining sounds. A fev/ years ago a shell 
road was constructed in this county for a distance of eight miles 
(from Wilmington to Wrightsvilie), Vx^hich since that time has been 
maintained in excellent condition by the employment of one man, 
who, with a cart and horse, drops small quantities of oyster shells at 
such points as shov/ indications of wear. This road now serves as 
an object lesson in showing the ease with which an excellent road 
can be constructed in this region and the small expenditure necessary 
for keeping it in repair. 

In Kdgecombe county, as is the case also in New Hanover, no 
convicts are at present employed on the public roads, but it is 

I20 North Carolina and its Resources. 

expected that they will be employed in both counties at an early date. 
A tax of forty-five cents on the poll is assessed for road purposes. 
Machinery is used, including a road machine, scrapers and plows, and 
a horse roller; ordinary labor is employed at a cost of about sixty-five 
cents per day. The policy adopted in this county has been to first 
improve the particularly bad places in the roads in differant parts of 
the county, and in this way, the result has been to give general satis- 
faction with the work in many parts of the county, because the bene- 
ficial eff"ects of the work became apparent at once in as many 

In Wayne and I^enoir counties, the plan for improving the more 
important earth roads is somewhat similar to that in Edgecombe, but 
the tax fund is smaller in both, and convict labor is used. The 
trucking industry in these latter counties is one growing in 
importance, and this has greatly increased the demand for road 
surface over which large loads can be hauled at a rapid rate without 
serious jolting. This demand will doubtless prove a great stimulus 
in the permanent improvement of public roads and will ultimately 
result in their being macadamized, although the material for the 
purpose will have to be brought from the adjoining counties. At 
Newbern, in Craven county, so great has been the demand for better 
roads that recently a considerable sum was subscribed by private 
individuals for macadamizing a road leading from the town through 
one of the important trucking districts, and this road, in the building 
of which the county co-operated with private individuals, is now 
being constructed. A beautiful and serviceable macadam road was 
built a few j^ears since from the town to the Federal cemetery by the 
United States Government, the stone used being a shell limestone, 
from Trent river. 

In Guilford county, the two townships which join at the county 
seat (Greensboro) have voted a tax for the improvement of the earth 
roads, and have pushed this work along during the past few years 
with the result of greatly improving them. Both townships have 
purchased road machines and other implements. 

In Iredell county a small tax on property and on the poll has been 
levied, and a road fund has been raised. During the past few years 
the county contacts have been used on the roads, and they have 
graded many miles of road, starting from the county seat and 
extending out into the county on each important road. 

In Forsyth count}', after improving the earth roads in the 
immediate vicinity of the county seat (Winston-Salem), the convicts, 
fifty to sixty in number, have been transferred to various parts of the 

— -«S^'X*t-=' 


Road Materials. 121 

county, and have been employed in improving the worst places on 
the important public roads. The work is supported by a small tax 
levy on both the poll and property. 


In the central and western counties of the State there is usually 
an abundance of stone for use in macadamizing roads. The larger 
part of this stone is granitic in character, and some of this is rather 
soft for use in surfacing roads; but at intervals in all these counties 
harder and tougher material can be found in the form of hornblende, 
granite, diorite trap and other eruptive rocks, and where these occur 
along the lines of railroad, they can be crushed and transported to 
the points where the macadam is needed, in many cases at a small 
cost. In the eastern counties good stone for macadam is scarce or 
entirely wanting; but in quite a number of these counties, limestone 
or shell rock can be obtained at intervals, and the fact that they make 
a serviceable road has been demonstrated by the experiment at 
Newbern, and on the streets of Goldsboro, where a considerable 
amount of macadamizing was done some three years ago with shell 
rock from Castle Hayne on the Atlantic Coast L^ine railroad. In 
the latter case the shell rock was laid down in thickness only three 
or four inches. The surface was packed by the ordinary travel, and 
it has now withstood the constant wear of the vehicles on the main 
streets of Goldsboro during the past three years without the need of 
any repairs. 

In the counties bordering the coast, excellent roads can be built 
and maintained by the use of oyster and other shells, as has been 
shown in the case of the shell road between Wilmington and Wrights- 
ville. In quite a number of counties, limited amounts of gravel can 
be obtained for use on the roads, but this is usually inferior in 
quality. Along many of the streams, however, where crossed by 
public roads, a sufficient supply of gravel and coarse sand can often 
be found, which will very greatly improve the surface when spread 
over it, and again in the eastern counties, where the sand prevails at 
intervals, along the roadside can frequently be found deposits of clay 
which, when mixed with sand, improve the road surface con- 
siderably. In a few places gravel and sand deposits are found which 
have a sufiScient amount of cla}^ and oxide of iron intermixed to 
cement the mass into a hard surface. 

122 North CaroIvIna and its Resources. 



The river system of the State is determined by its peculiar 
topography. Its rainfall is copious, the annual average for the whole 
State being about fifty-three inches, and is the fountain of numerous 
streams in all sections of the State; and, owing to the fact that the 
rivers in the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions have their 
origin among the highest mountains and on the highest table-lands 
on the eastern side of the American continent, these rivers, in their 
descent towards the sea, develop an immense amount of mechanical 
power. Those in the Coastal Plain region, with equal abundance of 
rain as a source of water supply, but with more gentle descent 
towards the ocean, offer facilities for navigation not possessed by the 
rivers of the former regions, and towards their mouths expand into 
wide estuaries, connecting with the sounds and bays which provide the 
ports and harbors available for exterior commerce, foreign and 

Topographical causes also largely influence the course and 
direction of these rivers. Those rising west of the Blue Ridge are 
diverted by that barrier towards the north and northwest and towards 
the Valley of the Mississippi with ultimate destination to the waters 
of the Gulf of Mexico. Those rising east or south of the Blue 
Ridge, or the upper part of the Piedmont region, after a general 
direction towards the east, ultimately pass out of the State in the 
middle portion of the Piedmont Plateau, and find their way to the 
Atlantic ocean through the State of South Carolina; while those 
having their sources in the belt on the eastern extension of the same 
region find an entrance into the tide-waters of the Coastal Plain 
region of this State. 

The general river system is naturally divided into three su.jordi- 
nate ones entirely distinct from each other. The most characteristic 
of these is that originating on the Blue Ridge, or on its western 
slope, the superior elevation of the high culminating masses of the 
great Appalachian chain throwing off the rivers to all the points of 
the compass. From this culminating height the Tennessee river, 
with its length of twelve hundred miles, draws its chief supply; and 
the Ohio, with equal length, from the same source draws one of its 
chief upper tributaries. The volume of water poured out from this 
mountain reservoir is very great. Thus, the most western of them. 


RiVBRS. 123 

the Hiwassee, with its tributaries, the Valle)^ and Nottely rivers, 
draining two counties, Clay and Cherokee, an area of about six 
hundred and fifty square miles, passes into southtastern Tennessee, a 
powerful stream with a breadth of one hundred yards, with a descent, 
from its sources to the State line, a distance of about seventy-five 
miles, of firom eight hundred to nine hundred feet, providing great 
and continuous water-power. The Tennessee river, united with the 
Cheoah, the Nantahala, the Ocono Luftee and the Tuckaseegee, all 
large streams with a width of from fifty to one hundred and fifty 
yards, with united volume and resistless power, cuts its way through 
the Smoky mountains at the point of their greatest elevation, and 
constitutes one of the principal branches of the greater Tennessee, 
which unites with the Ohio a short distance above the junction of 
that river with the Mississippi. The united drainage of the Tennessee 
in North Carolina is about one thousand five hundred square miles, 
with a united length in this State of three hundred miles. The fall 
of each of these, from their sources to the State line, is about one 
thousand feet. 

The Pigeon river drains a separate area of about five hundred 
miles. It has a course of about seventy miles in North Carolina, 
with a width of about eighty yards, and a fall, from its upper valleys 
to the borders of Tennessee, of about one thousand feet. 

The French Broad river is nearly as large as the Tennessee, and 
is fed by several large affluents, such as Davidson's river. Little river, 
North river, Swannanoa, Ivy and Laurel, and drains a territory of 
about one thousand four hundred square miles. The fall from the 
mouth of Little river, in Transylvania county, to the State of Tennes- 
see, is about one thousand feet. 

The Nolechucky, formed by the union of Canej^ river and North 
and South Toe, unites with the French Broad after that stream has 
entered the State of Tennessee, becoming a broad and deep stream in 
size little inferior to the river with which it joins its waters. Its 
drainage is about six hundred square miles, and its fall is about one 
thousand five hundred feet. 

Elk and Watauga rivers are smaller streams, with a course of 
only twenty miles or more in this State, but chief tributaries of the 
important Holston river in Tennessee. 

The New river, alone of all the rivers of the State, flov/s north, 
or northwest into Virginia, and uniting its waters with those of the 
Kanawha, empties at length into the Ohio. Its aggregate length in 
North Carolina is nearly one hundred miles, and its fall about seven 
hundred feet, and its drainage surface within the State is about seven 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

hundred square miles. This is one of the larger mountain rivers, of 
the size of the Hiwassee, Tennessee and French Broad. 

Of the characteristic features of these mountain rivers, Prof. W. 
C. Kerr, former State Geologist, has remarked: " There is a common 
feature of these streams that is worthy of remark, viz: that through a 
very considerable part of their tortuous course across the plateau 
from the Blue Ridge to the Smoky, the amount of their fall per mile 
is frequently quite small, not greater than that east of the mountains, 
the greater part of their descent occurring within the gorges through 
which they force their way across the Smoky chain, so that many of 
them present navigable channels of considerable extent. The French 
Broad, for example, has a fall of less than three feet to the mile from 
Brevard to Asheville, a distance by river of forty miles." And he 
says: "The dominancy of the western chain of mountains frequently 
asserts itself in a very striking manner, notwithstanding it is obliged, 
sooner or later, to give passage to all the streams of the plateau. The 
French Broad is a striking illustration, as well as North Toe and New 
river (South Fork), all these being thrown off by the steeper slopes 
and more rapid torrents from the western escarpments and hurled 
against the very crests of the Blue Ridge, along which they wander 
lingeringly in slow and tortuous course, as if anxiously seeking the 
shorter passage to the sea; but finally turn, as if in desperation, and 
plunge with roar and foam against the frowning ramparts (of the 
Smokies) which bar their way to the west." 

There is, on the south and a portion of the east slope of the Blue 
Ridge, another system which has, in the course of its streams, almost 
direct outlet into Georgia and South Carolina, viz: the Chatooga and 
Toxaway, which are the chief head streams of the Savannah river 
the upper waters of the Saluda; and the Green and First and Second 
Broad, which unite to form the Broad river of South Carolina, unit- 
ing with the Saluda at Columbia to form the Congaree. 

Another and more important system is that which drains the 
northern half of the Piedmont Plateau, and which is represented by 
the Catawba and Yadkin rivers. These streams have a general course 
a little north of east until they leave the Mountain region, when they 
turn at right angles to their former direction, and pursue nearly a 
southerly course, and pass into Soulli Carolina broad and placid 
streams, the Yadkin then taking the name of the Pee Dee and the 
Catawba that of the Wateree. Both of these streams receive their 
chief affluents from the north side, and many of these are large 
streams. Into the Catawba flow North Fork, Linville, John's river, 
and many others of less volume; while the Yadkin quickly gains 


Rivers. 125 

consequence by the admission of Reddy's, Roaring, Elkin, Mitchell's 
Fisher's, Ararat and L,ittle Yadkin. The combined drainage of 
these two great streams is more than two thousand five hundred 
square miles. 

The Yadkin receives in its lower course a larger number of 
affluents than the parallel stream, the Catawba, has a greater fall in 
its course, and drains a wider and more continuous valley. Both are 
navigable in their upper courses, interruptions by shoals being 
infrequent and readily surmounted, works to that effect having 
been begun nearly three-quarters of a century ago, but never per- 
fected. The course of the Yadkin presents remarkable features of 
fluctuation in placidity, in width, and in contrast of characteristics, 
its upper course, almost from its source, having a very slight fall, 
then interrupted by Bean's Shoals for a mile or more, where it 
expands to the breadth of two hundred yards, then resuming its 
gentle course, attaining a width of several hundred yards, with its 
flow interrupted by numerous willow-covered islands, until, as it 
approaches the gorge formed by the encroachment of the Uwharrie 
mountains upon its channel, it suddenly plunges, a bold cataract of 
ten or twelve feet, into the head of the Narrows through which it 
passes for a distance of three miles, compressed into an inconceivably 
swift torrent of a width of not more than sixty feet and two miles or 
more in length. Emerging from that, it at once expands into a 
channel of one thousand yards in breadth, soon loses itself in the 
herbage of the Grassy Islands, expands, a sea of verdure, to the 
width of a mile, again emerges, and passes on to the South Carolina 
line through a channel of several hundred yards in breadth, torn by 
rocks and interrupted by numerous islands, many of them large 
enough for profitable tillage. 

Another important system is that of the Dan and its tributaries. 
The Dan is the largest river in the State, measured along its course 
from its sources in the county of Stokes to its mouth, a distance of 
more than three hundred miles; and is further remarkable as the 
only river in the State rising in the Blue Ridge and reaching within 
the State the waters of the Atlantic ocean. It empties into 
Albemarle sound, as the Roanoke. A large portion of this river is 
navigable; from its mouth by steamboats up to Weldon, thence past 
the rapids by canal to the smooth waters above Gaston, thence by 
canals past other similar obstructions to the borders of Stokes 
county, in which it has its rise. 

There is another important system, having its origin in the 
Piedmont Plateau region, discharging its waters into the sounds and 

126 North Carolina and its Resources. 

bays of North Carolina, and giving to the people of the interior easy 
access to the sea and to the advantages of exterior commerce. This 
system includes the Tar, Neuse, Haw, Deep, and Cape Fear rivers. 

The Tar river rises in the western part of Granville and among 
the semi-mountainous hills of Person, flows towards the southeast, 
drains most of the area of eight counties, embracing about five thous- 
and square miles. Its fall from its source to tidewater is upwards of 
four hundred feet. Its greatest water-power is demonstrated near 
Rocky Mount, for three-quarters of a century the seat of one of the 
largest cotton factories in the State. It is navigable to Tarboro. At 
Washington it expands into a broad estuary, navigable for sea-going 
vessels, and thence takes the name of Pamlico river. 

Neuse river has its sources in the hills of Person and Orange 
counties. It becomes navigable for steamboats at Smithfield, in John- 
ston county, all obstructions having been removed to that point. At 
Newbern it is two miles wide, and it is there joined by the Trent river, 
and the united streams soon widen to a width of eight miles, emptying 
at length into Pamlico Sound. It is navigable for vessels drawing four- 
teen feet of water as far up as Newbern. Its length is about two hundred 
miles, and it drains an area of about five thousand square miles. 

Haw river and Deep river, which unite at Haywood, in Chatham 
county, to form the Cape Fear, rise, the first in Rockingham, the 
other in Guilford county, and are important from the great water- 
power provided by them, utilized in Alamance and Randolph counties 
by numerous cotton mills, upon which streams there is a greater con- 
centration of manufacturing industry than elsewhere in the State. 
The Cape Fear river, formed by the junction of these streams, 
becomes navigable at Fayetteville to Wilmington, a distance by 
water of one hundred and twenty miles, giving an interior navigation 
not equalled by any other river in the State. From Wilmington the 
Cape Fear makes directly into the Atlantic ocean, and ships drawing 
twenty -two feet pass its bar just below Southport. It became a verj' 
important avenue from the earliest settlement of the country for the 
ingoing and outgoing trade of the interior, and was early made the 
object of improvement by an incorporated company organized in 1795; 
thence by the State, which, at different times, spent nearly a million 
dollars in attempts to improve the upper waters above Fayetteville; 
and in late years by the General Government, which has taken in 
charge the maintenance of continuous navigation between Fayette- 
ville and Wilmington. The aggregate length of the Cape Fear and 
its tributaries is about five hundred miles, and its area of drainage 
not less than eight thousand square miles. 


I/AKES. 127 

Among the larger tributaries to the Cape Fear are the Black and 
North East rivers, both large, navigable streams. 

In the south-east corner of the State are Lumber and Waccamaw 
rivers, both bold, navigable streams, entering South Carolina, 
uniting with the Pee Dee, and emptying into Winj^ah Bay near 

In the northeastern section are numerous broad, navigable 
rivers, draining an area of about two thousand five hundred square 
miles, and emptying into Albemarle Sound. Of these the Chowan is 
the largest. It is joined by the Meherrin, the two having a united 
length of about one hundred miles, and giving practicable navigation 
into Virginia. 

The chief of the other streams are Perquimans, lyittle river, 
Pasquotank and North river, all navigable, with little fall, and 
therefore unavailable as water-power. 

The Alligator and the Scuppernong are broad, deep but short 
streams, emerging from the great swamps of Hyde and Tyrrell 
counties. They also empty into Albemarle sound. 

Pungo, Bay river, and, between the Neuse and Cape Fear, 
several other short tidal streams, such as Newport and North river in 
Carteret county. White Oak river in Jones county, New river in 
Onslow county, and lyockwood's Folly and Shallotte in Brunswick 
county, contribute their testimony to the extent of the water area of 
the coast region, and to the evidences of a bountiful, but not 
excessive, annual rainfall. 

The total aggregate in the length of the rivers in North Carolina 
— not including innumerable small rivers and creeks — is about three 
thousand three hundred miles, and their total fall is about thirty- 
three thousand feet, or an average of ten feet to the mile. 

The water powers are treated under a separate and subsequent 


The lakes naturally comprised in the water system of the State, 
compose a very small area in the water surface. They are found only 
in the Coastal Plain region and are comparatively of small size. In 
the Mountain region, evidently, in a former geological era, they had 
filled the areas now occupied by numerous valleys; but the barriers 
which once confined them long since gave way, and the tumultuous 
streams which now drain those valleys give no present token of their 
former languid life. In the Piedmont Plateau region there are now 
no lakes, nor any evidence that they had ever existed. In the Coastal 
Plain region are to be found fifteen in all, of various dimensions. The 

128 North Carolina and its Resources. 

largest is Mattamuskeet, in Hyde county, with an area of nearly one 
hundred miles, of elliptical form, and in dimensions about fifteen 
miles in length and from five to seven in breadth. This, and Lake 
Phelps, Alligator lake and Pungo lake, are all situated in the great 
swamp between Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds; and all of them are 
of smaller area than Mattamuskeet. In the White Oak Swamp, in 
Jones and Carteret, is a group of small oval lakes, a few miles apart, 
and united with each other naturally or artificially. The largest of 
these, Northwest lake, has an area of ten or twelve miles. In the 
Gum Swamp, in Bladen and Columbus counties, is the Waccamaw 
lake, eight miles long by five broad. These lakes, being situated in 
the highest part of the swamps in which they lie, have no feeding 
waters, but most, if not all of them, discharge full and exhaustless 
streams. They all have sandy bottoms, and a depth of from eight to 
ten feet. Most of them seem to have originated in the ignition dur- 
ing long continued dry weather of the peaty beds which compose the 
body of the swamps. The aggregate lake surface of the State is 
estimated at about two hundred square miles. All of these lakes afford 

excellent rod fishing. 


The coast of North Carolina, for a distance of nearly three hun- 
dred miles, is separated from the ocean by a succession of long 
narrow islands, in width from half a mile to a mile or more, compose'' 
largely of pure white sand tossed up by the winds into dunes or hil- 
locks; occasional!}^ there are extensive areas of marsh, covered with 
coarse grass, wild oats and other vegetation, forming the pasturage of 
the herds of wild ponies which abound on some of the banks. Through 
this narrow barrier the sea makes its irruptions to the sounds within, 
forming the inlets and outlets through which the operations of com- 
merce are conducted. These sounds are of various dimensions, two of 
them being important inland seas. Of them all, Pamlico and Albe- 
marle sounds are the most extensive, the former lying parallel with 
the coast, with a length of about seventy -five miles and from fifteen 
to twenty-five miles wide; the other lying east and west, with a length 
of sixty miles and a breadth of from five to fifteen miles. These two 
sounds are connected with each other by Croatan sound, four miles 
wide and ten long, and also by the narrower Roanoke sound. Curri- 
tuck sound extends from Albemarle sound to the waters of Virginia 
through a shallow channel of four or five miles wide. By a canal of 
a few miles in length it forms a connection between the inland waters 
of North Carolina and those of Virginia, and becomes the avenue for 
the passage of a very large commerce. These larger sounds, all navi- 

Sounds and Bays. 129 

gable for vessels drawing from twelve to fifteen feet of water, besides 
being important for the carriage of a great outward and inward trade, 
are the localities of the largest and most productive fisheries along the 
Atlantic coast, abound in oysters and other shell fish, and are the 
haunts of innumerable wild fowl of the most desirable varieties. 

South of Pamlico sound there is a continuity of narrower and 
shallower sounds to v/ithin a fevv^ miles of the mouth of the Cape Fear 
river, where they are interrupted bj- a narrov/ isthmus of sand. These 
smaller sounds are Core, Bogue, Stump, Topsail, and others. All are 
connected with the ocean bj^ numerous but somev/hat capricious inlets, 
dependent for their stability upon the condition of the ocean, but 
in their caprices offering no permanent obstruction to naviga- 

This inland water system is connected with the waters of Chesa- 
peake bay by the Dismal Swamp and Albemarle and Chesapeake 
canals, and with the connection of the waters already made through 
Delaware and New Jersey, can easily be made part of a great interior 
waterway of inestimable value to the United States in the event of 
war with foreign nations. 

The bays are chiefly enlargements or projections inland of the 
sounds. Under the head of Commercial Fisheries may be found a 
more extended description of the sounds. 


Of what are known as swamp lands, there is an area of between 
three thousand and five thousand square miles. They lie chiefly in 
the counties bordering upon the sounds or upon the ocean. They are 
not alluvial lands or subject to overflow, but are, as a rule, elevated 
above the adjacent streams of which they are the sources. Some of 
them are peat swamps, with an accumulation of decayed or decaying 
vegetation of considerable depth. The value of these lands is indi- 
cated by the character of the vegetation upon them. The prevalent 
growth of the best swamp lands is black gum, cypress, poplar, ash 
and maple, and also a luxuriant growth of cane. These lands have for 
many years furnished an abundant supply of timber from the species 
of trees above mentioned. 

The largest area of swamp land is known as the Hyde County 
Swamp, although it occupies a part of five counties. It has an area 
of nearly three thousand square miles. Owing to elevation above the 
adjacent surface, drainage is easy, and large bodies of it have been 
subdued to cultivation, and are among the finest farming lands in the 
State, the chief crop being corn. The water, after drainage, is so 

13^ North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

near the surface as to make these lands independent of drought, should 
one occur. 

About one hundred square miles of the great Dismal swamp lie 
within this State. Dover swamp, between the Neuse and Trent 
rivers, has an area of one hundred and fifty square miles. In its 
central part it is sixty feet above the sea, and therefore susceptible of 
easy drainage. The other principal swamps are Holly Shelter and 
Angola Bay in Onslow, Duplin and New Hanover counties. Gum 
sv^amp in Brunswick and Columbus, and White marsh and Brown 
marsh in the same section. All of them abound in valuable timbers, 
cypress, juniper, poplar, maple, oak, &c., and the industries of 
getting shingles, staves and other products of the forest are very 
actively pursued. 

The most productive farms in the State have been reclaimed from 
the borders of many of these swamps, and have proved practically 
inexhaustible. I^ands in Hyde county, cultivated for a period of one 
hundred years continuously in corn, without the application of 
manure, show no apparent loss of fertility. The swamps themselves, 
and also the country around them, seem conducive rather than 
prejudicial to health — the timber-getters, engaged in the very depths 
of mire and water, appearing to be peculiarly exempt from malarial 
poison, if, in fact, it exists in the swamps. 

In the construction of canals. North Carolina claims a proud 
pre-eminence; for as far back as lygojwas authorized by the Legislature 
of the State the construction of the Dismal Swamp canal, connecting 
the waters of Pasquotank river (North Carolina) with those of Eliza- 
beth river (Virginia). This was required to be done by private 
subscription, and it was so done; and thus was completed the exist- 
ing Dismal Swamp canal, undertaken thirty-five years before the great 
Brie canal was completed, and eighteen years before the Pioneer 
canal of New England — the Middlesex — was opened for use. This 
canal served its purpose usefully for nearly a century. Recently it 
has been sold, perhaps for other uses, because other means of inter- 
communication, swifter and more capacious, have largely superseded 

In addition to this, early steps were taken to improve the navi- 
gation of several large streams in this State, large volumes of water 
in their lower courses finding entrance into good and convenient 
harbors, but, in their middle courses, interrupted by rocky obstruc- 
tive ledges, above which, in several instances, there were long 

Canals. 131 

stretches of natural slackwater, with practicable navigation for com- 
paratively long distances. These undertakings were made a long time 
since. Thus the Cape Fear Navigation Company, with power to con- 
struct canals, received a charter to improve the Cape Fear river in 1795 ; 
the Roanoke Navigation Company and the Neuse River Naviga- 
tion Companj^ in 181 2; the New River, the Tar River, the Catawba 
River and the Cape Fear and Yadkin River companies in 

Upon all these schemes vast sums were spent, and little accom- 
plished. Projectors were all disappointed, because, in all instances, 
the costs far exceeded estimates, and the relative poverty of the 
people and communities and the inability to enlist the aid of capital 
abroad, as was subsequently the case in the early days of railroad 
construction, compelled the ultimate abandonment of the effort, and left 
our river-sides with here and there some partially finished section of 
work, like the Weldon canal, to become available in after generations as 
valuable water-power. 

Of late years, the Albemarle and Chesapeake canal, connecting 
by a cut of a few miles waters in Virginia and North Carolina — the 
waters of Chesapeake bay with those of Albermale sound — gives 
navigation to sea-going vessels and opens up an inland navigation 
from Newbern to Norfolk, and, for smaller vessels, through 
the Clubfoot and Harlow canal, from the waters of Beaufort 

The following statement comprises about the present condition of 
our waterways: 

" There are eleven hundred miles of inland steamboat navigation 
in North Carolina. Ocean steamers of large burden come into 
Wilmington and Beaufort, and the Old Dominion and Clyde lines of 
coastwise steamers come to Newbern, Elizabeth City and Washington 
via the Albemarle and Chesapeake canal. The sounds are navigated by 
a large fleet of light-draft and fast steamboats that furnish abundant 
means of transportation for passengers and freight between the numer- 
ous points where they touch. Steamboats run up the Chowan and 
Black Water to Franklin, Va., and up the Meherrin to Murfreesboro ; 
up the Roanoke to Halifax; up the Neuse to Kinston; up the Trent to 
Trenton; up the Cape Fear to Fayetteville; up the Tar to Tarboro; up 
the Scuppernong to Cress well; up the Alligator to Fairfield; up the 
Cashie to Windsor; up the Perquimans river to Belvidere; up the 
Little river to Woodville; up the Pasquotank many miles above 
Elizabeth City; up the North river to Indian Township, and up 
Moccasin river and Swift creek to the head of navigation. 

132 North Carolina and its Rksources. 


Along the coast of this State, extending from Back bay, within 
the Virginia boundary, nearly to the South Carolina line, is a series of 
narrow barriers of land, interspersed with marshy, rush-covered flats, 
which seem to have been purposely interposed by nature between the 
tumultuous outside ocean and the placid expanses of water lying 
within; inland seas, with all the repose and safety of interior lakes, 
yet with some of the features of the outside coast lines, inasmuch as 
the eye sweeps sometimes over a boundless stretch of waters, enlivened 
with all the animation of the maratime landscape, the full-spread 
sails of the merchantman, the white wings of the fishing craft, or the 
trailing smoke of the swift flying steamer, until it rests far away upon 
the sandy beach and the thin fringe of shrubbery that forms the 
background. These inland waters, the Sounds, as they are known, 
are in themselves so smooth as to constitute safe harbors from the 
perils of the ocean, deep and navigable, but interrupted by shoals and 
bars; yet in the deep bays and estuaries providing ports for the 
vessels engaged in the coasting trade, a class of shipping at one 
time also having a large West India trade. 

But, important as these inside bays and ports are and always will 
be, their importance must always be controlled by the access to them 
from the open sea, and which is imperatively dominated by the loca- 
tion and permanency of the inlets, and the depth of water upon their 

In the history of our coast there is nothing that presents itself as 
so unstable and capricious as some of these inlets, almost literally 
here to-day, there to-morrow. Once there were inlets into Currituck 
sound, with good depth of water, now there are none — one closed in 
1775, one in 1828. Opposite the eastern opening of Albemarle sound 
was once an inlet; now occupied by dangerous Kitty Hawk and the 
fatal Killawil dunes. A little farther south, opposite Roanoke Island, 
was once the deep inlet of Nag's Head, through which the earliest 
English "adventurers made their entrance and found a convenient 
landing-place on the shores of the famous island. That inlet has 
long been closed, and on the solid land which now fills its channel 
stands the hotel which forms the noted summer resort of "Nag's 
Head." Opposite the lower end of Roanoke Island opens Oregon 
inlet, which for many years has provided safe entrance for vessels 
draVi^ing ten to twelve feet of water into the waters of the sound. 
Thence down the coast, through the very thin line of " banks," are 
two or three unsteady, unsafe entrances, opening and closing at the 
will of the outside waters. Passing down the coast opens Hatteras 

Ports and Harbors. 

inlet, net far from the cape of that name; and this, with Ocracoke 
inlet, forms the usual most reliable access to the inland waters of 
the great sounds, Pamlico and Albemarle. 

Along these sounds, at various points, deep and broad estuaries 
extend back to the mouths of large rivers, the Chowan, the Roanoke, 
the Tar, the Neuse, together with such streams as the Pasquotank, 
which in its relation to the artificial channel of the Dismal swamp 
canal, has given existence to one of the most thriving of these inland 
ports — Elizabeth City. Thus along these inland waters have grown 
up ports of importance, to be estimated more by their value in rela- 
tion to domestic trade than to foreign commerce; for Washington and 
Newbern, both possessing fine harbors and easy access, are controlled 
by the limitations imposed by the depth of water in the inlets or on 
the shoals within the channels, so that the foreign trade once enjoyed 
by them, and carried on in a smaller class of vessels than now 
regarded as profitably adapted to foreign trade, is now practically sus- 
pended. But in their interior operations they are ports with a 
magnitude of business that emphasizes the prosperity of the sections 
of country tributary to them, and the waters of the sounds are enliv- 
ened with fleets bearing away the limitless variety of contributions to 
American commercial prosperity — cotton, lumber, shingles, naval 
stores, corn, the products of truck farming, etc. 

Just under Cape Lookout opens, between Core and Bogue sounds, 
and at the mouth of Newport river, the inlet which lets into Beaufort 
harbor. Vessels drawing twenty feet can enter readily from the sea, 
and, in twenty minutes, are lying snugly at their anchorage or at 
their wharves. It is entered at all times, except against a north or 
northwest wind. It is a harbor of refuge in time of storm, from the 
enemy in time of war, a rendezvous chosen as the basis c . naval 
operations, as during the v/ar of the Revolution, when the fleet 
destined for the attack on Charleston first concentrated here; when, 
in the war of 1S12, captured prizes were brought in here for 
adjudication, and when in the late Civil v/ar, the harbor was filled 
with war vessels and transports of the Federal Government. The 
water within the harbor is sufficient for the largest merchant 
vessels, yet it is not a commercial port of value, for the reason 
that no great navigable stream brings to it the riches of the 
interior, and because the single line of railroad which reaches it has 
not yet been able to divert the current of traffic from its accustomed 

Down the coast, below Beaufort, several inlets open into the 
sounds at the mouths of tide-water rivers, such as White Oak and 

134 North Carolina and its Resources. 

New river. But the water on their bars is shallow, and these bars so 
shifting as to forbid the expectation that they will ever add to the 
number, value or fame of our ports and harbors. 

Between the island kuown as Smith's island, at the southern 
extremity of which is the dreaded Cape Fear, the ' 'promontorium 
tretnendimi" of DeBry's map, and the main land on the west, pours in 
the Cape Fear river, the only large river in the State — the only one in 
fact between the Hudson and the Savannah that makes directly into 
the ocean, for, before reaching it, all the others are swallowed in long 
and wide bays, estuaries or sounds. 

Here might be expected a harbor of easy entrance and ample 
capacity. Therefore we find a new England colony of adventurers 
seeking settlement and homes within its shelter in 1660, followed by 
a colony from Barbadoes in i662-'63, and thenceforward continued 
occupation, founding of towns, opening up of plantations, enlarge- 
ment of population and increase of wealth up to the present day. In 
early times the class of merchant vessels, or even of war vessels, was 
small and draft light, so that the question of depth of water on the 
bar and in the inner channels never seemed to have been presented. 
In all probability there never was occasion for it, for there was but a 
single entrance — that between Smith's and Oak islands, anl that 
secured suf&cient water for all vessels using the harbor. But ic. 1761 
a long-continued tempest cut through the banks between Smith's 
island and what was long afterwards known as Federal Point, forming, 
until recently closed, what was known as New Inlet. The waters 
turned into this new channel in time attained a depth of water equal to 
that on the old or main bar, and eventually reduced the depth of water 
on that, in 1839, to about nine feet at low water, the New inlet bar 
at the same time showing ten feet, and becoming the channel through 
which most of the coasting trade was conducted. This reduction in 
depth involved diminution in trade, and Wilmington was seriously 
menaced with the loss of its most valuable commerce. Therefore the 
State of North Carolina began the work of relief, continuing it from 
1823 to 1828, when the General Government very properly assumed 
the duty and the cost. The operations for many years consisted of 
efforts to deepen and clear the channel of the river for some miles 
down by dredging, but chiefly by the construction of jetties, and 
after some years of labor and a large expenditure of money, a gain of 
two or more feet in depth was effected. The work was suspended, 
and resumed in 1852, and directed to attempts to close the New inlet 
by closing the entrance between Smith's and Zeke's islands, and fair 
progress was made, when, in September, 1857, ^ great storm swept 

Ports axd Harbors, 135 

away nearly all that had been accomplished, and efforts were aban- 
doned until 1870, when they were resumed with determined purpose 
and with large appropriations. This has been done until the breach 
between Smith's and Zeke's islands was closed, and eventually the 
flow through New inlet finally checked. This is not the place for 
the details of this important work, the present object being only to 
show by what methods the usefulness of the Cape Fear river, in its 
relation to material and domestic commerce, has been restored. This 
has been done by the erectiom of a solid dam more than a mile in 
length and with a breadth of from ninety to a hundred and tv»'enty-five 
feet, knit together by natural grass and oyster shells, until it is 
apparently impregnable to the assaults of the fiercest tempests. The 
effect on the depth of water on the main bar was not at once appre- 
ciable; but in tv/o or three years, and assisted by the process of 
suction dredges, a great gain has been made, so that v^^hereas in 1878, 
when the shortest soundings in the Bald Head channel were nine 
feet, in 1882 they were fourteen feet, and now, there is tv/enty to 
twenty-two feet and more at high tide. 

The Government is now at work with purpose to deepen the water 
on the bar to twenty-six feet, or thirty, w^hich is thought to be practic- 
able. Doing this, a safe and deep harbor is found inside at South- 
port and thence up to Wilmington, with the gains already made, in a 
channel which affords, up to the Vvharves, a depth of twent3'-two feet 
or more. 

The importance of these improvements are already recognized 
nationally and in their relation to the business of Wilmington. The 
customs receipts have quadrupled; and as vessels of large tonnage can 
now cross the bar and come up to the city wharves for freight, the 
cotton receipts of the port have mounted up annually to nearly two 
hundred thousand bales, and they find shipment in a class of vessels 
which had never entered the port until the impi'ovements in the 
channel were made — the freight steamships of from one thousand two 
hundred to one thousand eight hundred tons burden. 

The improvements vrhich affect beneficially both Wilmington and 
Sonthport are none the less important to the latter than to the former. 
Southport has a capacious land-locked harbor, of great depth and free 
from dangerous shoals, and it becomes a safe harbor of refuge during 
Storms, and in cases of disablement of vessels at sea by storm or other 
accident; and the benefits already accrued are ample compensation for 
the cost of the various works. The increased accessibility of the har- 
bor also gives it great value as a coaling station, lying in the path of 
an enormous coasting and Gulf trade, and the first port that can be 

136 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

reached by vessels bound north who find themselves short of 

Wilmington, or the Cape Fear river harbor, during the civil war 
illustrated some peculiar features of value. With its ease of access it 
was also readily defensible. One of its fortifications successfully 
repelled the first assaults of one of the largest and strongest squadrons 
and the fiercest and most terrible bombardments known in naval annals. 
It did indeed succumb in the second and more formidable attempt; but 
not until after three or more years of effort to capture or to close the 
port were the blockading vessels, which alone kept the Southern 
States in communication with the outer world and kept up some sem- 
blance of trade, effectually excluded. It is stated that the number of 
blockaders, as they were called, those that ran the gauntlet and got 
in safely with their cargoes, was, from May 20, 1863, to December 31, 
1864, about two hundred and sixty; prior to May 20, 1863, fifteen; 
and after December 31, 1864, ten, making a total of two hundred and 

South, or rather w^est, running down the coast, which at the mouth 
of the Cape Fear makes a course at right angles with its former direc- 
tion, there are only two harbors, both of minor importance — Lock- 
wood's Folly and Shallotte — with capacious and safe anchorage inside, 
but with little more than five feet water on the bar, except with favor- 
able wind and tide. 


During the past few decades, the cheapening of coal and the 
necessity for locating on railroad lines in order to avoid the expensive 
hauling over poor country roads, have led to the greatly increased 
use of steam, and to a corresponding neglect of water powers in 
manufacturing enterprises. One after another, even a number of 
corn and flour mills, on the banks of North Carolina streams, have 
been abandoned in favor of the mills established about towns and 
cities and operated by steam on a larger scale. 

But in spite of this tendency, many of the water powers near 
railroad lines have been developed to their full capacity, as at Rocky 
Mount, Haw river, and Rockingham; and Weldon and Roanoke 
Rapids promise soon to be great manufacturing centers. The build- 
ers of mills at these places have shown their faith by their works, and 
in reply to a recent inquiry as to the relative merits of water and 
steam power for operating cotton mills, these men express a preference 
for water power, if a good one can be had sufiiciently near the railroad. 

Water Powers. 137 

This distance of most of the North Carolina powers from railroad 
transportation is the factor that has prevented their development; 
but the transmission of power by electricity promises to do away with 
this disadvantage by making it practicable to locate the factories on the 
railroad lines and still operate them by water power, whether one or 
twenty miles away. This new factor is giving a new and greater 
importance to our water powers than they have had before. It 
is rendering pra-^^^icable not only the development and use of the 
hitherto inacces3i/)le large powers, like the Narrows of the Yadkin, 
but it also rendei'3 possible in many cases the concentration of several 
small water powers into a single factory, though these water powers 
may be miles apart on one or more streams. 

The largest and most important powers in the State are on the 
Roanoke, Yadkin and Catawba rivers, but on a number of other 
streams, notably on the Cape Fear and its tributaries, are many 
powers of sufficient magnitude to operate large factories. On the 
Roanoke river, in North Carolina, the possible water developments 
are limited to that portion of the stream between Gaston and Weldon, 
where there is a fall of eighty-four feet in a distance of about nine 
miles; and the possible developments here range in the aggregate 
tinder different conditions from twelve thousand to twenty thousand 
horse power. This is to be divided between two companies, the 
Roanoke Navigation and Water Power Company, and the Roanoke 
Rapids Company. The canal owned by the former of these starts at 
Rock island, a short distance below Gascon, and terminates just 
below Weldon, having a total length of about nine miles. The total 
available fall in this canal is seventy-eight feet, of which thirty-three 
feet is available at the upper locks, about three and one-third miles 
below the head of the canal, and the remaining forty-five feet is avail- 
able at the lower end of the canal. 

The canal of the Roanoke Rapids Company is only about one 
mile long, the lower end of it, with an available fall of twenty-five 
feet, emptying into the river at a point about opposite the upper locks 
in the old canal. The upper end of this Roanoke Rapids canal is 
extended up the river about a mile, by diking certain islands and 
connecting them with dams. It is claimed that this canal will 
develop from five thousand to sev a thousand horse power. Already 
one factor}' has been built at its lower end (about four and one-half 
miles above Weldon) and others are now in process of construc- 

On the Dan river and its tributaries in North Carolina there are 
several fine water powers, some of which have already been devel- 

138 North Carolina and its Resources. 

oped, especially on Smith river at lyeaksville and on the Mayo river 
at Mayodam. 

On the Tar and Neuse rivers there are but few valuable water 
powers; one on the Tar at Rocky Mount (fully developed) and one or two 
on the Neuse, near Raleigh, (partially developed); Millburnie, about 
six miles from Raleigh, where there is a partially developed power, 
with an available fall of about twelve and one-half feet; and the Falls 
of the Neuse, three miles above the Raleigh and Gaston railroad, 
which latter power can be entirely used by the paper mills erected 
here. On the Cape Fear river, Smileys and Buckhorn falls are 
undeveloped powers of some magnitude and promise. The first of 
these is about five miles from the Atlantic Coast L,ine railroad and 
has a fall of twenty-seven feet in a distance of three and one-half 
miles, and the second, at a distance of about seven miles from the Sea- 
board Air Line railroad, has a fall of twentj^ feet in a distance of one 
and one-half miles. 

On the Deep and Haw rivers, tributaries of the Cape Fear, are a 
number of valuable powers, both developed and undeveloped, and 
located at these developed powers are more than a dozen cotton mills 
and a number of grist and saw mills. The most valuable of the 
powers on L eep river is two and one-half miles above its junction 
with Haw river, at lyockville, on the Seabord Air Line railroad. Here 
the canals formerly used for navigation purposes can now be used for 
operating extensive factories, though at present there are located 
here only a small roller mill and a grist mill. The total fall at this 
point is twenty-four feet, which will develop from six hundred to 
eight hundred horse power at all seasons of the year. Between this 
point and Carbonton there is only one available water power, that at 
Gulf, which operates Mclver's mills. But from Carbonton up to 
Jamestown, where the river crosses the Southern railroad, there are 
a large number of water powers, both developed and undeveloped. 
The developed water powers operate some half dozen cotton factories 
and a number of grist and saw mills. 

On Haw river, the first power occurs some three miles above its 
junction with Deep river, and between this point and the upper 
boundary of Alamance county there is a succession of powers quite 
similar to those on Deep river above Carbonton; eight of these powers 
on the main stream and three on the tributary streams operate cotton 
mills, and a large number of minor powers operate grist and saw 

The Yadkin river, at and just above the Narrows, is one of the 
greatest power centers in the State, and will probably' be developed in 


Water Powers. 139 

the near future. Here the river has cut its way down, in a narrow 
gorge, across a series of very hard and tough volcanic rocks to softer 
rocks below. Starting at the lower end of the Narrows gorge, three 
to four miles long and one hundred to five hundred yards wide, in the 
distance of ten miles the river has a fall of more than two hundred 
feet, an average of more than twenty feet to the mile. The conditions 
do not favor the location of factories directly on the banks of the 
stream, but in the near future there will probably be ten thousand to 
twenty thousand horse power developed and transmitted from the 
Narrows region to factories located and operated on the railroad a few 
miles distant. Below the Narrows and between that point and the 
Carolina Central railroad there are four prominent shoals which may 
be considered available for water powers: (i). Bluetts falls, about 
four and one-half miles above the railroad, where there is a fall of 
eight or nine feet in a distance of one thousand feet; (2). Grassy 
Island shoal, five and one-half miles above the railroad, where there 
is a fall of about thirty-five feet in a distance of four and one-half 
miles; (3). Swifts Island shoals, about seven miles below the Narrows, 
where there is a fall of eighteen feet in two and one-half miles; (4). 
Gunsmith shoals, two and one-half miles above the last named, 
where there is a fall of nine and one half feet in less than half a mile. 
Above the Narrows below the Southern railroad there are some half 
dozen shoals that can be developed into important water powers. 
Above the Southern railroad crossing, near Salisbury, are a number 
of smaller powers. 

Of the tributaries of the Yadkin and Pee Dee rivers are a num- 
ber of smaller, but valuable powers in Iredell, Davie, Surry, Wilkes. 
The most unique and interesting of the smaller streams in the 
State are those in portions of the sand hill region, such as Hitchcocks 
creek, in Richmond (tributary to the Yadkin), and Rockfish, in Cum- 
berland county (tributary to the Cape Fear). The sand here serves 
as a sponge for the rain water, which flows by numerous springs into 
these creeks with but little variation between the winter and summer 
supply. The former of these streams is only seventeen miles long, 
and yet on it are located six cotton mills and several grist and saw 
mills. As illustrating the great benefits of such manufacturing 
establishments to the communities in which they are located; it may 
be stated that these cotton mills in Richmond county, operated by 
such small streams, have paid out to the people in wages, taxes and 
fuel during the past five 5'ears over $1,000,000. 

The next great manufacturing center after Weldon on the Roan- 
oke and the Narrows region on the Yadkin, should be somewhere on 

140 North Carolina and its Resources. 

the western North Carolina railroad near where it crosses the 
Catawba river, or west towards Hickory, For several miles below 
this railroad crossing, and in the long bend for twelve or fifteen miles 
above this point, are a number of shoals or rapids in the Catawba, 
with a fall ranging from five to fifty feet in distances of from a few 
yards to two or three miles. These might be developed separately to 
operate independent factories, or following a larger plan, supported by 
larger capital, the several shoals might all be connected by electric 
wires and the power cencentrated at some central point. The powers 
included within this region are: (i). Sherrill's Ford shoals, with a 
fall of thirteen feet in one and nine-tenths miles. (2). Monbo shoals, 
with a fall of six feet. (3). Long Island or Crawford's Island shoals, 
with a fall of twenty-three and one-half feet in one and seven-tenths 
miles. (4). Buffalo shoals, with a fall of eleven and four-tenths feet in 
0.66 of a mile, within a few miles below the Western North Carolina rail- 
road crossing. Above this railroad crossing, and below the crossing of 
the Lenoir Narrow Gauge railroad from Hickory, (5). Lookout 
shoals with a fall of fifty-four feet in three and two-tenths miles. (6). 
Lower Little river shoals with a fall of nine and seven -tenths 
feet in one and one-tenth miles. (7). Canoe Landing shoals with a 
fall of nine feet in one and nine-tenth miles. (8). Great Falls, 
with a fall of fifteen feet in one mile. (9). Horsford shoals, 
with a fall of thirty-one feet in two and nine-tenths miles, and (10). 
Devil's shoals, with a fall of thirteen and eight-tenths feet in 
one mile. The South Fork of the Catawba, the three Broad rivers and 
Green river, each though much smaller streams than the Catawba have 
a number of water powers, many of which have already been developed 
and are nov/ operating cotton mills, and a still larger number of 
undeveloped or partially developed powers. Also several other 
tributaries of the Catawba which descend rapidly from the forest- 
covered mountains — notably the Linville river — possess promising 
water powers. There are other important water powers on the 
Catawba, both above and below this region, several of which operate 
cotton, grist and saw mills. 

The powers on streams west of the Blue Ridge have been little 
developed, and individually will not attain the importance of some of 
those further east; but they are numerous, and in the gorges, which 
are often deep and narrow, dams can be constructed at small cost. 
Electric transmission will in the near future, render practicable the 
concentration of power from several of these smaller developments.* 

*NoTE — For more detailed information see "Water Powers of North Caro- 
lina," Bulletin No 8. North Carolina Geological Survey. 

Commercial Fisheries. i^i 


The fishing industry of North Carolina ranks as one of the most 
important business enterprises of the State, and in the coastal regions 
is no doubt of greater value than any other single branch of trade. 
There are few States having so large a population so entirely depend- 
ent on the fisheries for a livelihood, and there are few sections in 
which the general facilities for prosecuting the industry are more 
favorable. The fisheries, therefore, possess a great economic interest 
to the State, and indirectly to the country at large; and a proper 
knowledge of the extent, conditions and needs of the industry becomes 
a matter of considerable importance to the citizens of the Common- 

The coast of North Carolina, following the outer shores, is only 
about three hundred miles long, but if the sounds, estuaries and other 
indentations are considered, a coast-line nearly one thousand five 
hundred miles in length is disclosed, along the entire extent of which 
the prosecution of commercial fishing is made possible by the con- 
figuration of the shores and the adjoining bottom, the absence of high 
or rocky shores, and the preponderance of low, sandy stretches and 
shallow water areas, permitting the employment of pound nets, seines, 
and gill nets under the most favorable circumstances. 

The characteristic physical features of the coastal regions of North 
Carolina are the low, narrow, sandy islands and peninsulas which 
skirt nearly the whole ocean front of the State, between which and 
the mainland are numerous sounds, some of large size, which are the 
principal fishing grounds, while the mainland is very irregular in out- 
line and is intersected by a number of large and small streams. 

The principal fishing grounds are the sounds and lower courses 
of the streams emptying into them. Fishing in the upper courses of 
the rivers is usually of a non-commercial nature, and is unimportant. 

The sounds of North Carolina are Currituck, Albemarle, Croatan, 
Roanoke, Pamlico, Core and Bogue, each of which deserves brief 

Currituck sound is the most northern sound in the State. It 
runs parallel with the coast, and extends from the Virginia state-line 
to the eastern end of Albemarle sound, with which it merges. It is 
forty miles in length, and from three to four miles in width. For a 
body of water of such size the depth is extremely shallow, in no 
place being more than nine feet. Except during periods of dry 
weather the water is fresh, although at one time it communicated 

142 North Carolina and its Resources. 

freely with the ocean by means of Caffey inlet, which was closed in 
the year 1800. Prior to this time the sound contained marine fish, 
but at present only fresh water and anadromous fishes are found in it. 
Black bass (locally called chub) and white perch are very abundant, 
and at the proper season rock and herring enter the Sound in consider- 
able numbers. The catch of black bass is probably greater than in 
any other part of the State, if not the largest in the country. The 
region is annually visited by enormous numbers of wild fowl, and is 
one of the most noted hunting resorts on the Atlantic coast. 

Albemarle sound and tributaries are next in order. This sound 
has the distinction of being the largest coastal body of fresh water in 
the world. Its extreme length from east to west is sixty miles, and 
its maximum width is fifteen miles, the average being six to eight 
miles; it, therefore, contains about four hundred and fifty square 
miles. The Vv^ater is normally quite fresh, but during periods of 
excessively dry weather it becomes salt or brackish, especially at its 
eastern end, v/here it drains into Roanoke and Croatan sounds. 

Of all the North Carolina sounds, this is the most important from 
a fishery standpoint, and it is probable that there are few bodies of 
water of similar size in the world having more extensive fisheries. 
It is especially remarkable for its level bottom and uniform depth of 
water, and the absence of strong currents and tides, except those of 
infrequent occurrence resulting from gales. The importance is due to 
the fact that the region is annually visited by enormous bodies of shad, 
ale-wives, striped bass and other desirable economic species, and the 
natural conditions permit the employment of seines, pound nets, gill 
nets and other devices in almost limitless numbers. 

Eight rivers enter the sound, four on the north, two on the west, 
and two on the south, in nearly all of which more or less extensive 
fisheries are carried on. The Chowan and Roanoke rivers, which 
flow into the western end of the sound, are among the largest and 
most important in the State, and have large fisheries in the portion 
adjacent to their mouths. The North, Pasquotank, Little and Per- 
quimans rivers, on the north, and the Scuppernong and Alligator 
rivers on the south are short, wide streams, the most important as 
regards fisheries being the Pasquotank and Alligator. 

Roanoke and Croatan sounds lie to the south of the eastern end 
of Albemarle sound, and extend parallel with the coast; they are 
separated by Roanoke Island. Roanoke sound lies to the east of the 
island, and is eight miles long and one and one-half to two miles 
wide. It is very shallow throughout its length, except in a narrow 
channel which skirts the shore of the island. Croatan sound has 

Commercial Fisheries. 143 

the same length as Roanok^^ sound, but is two to four miles wide and 
is much deeper. Most of tne drainage from Albemarle sound passes 
through it. The combined, area of these bodies of water is seventy- 
five miles. Important gill-net and other fisheries aie prosecuted in 
these sounds. 

Pamlico sound and tributaries are of commanding importance. 
With the exception of Long Island sound, this is the largest sound 
on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It is about seventy -five 
miles long, and from ten to thirty miles wide, the area being about 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty square miles. On the north 
it communicates with Albemarle sound, through Roanoke and 
Croatan sounds, and much of the water of Albemarle sound finds 
entrance into the ocean through it; on the south it joins Core sound. 
The general depth is fifteen to twenty feet. The sound is separated 
from the ocean by long, narrow strips of sandy land called " Banks," 
through which the water of the sound finds exit at New, Hatteras, 
and Ocracoke inlets. The land known as the " Banks," consists 
chiefly of low, barren sand hills, with occasional patches of scrubby 
vegetation. Two important rivers, the Pamlico and Neuse, enter the 
sound from the west, their mouths being broad estuaries in which 
considerable fishing is done. Pamlico sound contains a great wealth 
of both fresh-water and salt-water fish. The large bodies of anad- 
romous fish which occur in the sounds to the north all pass through 
it. The salinity of the water permits the entrance of menhaden, 
squeteague, spots, mullet, sheepshead, whiting, hogfish, bluefish, 
etc., in large numbers. Large areas are covered with a natural growth 
of oysters, a product which has recently attained marked prominence. 

Core and Bogue sounds, communicating with Pamlico sound on 
the north, and extending first in a southwesterly and then in a westerly 
direction, form a long and narrow body of water about fifty miles in 
length, and from one to six miles in width. Their area is about one 
hundred and sixty -five square miles. These communicate with the 
ocean through Beaufort, Bear and Bogue inlets. The water is very 
shoal, varying from one to ten feet, and not averaging more than four 
or five. The people living on the shore of these sounds are very 
generally dependent on the v/ater for a livelihood, and the fisheries 
carried on are very extensive. The principle species taken are 
mullet, squeteague, bluefish, spots, hogfish, Spanish mackerel and 
whiting. The catch of the two first-named fish is larger than in any 
other body of water on the Atlantic coast. 

Other sounds. — South of Bogue sound the coast is fringed with 
five small, shallow sounds, known as Stump, Topsail, Middle, Mason- 

North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

boro and Myrtle sounds. These have but little bearing on the 
fisheries at present, and are chiefly important because of the possi- 
bilities they have for oyster production and cultivation. White Oak 
and New rivers, the only streams of importance between Beaufort 
entrance and the Cape Fear river, also have natural oyster beds. 
New river, in the opinion of lyieut. Winslow and many others, con- 
tains some of the finest oyster ground in the world, although the 
absence of shipping facilities until a very recent date has delayed the 
development of this important resource. 

Fishing in the ocean is prosecuted with gill-nets and seines at 
many places along the coast, but is especially important on the shore 
between Cape Hatteras and Currituck sound, where the winter fishery 
for bluefish has become famous. The species taken in greatest num- 
bers, are, in addition to bluefish, trout, spot, mullet, drum, whiting, 
Spanish mackerel and sheepshead. 

In the vicinity of Wilmington, considerable line fishing is done 
at times on the blackfish banks located several miles ofi" shore, sea 
bass, grunts and pigfish being the species taken. 

The shore between Cape Hatteras and Bogue Inlet has a number 
of seine fisheries for porpoises, which congregate in this region in 
large numbers during the colder months. 

The statistical data herewith presented cover the entire commercial 
fishery interests of the State, including the river basins. From the 
three general tables which follow, a clear conception may be gained 
of the condition and extent of the fisheries as they existed in. 
1890. (The last available census returns.) 


On vessels fishing. 251 

On vessels transporting 175 

In shore fisheries 7J052 

On shore, in fish houses, factories, etc . 2,796 

Total 10,274 

The prominent features of the first table, showing the number 
of persons employed in the industry are: the small proportion 
of vessel fishermen, and the large number of shore and boat fisher- 
men, the disparity being greater than in almost any other coast State. 
The total fishing population, numbering ten thousand two hundred 
and seventy-four, is much larger than that of any State in the South 
Atlantic group. 

Commercial Fisheries. 145 



No. Value. 

Vessels fishing 54 I 30,550 

Tonnage 530.72 

Outfit 12,129 

Vessels Transporting 74 53>ooo 

Tonnage 1,084.87 

Outfit 5,350 

Boats 3,816 162,905 

Steam flats 20 24,000 

Pontoons or pile drivers 26 1,470 

Apparatus of capture — Vessel fisheries 

Seines 16 3,975 

Lines 2 

Tongs no 284 

Apparatus of capture — Shore fisheries 

Seines 1,257 95,674 

Pound nets 950 80,394 

Gill nets 90,980 154,582 

Fyke nets 36 384 

Skim nets 728 2,798 

Lines 55 

Pots 1,165 1,755 

Tongs, rakes and forks 1,369 4>i73 

Miscellaneous apparatus 202 

Shore property and accessories 306,506 

Cash capital 303,800 

Total 1,243,988 

The capital invested in the fishing industry was $1,243,988, and 
the value of vessels and their outfits was $101,029; of boats, pile 
drivers and steam flats, $188,375; of apparatus of capture, $344,278; 

of shore property and working capital, $610,306. The minor factors 
in the investment are brought out in the above table. 


Species. Pounds. Vai,ue. 

Alewives, fresh 5,219,979 $48,865 

Alewives, salted 11,261,084 115,771 

Black bass, fresh 406,330 20,420 

Black bass, salted 1,200 72 

Bluefish, fresh 1,151,380 29,398 

Bluefish, salted 193,814 4,205 

Catfish, fresh 53,685 1,246 

Channel bass, fresh 136,950 1,404 

Channel bass, salted 28,865 515 

Croakers, fresh .. 227,345 5,461 


North Caroi^ina and its Rksources. 

Species. Pounds. Value. 

Croakers, salted 84,120 2,406 

Eels, fresh 160,615 9.726 

Flounders, fresh 48,630 894 

Hogfish, fresh 251,370 7,830 

Hogfi^h, salted 5,150 141 

Menhaden, fresh 12,410,400 16,171 

Mullet, fresh 974,815 19,178 

Mullet, salted 2,610,216 78,065 

Mullet roe, salted 950 165 

Perch, fresh 583,204 22,098 

Perch, salted 26,270 671 

Pike, fresh 40,510 1,765 

Pompano, fresh 9i75o 780 

Red horse, fresh , 60,550 i,779 

Sea bass, fresh 33,075 1,158 

Shad, fresh *5, 675,063 301,942 

Shad, salted 93,35o 4,073 

Sheepshead, fresh 90,665 4,000 

Sheepshead, salted , 55,68o 1,981 

Spanish mackerel, fresh 82,950 5,97S 

Spanish mackerel, salted 8,550 276 

Spots, fresh 227,160 5,289 

Spots, salted 181,100 5,573 

Strawberry bass, fresh 28,075 1,106 

Striped bass, fresh. 562,841 31, 973 

Striped bass, salted 5, 500 165 

Sturgeon, fresh 175,210 4,467 

Squeteague, fresh 1,640,160 39,958 

Squeteague, salted 245,517 8,898 

Whiting, fresh 35, 300 1.231 

Miscellaneous fish, fresh — 474,452 12,851 

Miscellaneous fish, salted.. . 87,963 2,362 

Refuse fish 18,500 173 

Porpoises **.... 4,398 

Shrimp 144,200 5,435 

Crabs *... 47,400 1,185 

Terrapin 26,552 4,690 

Turtle 17,725 1,024 

Quahogs or clams 1226,152 12,090 

Scallops :t:i8,ooo 800 

Oysters.... §5,650,820 175,567 

Total 51,799,142 11,027,669 

*Number, 1,612,594. 

**Number, 1,747. 

f Weight of edible part; represents 28,269 bushels. 

J Weight of edible part; represents 4,000 bushels. 

§Weightof edible part; represents 807,260 bushels. 

Commercial Fisheries. 147 

In the third table, the quantities and values of each of the impor- 
tant objects of capture are shown. All products are reduced to the 
common unit of a pound in order that the full extent of this phase 
of the industry may be given in one summary. The basis for the 
principal reductions is explained in a foot-note to the table. It is 
seen that 51,799,142 pounds were taken, with a value of $1,027,669. 

The objects of fisheries may be systematically grouped as follows 
to show the importance of the different classes represented : — 


Mammals $ 4,398 

Fishes 822,480 

Reptiles 5,714 

Crustaceans 6,620 

Mollusks 188,457 

Total $1,027,669 

The most important single product of the North Carolina 
fisheries is the shad, the value of which was $306,015; this sum was 
considerably in excess of the selling prices of the next important 
species, the oyster, which was $175,567. The alewives, locally 
called herring, had a value of $164,636, after which the principal 
species were mullet, worth $113,414; squeteague, locally called trout, 
worth $48,856; bluefish, worth $33,603; and striped bass, worth 
$32,138. The other products are relatively unimportant. 

A knowledge of the relative and actual effectiveness of the 
different forms of apparatus employed in the fisheries is of great 
practical advantage to the fishermen. 

The seine is the form of apparatus that takes the largest amount 
of fish and yields the greatest money returns. In 1890, 17,984,830 
pounds of fish, valued at $401,036, were caught in this way. 

The seine fisheries of the Albemarle section are more important 
than those of any other part of the State, and it is probable that the 
number of large shad seines there operated is greater than elsewhere 
in the United States. The counties bordering on the sound and its 
tributaries, which maintain the most valuable seine fisheries are 
Chowan and Bertie. In that portion of Dare county bordering on 
Croatan sound, there are also important seine fisheries. In Pamlico 
sound, Beaufort and Craven counties have valuable fisheries of this 
kind. Carteret county leads all others in the value of its seine 
fisheries, the sales of fish amounting to $86,195; Dare, the next 
important county, followed with $52,111; after which came Bertie, 
Chowan, Craven, Currituck, Onslow and Beaufort counties. 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

Next to the seine, the pound net is the most productive means of 
capture, although the value of the catch is less than that of the gill 
nets; thus 8,282,562 pounds of fish valued at ^123,606, were taken. 
Few changes in the fisheries of the State during the past decade have 
been more remarkable than the large increase in the number of pound 
nets. In 1880, only one hundred and seventeen such nets were set 
in the State, while in 1890, there were nine hundred and fifty. The 
pound-nets are most numerous in the Albemarle region, but are also 
employed in the other sounds, and the rivers emptying into them. 
This form of net was introduced into Albemarle sound in 1870, since 
which time it has exerted a marked influence on the development of 
the fisheries, by supplanting to a greater or less extent the older 
types of apparatus because of its greater cheapness and efficiency. 

Gill nets take somewhat smaller quantities of fish than pound- 
nets, but the catch has a greater value, owing chiefly to the large 
numbers of shad secured which have a relatively high valuation. 
Considerably more than half the shad credited to the State are taken 
in gill nets, the catch being 3,348,577 pounds, valued at $175,388. 

Gill nets are most numerous in Dare county, in which the 
gill-net catch is far more valuable than in all the remaining counties 
combined, this prominence being due to the enormous quantities of 
shad taken. Carteret and Onslow counties rank next in importance, 
the principal part of the catch being marine species. 

Of the remaining forms of apparatus used in the capture of fish, 
lines are the most prominent, although when compared with seines, 
pound nets and gill nets, they are insignificant. Line fishing on a 
commercial basis is followed only in Onslow, New Hanover, and 
Sampson counties, and quantities of fish taken are small. The 
aggregate catch was 380,375 pounds, having a value of $13,003, the 
principal species being hogfish and squeteague. 

Skim nets are used in greatest numbers on the Roanoke, Tar, 
and Neuse rivers in the capture of shad and alewives. In 1890, 
247,148 pounds of fish, worth $10,581, were taken by this means. 
Eel pots are sparingly employed in four counties — Currituck, Dare, 
Hyde, and Beaufort — and their use appears to be increasing, 
especially in Dare county. Pots took 153,415 pounds of eels, for 
which the fishermen received $9,222. Fyke nets are the only 
remaining apparatus used commercially in taking fish, and these are 
only sparingly employed in Dare and Sampson counties, where they 
catch small quantities of catfish, mullet, perch, red horse, sheepshead, 
striped bass, and squeteague. The total yield was 24,885 pounds, 
valued at $716. 

Commercial Fisheries. 149 

The porpoise industry and the fishery which it supports are of 
less extent than formerly, owing to the diminished inducements 
offered to the fisherman by the low prices received for the raw 
products. In 1890, only two firms were engaged in handling the 
porpoises, in preparing their hides, and in trying out their oil. The 
number of porpoises killed was 1,747, for which the fishermen received 
$4,398. The resulting manufactured products werevaluedat $10,350. 

North Carolina is the most southern State in v/liich the menhaden 
fishery and industry are carried on. The fishery may be said to be 
the only one except that for oysters in which vessels are employed, 
and it is the only off-shore vessel fishery in the State, although a 
considerable part of the fish handled, are caught in the sounds adja- 
cent to the ocean and not in the ocean itself. The business is centered 
at or in the vicinity of Beaufort, where six factories were in operation 
in 1890. The capital invested in buildings, vessels, apparatus, etc., 
was $97,060, the number of persons employed was one hundred and 
eightj^-seven, the value of the fish handled was $16,171, and the 
value of the manufactured products was $38,727. 

Most of the matter in the foregoing sketch was prepared by Dr. 
Hugh M. Smith, of the division of fisheries, from data obtained in an 
investigation of the fishing industries of North Carolina by the U. S. 
Fish Commission. Valuable information on certain features has also 
been furnished by Mr. S. G. Worth, formerly Superintendent of 
Fisheries in North Carolina, and now an officer of the National 

Dr. W. R. Capehart, of Avoca, Bertie county, the third of his 
direct generation engaged in commercial fishing, in a letter dated 
March, 1896, says: 

"In the Albemarle sound and its tributaries, the steam and horse 
power seines have invested in realty approximatelj' $100,000, and 
personalty $58,000, and this requires an annual expenditure of about 
$31,000 to keep up the wear and tear on the above valuations; and it 
must be born in mind that much of this annual expense is of a very 
perishable nature, as is the case with all coastal property, especially 
fishing apparatus. 

These plants give employment for about two months to one 
thousand persons, whose combined wages for this brief period aggre- 
gate $40,000. A few competent seine riggers and menders find a few 
months additional employment each year, which swells the above 
wage account about $5,000 more. 

The approximate annual value of the catch in seines for the terri- 
tory under discussion, is $176,000. This includes the iced fish 

150 North Carolina and its Resources. 

shipped in boxes to northern markets, and twenty thousand barrels of 
salt fish, valued at $82,000, which are sold almost exclusivel}^ in this 
and adjoining states. 

The scrap and waste from these seine fisheries is converted into 
fertilizing material, and gives an additional $8,000 to the annual value. 
Bear in mind that all of the above refers to seine fishing alone in the 
Albemarle sound and its tributaries. 

Now we come to pound or dutch nets, which will be considered 
for the same territory exclusively. As compared with seines this 
comprises by far the greater quantity of material. There are no less 
than 1 , 1 25 of these pound nets spread in the waters of the sound and 
its tributaries, which give employment to about 1,200 persons, with 
combined wages for the season of no less than $42,000. To give very 
briefly some idea of the cost of putting in this number of pound nets, 
it will not be amiss to state a few of the items. About one hundred 
and twenty-five boats valued at $15,625 are employed; about 32,000 
pine poles, from fifteen to thirty-five feet in length are required, and 
cost in the aggregate $5,500; no less than 265,000 yards of netting 
(twelve to twenty-four feet in depth), is used and at a cost of $110,800. 

The output from these 1,125 pound nets may be summarized as 
follows: 7,900 boxes (iced) fish, mostly shad, and 40,500,000 fish, 
mostly herring. The iced fish are worth about $85,000, and the 
others $140,000. 

Thus it will be seen that from these two sources alone — seines 
and pound nets — that no less than $387,925 are invested in the fisheries, 
apparatus, and in the annual wages paid, and that the value of the 
catch approximates $409,000. And there are no less than 2,200 
persons employed in prosecuting the work. 

There is no room to make mention of the other forms of apparatus 
or the resulting catch from them, except to a comparatively new 
departure in one branch of the fishing industry. I refer to the stur- 
geon fishing, now conducted almost exclusively for the roe sturgeon, 
which are valued for the large roe. This roe is converted by a very 
simple process — the application of German salt in a particular propor- 
tion — into a relish of much popularity in Germany and Russia, known 
as caviar. This caviar is packed into oak kegs or kits holding one 
hundred and twenty pounds each and shipped via New York to the 
foreign destinations referred to. The product is worth thirty- three 
and one-third cents per pound at present, and the price is rather 
upward than otherwise in its tendency. 

There are more than a hundred boats and over two hundred and 
fifty persons employed in the prosecuti'>n of this branch of fishing. 

Commercial Fisheries. i^i 

The increase in the volume of business done on the Albemarle 
and its tributaries may be briefly summarized by these facts recently 
obtained from transportation companies. From 1882 to 1892 — ten 
years — the increase of iced fish shipped was from 13,700 to 23,900 
boxes. From 1892 to January, 1896, the shipments have climbed to 
42,400." Very respectfully, 

W. R. Capehart. 

Comparing Dr. Capehart's later data with that of the United States 
Fish Commission for 1890, it will be observed that the Albemarle 
Sound and its tributaries present a most remarkable increase. In 
round numbers the 1895 value of the catch there is •, ery nearly equal 
to four-fifths of the total value of the catch for the State at large for 
the former yea-v. 

Source of Catch. iSgo: Value of Catch; 1S95: Value of Catch; 
State at Large. Albemarle Sound and 


Seines $401,036 |iS4,ooo 

Pound Nets 123,606 ^25,000 

Total $524,642 $409,000 

If the increase in the whole State has kept pace with that of the 
Albemarle sound, the value of the 1895 catch must have reached the 
two-million dollar mark. 


In the saline waters of North Carolina abound oysters, clams, 
scallops, crabs, shrimp, and diamond-back terrapin, in perfection of 
flavor. In commercial importance the oyster is of far greater value 
than all the others combined, and will be treated accordinglj' in what 

The abundance in which oysters were found along the Atlantic 
coast of the United States, and their superior excellence, made them at 
once, upon the settlement of the country along the waters which pro- 
vided them, an article both of subsistence and luxury. With the 
increase of interior population and the provision of quick and ready 
means of transportation, the use of them was enormously enlarged, 
and the distribution of them, in all the forms of use, became co-ex- 
tensive w4th the American continent, and v^^as not confined to that 
broad area, for Europe, in the diminution of its own supplies, and 
also in its recognition of the superiority of the American oyster, has 
been for a number of years a large consumer. The consequence is the 
depletion of many grounds once regarded as inexhaustible, the dimi- 

152 North Carolina and its Resources. 

nution in other waters where diminution seemed impossible, followed 
by the assertion of local rights, attempts at the exclusion of invading 
trespassers, contention, bloodshed; iinally legislative action and the 
effort to define rights by law, with power to assert and secure them 
by force; and all this made necessary because human nature knows 
no moderation in the use of the abundant free gifts of Providence, or 
in the attainment of that which leads to competency or wealth. 

The attempt to retrace the steps of past waste and neglect is 
what invariably follows in locking the stable door after the horse has 
gone — vain regrets and fruitless self-reproach. All the deep research 
of science, all the costly experiments of artificial breeding, all the 
labor of planting new territory of waters, will not bring back to Con- 
necticut, New York, Maryland and Virginia the store they wasted 
and the abundance they so universally squandered. 

It happens that there remains one treasure-house not yet 
plundered, one great water granary whose doors are not yet thrown 
wide open. North Carolina, overlooked and despised in the Eldorado 
of the Chesapeake, now, when the glories of the latter are fading, is 
found to possess what, with prudence, patience, legislative wisdom 
and local self-control, may be converted into a field quite as prolific 
as the once teeming oyster waters of Maryland and Virginia. Its 
sounds, its bays and its creeks, extending along the coast for 
hundreds of miles, give promise of natural conditions that will assure 
in time as large a product as ever existed in other waters. Some of 
these North Carolina waters are too much freshened by the influx of 
fresh-water rivers to have been the kadz'fai of thQ native oyster, or to be 
made available as beds for artificial culture; but in all the other waters 
which exist in the largest proportion, to which the salt waters of the 
ocean have ready access, the native oyster has always been found, and 
of great excellence. In the depletion of the oyster grounds of the 
Chesapeake and other waters, the enterprise of the oystermen of 
those localities was on the alert to save their industries from ruin, 
and the invasion of the North Carolina waters was rewarded with the 
discovery of a large relatively untried area. To check Vv^hat threatened 
to effect here what had been done elsewhere, and to secure the people 
of North Carolina in the possession of their rights, the aid of legisla- 
tion was earnestly invoked. 

One of the first decisive steps taken was the enactment of a law. 
ratified March 11, 1885, directing the State Board of Agriculture to 
cause a survey to be made, both of natural oyster-beds and private 
oyster gardens, with reference to the culture of shellfish. Under the 
act, the Governor was requested to ask the Federal Government to 

Shellfish. 153 

detail some person in the public service, expert in such matters, 
to make the necessary surveys. In compliance with the request 
Lieut. Francis Winslow, U. S. N., was detailed. He has made two 
reports, extracts from which are here made. 

In his first report he says the waters subject to the jurisdiction 
of North Carolina, consist mainly of twelve sounds, extending along 
the coast and connected with each other from the Virginia line in 
Lat. 36° 33' W. to the Cape Fear river in Lat. 34° 53' W. These 
sounds are Currituck, Albemarle, Roanoke, Croatan, Pamlico, Core, 
Bogue, Stump, Topsail, Middle, Masonboro and Myrtle, and four 
estuaries known as Bogue, Bear, Brown and New inlets. The harbor 
of Beaufort and the mouth of the Cape Fear river form other inlets. 
Some of these sounds, such as Albemarle and Currituck, being princi- 
pally fresh water, are excluded from the consideration of oyster 
culture. Albemarle Sound receives the waters of several large rivers, 
and contains within its own limits 5,631,400,000 tons of fresh water. 
The other v/aters are all suitable to the growth of the oyster in its 
native beds, or for its propagation by planting, Lieutenant Winslow 
saj'S in his second report: 

'Since the survey has been in progress, knowledge of the possi- 
bilities of the locality and of the business has become diffused among 
the citizens, not only of North Carolina, but of other States, and the 
effect has been to induce a large number of people to enter grounds. 
In Dare county, forty-three entries have been made, comprising at 
least twenty-six thousand acres. In Hyde county, three hundred and 
thirty-nine entries have been made comprising fully twenty-six 
thousand acres; and in Carteret County, ninety entries, com- 
prising nine hundred acres. Of these entries sixtj'-eight are by 
residents of other States, and four hundred and four by residents of 
North Carolina. Entries are still being made and warrants for sur. 
veys are still coming in, and in the course of another year it is quite 
possible that the territory may be doubled. But, as it is, an aggregate 
of fifty -three thousand acres entered is a suflScientl}^ gratifying indica- 
tion of the value of the survey and of the legislation it brought about- 

The cultivation of this immense tract will require a great deal of 
time, money and labor. Thousands of people r^ ust be emplo3'ed and 
hundreds of thousands of dollars spent. But ev :y dollar so expended 
goes to increase the material wealth of the State, and the employment 
of every man insures additional comforts and conveniencies to the 
families of the citizens of the seaboard counties. It is with pleasure 
that I have noted that one of the first, if not the first, to venture in 
this new field, is a citizen of Hyde county, who is reported to have 

154 North Carolina and its Resources. 

abandoned a profitable lumber business for the purpose of engaging in 
oyster growing, and who has, I understand, the intention of making 
as his original outlay a sum about equal to the total value, prior to 
1886, of the whole 03'ster industry of the State. 

The natural beds have not only been defined and located, but 
under the recent law much additional area adjacent to them has been 
set apart and excepted from entr3^ These areas are the public 
grounds, and by law they include the natural beds and sufficient area 
adjacent and surrounding them, to provide for their natural expan- 
sion. The provision for allowance for natural expansion has been 
liberally construed, as v^ill be seen b}^ the following summary of the- 
areas of the natural beds and public grounds: 

Area Area 

County. Public Grounds. Natural Beds. 

Dare 4,604.16 2,118.25 

Hyde 6,891.94 1,642.90 

Pamlico 4,495.61 437.00 

Carteret 4,561.40 1,012.50 

Total 20,553.11 5,210.65 

Or the area of the public grounds exceeds that of the natural beds 
by 15,343 acres. The natural beds of that portion of the State not 
under the operation of the new law comprise 3,381 acres; or the total 
acreage of natural beds is 8,591. 

The area reserved for the common fishery is thus ample for all 
time to come, and as these areas are excepted from entry, and as they 
include the natural beds, not only is an entry or appropriation of a 
natural bed prevented, but no person can, practically, enter near ?. 
natural bed. At the same time, as the grounds open to the general 
fishery are defined and known, the private cultivator is free from 
depredation under guise of the exercise of the common right of fishery. 
Thus the source of complaint of all classes interested is removed. 

The area entered will bring into the State Treasury over $1 2,000, 
a net gain over the entire expenses of over $7,000, and the taxes that 
eventually accrue to the counties and State may amount in the course 
of a comparatively few years to fully .$10,000 per annum." 

Legislation is now ample, if enforced, to protect and promote the 
oyster interests of the State. It is unlawful to use any instrument but 
hand-tongs to take oysters from State grounds, violation of which is- 
indictable as a misdemeanor. Only residents of the State are permitted 
to use instruments or boats upon State grounds; and nonresidents, 
upon conviction of violation of this provision, are to be fined not less 
than $-00, or be confined in the county jail, to be hired out by the 







Agriculture. 155 

Commissioners of the county for a term not less than one year. Resi- 
dents must obtain a license for the use of boats, and individuals desir- 
ing to catch oysters, whether on their own account or that of employers, 
must take out from the Clerk of the Court an annual license, paying 
for the same $2.50 and a Clerk's fee of twenty-five cents, and must 
make oath that he has been a bona fide resident of the State for twelve 
months next preceding the application for license. Oysters are to be 
culled on the public grounds when taken, and oysters of a specified 
size are to be returned to the waters on the public grounds. Oysters 
must not be taken from the public grounds between the first day of May 
and the first day of October. The control of the oyster interest is placed 
under charge of one Chief Commissioner, to be appointed by the 
Governor, and to hold office; and, to enable the Commissioner to dis- 
charge his duties of visiting the grounds and repelling and capturing 
interlopers, a patrol boat is provided, with authority to use arms when 

The oysters taken at the difierent points in the sounds and estu- 
aries vary much in size, shape and flavor. The New river oysters 
are much prized for size and flavor, and are probably the best known 
abroad. But the markets of Wilmington, Newbern, Washington and 
other points are supplied from their various oyster grounds with a 
shellfish of a quality not inferior to those taken at New river. With 
the care in cultivation, and the protection given by law, it is only a 
question of time when the waters of North Carolina will yield as 
abundantly as the waters of the Chesapeake have done, and, in quality 
of the oyster, with no inferiority. 

The diamond-back terrapin is found in all the coast country, a 
delicacy in such demand and of such value as to have become the sub- 
ject of legislative protection and of artificial cultivation. 

Clams abound, and are now recognized as valuable members af 
the family of shellfish. They are shipped in large quantities from. 
Newbern, Morehead City, and many other points. 

The same may be said of scallops, soft-shell crabs and shrimp. 
These delicacies are abundant and find ready sale both in local and 
distant markets 


"Every part of North Carolina has some one thing 
That will make it distinctly a great section.'' 

A. K. McCLtTRE. 

The geographical position of the State, occupying a commoH 
ground between the sub-tropical growth of the South and the more 

156 North Carolina and its Resources. 

hardy products of northern latitudes, and its geological formation, 
rising from a level with the sea on the east, through every degree of 
increasing elevation to the mountains of the west, where Mitchell 
rears his supreme summit, unite in the production of greater varieties 
of minerals, of forest, of flora and of agricultural products than are 
to be found in any like amount of territory in the United 

The palmetto, the magnolia and the live-oak are at home in the 
coast region, while among the mountains of the west the sugar- 
maple, the hemlock and white pines, the tamarack, balsam and rho- 
dodendron find congenial soil and climate for perfect development. 
"In the first case depression of level has associated the eastern section 
¥(rith the influences of the tropics; in the other the elevation has thrust 
it into association with Canadian atmospheric conditions. It will be 
readily understood, then, what a broad and fruitful field North Caro- 
lina presents, between the extremes presented, for the profitable cul- 
ture of nearly all the field crops, vegetables and fruits grown in the 
United States — the rice of the coast and the buckwheat of the moun- 
tains; the cotton of the South and the flax of New England, the corn, 
the wheat, the rye and the oats, the potatoes, peas, sorghum, the 
tobacco, vegetables, fruits, grapes, grasses, everything, — which, if 
North Carolina knew herself, and if the stranger knew her as she ought 
to be known, would make her the most coveted and most prosperous 
country on which the sun sheds his fertilizing beams." 

This great variety and abundance of resources of diSerent sec- 
tions of the State not onlj'^ might supply the wants of her own people 
but tend to stimulate and exchange among themselves of their sur- 
plus products, securing thereby better prices by the saving of freights 
over long lines of transportation. 

While, therefore, North Carolina may not compete with some of 
the other great agricultural states in such special product as each 
may excel in, yet combining the variety and universality of produc- 
tion, the capacity for self-sustenance, the "some one thing" that each 
section excels in; and added to these things the healthfulness and 
pleasantness of the climate, the beauty of the landscape, the hospital- 
ity of the people; the assertion is boldly and confidently made that 
she surpasses all the others. 

The soil of the eastern counties is mostly of alluvial formation, 
and remarkably easy of cultivation; cotton, corn, tobacco, peanuts, 
sweet and Irish potatoes vie with each other in making generous 
response to intelligent and kindly treatment of the soil; while stone 
fruits and pears, small fruits and garden products attest its almost 

Agricltlture. 157 

universal adaptation to all agricultural productions for the susten- 
ance of mankind. 

It is in the eastern counties where the trucking industry has 
reached its highest development, rapidly increasing its productions 
from small beginnings, some ten years ago, to its present great com- 
mercial value. Here is the natural home of the sweet potato, North 
Carolina excelling all other states in the quantity and quality of its 

The Coastal Plain region gradually merges into the Piedmont 
Plateau, the divisional line between which may be said in a general 
way to transverse the State from northeast to southwest, passing a 
little east of Raleigh, the capital of the State; the Piedmont extend- 
ing westwardly from this line to a tier of counties, bordering the Blue 
Ridge, where the Mountain region fairly begins. The Piedmont is 
that favored region where blend harmoniously the climate, soil and 
products of the east and the west, the north and the south; where the 
invalid seeking a soft but invigorating climate, where the farmer in 
search of land that never fails to make a return of the kindly fruits of 
the earth, where the vineyardist and orchardist whose products most 
excel, where the stock breeder and dairyman who need positive con- 
ditions for success, where the tobacco planter, determined with his 
"brights" to top the market, may each come and may each find a 
locality with conditions to meet his especial needs. 

To the westward lies the Mountain region, an elevated plateau, 
broken into chains and spurs of mountains and alternating valleys. 
No great surplus of valuable crops finds its way to distant markets 
from this region; few big farms require the labor of many hands; but 
the conditions excel for the industrious farmer, who may here sur- 
round himself with all those products of comfort and luxury which 
constitute an "independent living," corn, wheat, rye, oats, hay, Irish 
potatoes, apples, sorghum, buckwheat, butter, cheese, milk, honey 
and numerous vegetables. The field is a wide one for growing the 
finest winter apples; for dairy products, for vegetable growing, and 
for canning establishments. The uncleared mountains and hills 
grow heavy forests of valuable trees, their soil being equal if not 
superior to that of the valleys. 

This is that ' 'Land of the Sky, ' ' written of in poetry and romance; 
the home of a brave, truehearted and kindly people; the paradise 
alike of the millionaire and the peasant — whose soft beauty and 
rugged grandeur are a perpetual joy and inspiration. 

Who, standing on the proud summit of Mount Mitchell and con- 
templating all the goodly State spread out before him, will not 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

exclaim with the Hon. W. D. Kelly, of Pennsylvania: "North Caro- 
lina is the fairest portion of God's earth on which my feet have ever 


North Carolina has never been among the foremost of the cotton 
growing States, for although nearly all of the ninety-six counties of 
the State make report of the crop in the census tables, as a matter of 
fact, more than one-half the cotton producing area is confined to 
twenty-eight counties. Nor have the farmers of this cotton section 
been so dependent on the planting of cotton, that they might not 
readily increase or diminish production by adoption of other crops to 
correspond with ruling prices in the markets of the world; hence, as 
should be expected, the statistics, such as were made from 1801 to 
1840, when crop returns were first enumerated in the census reports, 
and the census reports from 1840 to 1890, all show that the cotton 
production of the State has been marked b)-^ greater fluctuations than 
that of an}' other State. The following table indicates the variable- 
ness of production, and gives the total products at different periods in 
the State's history: 

Year. Pounds. Bai^ks. 

1801 4,000,000 

1821 10,000,000 

1826 18,000,000 

1833 10,000,000 

1839, Census 51,926,190 

1849, " 29,538,000 

1859. " 64,753,730 

1869, " 62,901,790 

1879, " 176,487,894 389.598 

1889, " 160,396,497 336,261 

1895, Dept. of Agriculture 339,499 

This fluctuation in production is undoubtedly due to variation in 
price, and to the ready adaptability of the soil to grow such other 
crops as corn, wheat, oats, tobacco, rice, hay, &c., which has wisely 
limited the production of cotton in large quantities to those counties 
where it is grown with greater profit. Even in these, the cotton acre- 
age comprises but a small proportion of the total area. 

While the average yield of cotton is shown to be less, a bale to 
the acre and twenty bales to the mule are not uncommon. This 
indeed, might be the rule under a wise system of rotation and a judi- 
cious use of fertilizers and leguminous crops. 

The quality of the fibre grown is excellent, the proportion of lint 
to weight of seed being larger than the product of any other State 

Cotton. 159 

Of the seed product, 70,341 tons are reported in the census of 
1S90, valued at $718,741 — no inconsiderable item in the value of the 
crop. But as the best cotton yields only about thirty-three per cent, 
of lint, evidently the tons of seed reported to a crop of over 336,000 
bales, were less than half the actual product, which was in the 
neighborhood of 160,000 tons. The amount reported represented 
probably the sales, the balance going into home consumption. 

Compared with other States, North Carolina stands eighth in 
amount of production. "Neither as a whole, nor in any considerable 
portion of its area, is the cotton production of North Carolina distin- 
guished for its density. Of the entire land surface of the State, 3.69 
per cent, was devoted to cotton planting in 1889, or little more than 
one-third the proportion obtaining in the adjacent State of South 
Carolina." (Extract Census, 1890.) 

The counties producing the largest number of bales are, in 
descending order of production, Mecklenburg, Wake, Richmond, 
Robeson, Johnston, Edgecombe, Pitt, Wa3'-ne, Wilson, Anson, Cleve- 
land and Union 


The easy adaptability of the soil of North Carolina elsewhere 
commented upon, and the increase or decrease in the production of 
different crops to fit the varying conditions of the markets, is not 
better illustrated than in the rapid and enormous enlargement of the 
tobacco area and product, as cotton, the other great money producing 
crop of the State, has been steadily declining in value. These two 
great crops may be considered correlative to each other, that one being 
predominant which for the time returns the greater remuneration. 
The price of cotton declining, tobacco remaining firm, cotton planting 
is curtailed, tobacco acreage increased. Should the reverse in prices 
occur, cotton would again increase and tobacco planting decline. 
This rule cannot apply to all the cotton district, nor to all the tobacco 
district, but a large scope of territory is common to the production of 
both crops, and it is this common ground which gives the preponder- 
ance to the one or the other. 

Nearly all the counties in the State raise tobacco, in patches for 
home consumption, if not for market; but the crop for market pur- 
poses was confined, as shown by the census of 1890, chiefly to thirty 
counties. Of these thirty, onl}^ eleven are accredited with over a 
million pounds, and these eleven counties produced two-thirds of the 
crop of '89. These are, in descending order of production : Rocking- 
ham, Granville, Stokes, Caswell, Person, Madison, Vance, Forsyth, 
Buncombe, Surry and Durham. 

i6o North Carolina and its Resources. 

The following table shows the production for the State at large 
as given in the census reports since 1850: 

Acres. Pounds. 

1850 11,984,786 

i860 32,853,250 

1870 11,150,087 

1880 57,208 26,986,213 

1890 97,077 36,375,258 

Since the census report of 1890 was taken, the decline in price of 
cotton has greatly stimulated the production of tobacco in the counties 
of Wilson, Nash, Edgecombe, Green, Lenoir, Beaufort, Pitt, Wash- 
ington, Franklin, Wayne, Wake, Martin, Bertie and Halifax. 

Some of these are now in the front rank of the tobacco producing 
counties of the State, both in quantity and quality of the product. 

Col. Cameron in his admirable treatise on tobacco, in the Hand- 
book of North Carolina, issued in 1893, discredits the correctness of 
the census report of the crop of 1889, and in support of his position 
quotes from a very carefully prepared address of Mr. W. W. Wood, 
President of the State Tobacco Association, made to that body in 
August, 1891. Col. Cameron exonerates the enumerators of the cen- 
sus from carelessness or intentional error, and explains the discrepancy 
of their reports with the actual amount of production. Mr. Wood 
makes his estimates from entirely different sources, and reaches the 
conclusion that the crop amounted to 76,000,000 pounds. That Mr. 
Wood's estimate was none too large, and showing also the enormous 
increase in production during the past six years, the highest possible 
confirmation is now adduced. 

The U. S. Department of Agriculture, working carefully and con- 
stantly through its different agencies, is the most reliable authority 
on crop productions of any in the United States. The crop report for 
March, 1896, says: 

"Between 1888 and 1893, no returns of tobacco were published 
by the department, and a comparison of the figures for recent crops 
with those of receipts for manufacture and net exports, published by 
the Treasury, leaves ample room for a suspicion that the whole pro- 
duct was at no time reported. The correspondents' returns of yield 
and acreage compared with the year before, appearing in the monthly 
statistical reports for 1895, having been found to give a total product 
considerably less than that actually brought to light in previous years, 
the statistician instituted in December a special investigation of the 
subject, a circular of additional inquiries being sent to all the tobacco 
producing States. The results of that investigation are embodied in 

Tobacco. i6f 

the following table, where the column showing farm values was com- 
puted from the prices reported in December, 1895. In most of the 
States where an increase appears a correction of last year's acreage is 
probably involved. North Carolina, however, with more t'nan double 
the acreage and product reported in 1894, plainly shows the stimulus 
of local manufacture. 

The loss to the crop was severe in Virginia and in the mountain 
region of North Carolina:" 

Acres. Pounds. Doi^lars. 

Connecticut 6,579 9,928,000 1,638,120 

Pennsylvania 15,600 14,305,000 1,058,570 

Maryland 15.233 12,796,000 742,168 

Virginia 88,463 53,432,000 4,274,560 

North Carolina... 143,156 114,525,000 10,536,300 

Tennessee 53>890 43,220,000 3,025,400 

Kentucky 223,574 179, 553, 000 9,526,909 

Ohio 35,969 25,358,000 1,318,613 

Indiana 13, 435 8,760,000 770,080 

Missouri 10,580 8,718,000 758,466 

The statistics here given demonstrate the wonderful suitableness 
of certain sections of the State to the growth of tobacco. 

Standing sixth in point of production in 1879, -curth in 1889, 
in 1895 North Carolina forges ahead and stands second to Kentucky 
only in amount of production, and first of all the States in the value of 
her prodnct^ exceeding Kentucky by over one million dollars. 

An analysis of the figures show an average production of the 
State at large of eight hundred pounds per acre, worth nine and one- 
fifth cents per pound, giving the average value of yield per acre of 

With the exception or Louisiana, whose product of sugar and 
molasses does not exceed in value per acre, no other State can 
approach, in agricultural product, the record here made of North 
Carolina's crop of tobacco. 

When it is considered that the bulk of a tobacco crop is neces- 
sarily of inferior grades, the superiority of our " brights " and 
"mahoganies" becomes apparent, which increase the average value 
to nine and one-fifth cents per pound, and to $73.60 per acre. To 
quote again from Mr. Wood's admirable paper: 

* ' Within her borders is produced such a variety of high grade 

leaf, and in such quantities as is nowhere else to be found the 

world over. Upon her high type of cutting leaf, the great cigarrette 

business of the world was built up. Her unsurpassed smokers, 

produced in the "Golden Belt," placed her granulated smoking 

i62 North Carolina and its Resources. 

tobacco at a premium over all others in the world. Her mahogany 
types of fillers and v.-rappers, are by chewers of tobacco, every- 
where preferred before all others." 


Historians tell us that the cultivation of rice dates back to nearly 
three thousand years B. C, and though it is indigenous to India, the 
first mention of its culture is among the Chinese. It was cultivated 
in S3'ria, four hundred years B. C, was introduced by the Arabs into 
Spain, and the fifteenth century, was planted by the Italians. The 
first rice raised in America was at Charleston, S. C, in the seventeenth 
century, and from that beginning sprang the rice crop of the present. 
Before the introduction of rice into this State, in 1738, the tide-water 
low lands were seeded to indigo, which gradually gave place to the 
more remunerative crop. Wild indigo still troubles the rice miller 
more than all other weeds, as its discoloring effect upon the 
cleaned product is disastrous. There are two varieties of rice, the 
white and the golden seed, both have adherents as to superiority. 
PJce can be grown upon all lauds, but to be successful on an exten- 
sive scale, there should be proper facilities for irrigating the crop at 
its critical periods. The upland rice is inferior in size, color and 
weight, but makes an additional food crop under careful treatment. 

The benefits derived from vv^ater in the cultivation of rice are 
many, the most important perhaps being the destruction of grass and 
v/eeds, and it also destroys some pestiferous insects. The water is 
also necessary when the grain begins to fill and the rice to ripen. 
Drainage is as necessarj- as irrigation. The v/hole qiestion of water 
must be so handled as to be under the complete control of the planter; 
Vkdiile rice is a water plant, it may be easily killed with too much 
water. The rice lands of the lower Cape Fear river, are as fertile as 
any in the world, and will yield from fifty to sixty bushels to the acre, 
though the average is considerably less. From two and a half to 
three bushels are seeded to the acre. To prevent floating, the seed 
are clayed by the use of clay and water, and then dried before sown. 
As soon as sown, the fields are flooded. This is the " spring flow " 
and remains until the plant is up, then drained and kept dry until the 
rice shows distinctly over the entire field, when it is again flooded 
v/itli the " stretch flow," which covers the plant entirely and remains 
for some days, when the water is drawn to a " stand," that is, enough 
is taken off to allow the tips of the plants to show on the surface of 
the v/ater. This " stand " of water remains until the plant has had 
time to regain the strength of stalk lost in the "stretch" flow, and 

The Peaxut. 163 

the plant will straighten up vrithii: twenty aa5"S, when all the water 
is taken off and the fields kept dry for a like period. Then the 
"harvest flow" is turned on, and remains for about two months, or 
v/ithin a few days before the Ii.irv-est begins. On August 20th, never 
varying more three days, the multitudinous rice bird puts in his 
appearance. They come in such vast flocks that men and bo5's with 
guns must be stationed at intervals in and around the fields to prevent 
the destruction of the crop. Six weeks after the appearance of the 
first head of rice, the crop is ready for harvest. A sickle is used, the 
laborers are paid by the acre for cutting and tying into bundles- 
After one da3''s exposure it is shocked in the field, and after ten da5^s 
it is ready for the barn. The threshing is done by steam, and the 
grain, weighing forty-five pounds to the bushel, is shipped in bags 
and sold to the miller, who cleans and grades it for consumption. To 
Mr. Fred. Kidder, of Wilmington, must be given the credit for this 
article. He is a practical rice planter and has been among the most 
successful in this State. 

In North Carolina there are about 12,200 acres devoted to this 
crop, divided between upland and lowland varieties, and the annual 
jvield is stated at about 6,000,000 pounds. 

At Wilmington is located the National Rice Milling Company, 
w^hich handles a large portion of the crops raised in this and adjoining 
States. At Goldsboro, a similar mill is operated, cleaning upland as 

well as tide water rice. 


It is said that the peanut (Arachis hypcgala) has never been 
found growing wild, and that botanists have been unable to ascertain 
its nativity, though it is claimed to have originated in Brazil and in 
India; but it is indigenous to most all tropical countries. It is a ver}^ 
important crop in the United States and occupies considerable atten- 
tion, especially in Virginia, the Carolinas and Tennessee, where it is 
grown extensively for the markets. About one-fourth of the area of 
North Carolina may be said to be especially adapted to th2 growth of 
high grade peanuts, though the nut flourishes in all parts of the State. 
The region referred to is the northeastern part of the State, where it 
is grown in large quantities. The annual production for this part of 
North Carolina may be stated in round numbers at 500,000 bushels, 
based upon the estimate of the census, which is considered far below the 
real figures. Peanuts are marketed by "factory-men," that is to say. 
the nuts after being dug are sold to factories which put them through a 
slight polishing process and sort out the faulty nuts, when the fancy 
factory-cleaned product is so labeled, and sold in bags to the trade all 

1 6-1 North Carolina and its Resources. 

over the world. Not infrequently the following legend adorns the 
North Carolina nut: " Fancy hand-picked Virginia peanuts." This, 
however, does not detract from the excellence of the nut, but points 
ovit the fact that the factory is over our northern border. There is a 
movement among our own farmers to introduce cleaning factories 
and establish brands, which, if accomplished, will greatly stimulate 
the production as well as increase the prices received by the grower. 


Besides the crops referred to somewhat in detail above, the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington accredits the State with 
producing in 1895: 

Of Corn 36,378,412 bushels. 

" Wheat 4,748,552 

" Oats 7,652,333 

" Rye . 437,599 

" Buckwheat 18,624 

" Irish Potatoes 1,461,026 

" Hay 273,540 tons. 

For other products not given b}^ the Department of Agriculture 
for the year 1895, reference must be had again to the census report of 
1890. This gives: 

Of Sweet Potatoes 5,665,391 bushels. 

" Rice » 5,846,404 pounds. 

" Sorghum 1,268,946 gallons. 

" Apples 7,591,541 bushels. 

" Peaches 2,740,915 bushels. 

As stated elsewhere the above product of sweet potatoes is the 
largest reported from any of the States. 

As evidence of the importance and spread of smaller industries, 
the following, taken also rrom the census, may be given. It is con- 
fidently believed that the same rate of increase has been maintained , 
if not enlarged, during the last six years. 

Dairy products increased from 7,212,507 lbs. butter in 1880 to 
13,129,374 lbs. butter in 1S90; poultry increased from 2,071,616 
chickens in 1880 to 7.507,593 chickens in 1890; eggs, from 7,455,132 
doz. to 11,755,635 doz.; honey, from 1,591,590 lbs. to 2,373,560 lbs. 
Estimated value of all farm products $50,070,530, for the last census 


--'"0 ^'^^'/^^^y.-'^^) 






Model Farms. 165 


North Carolina being essentially an agricultural State, it is 
expected that here are to be found numbers of excellent farms, well 
tilled. The visitor to the State will find in each of the counties some 
farms which are distinguished for their high state of cultivation and 
conspicuous because of remarkable yields annually harvested. These 
occur in most all of the counties, but it is not of these, numerous and 
profitable as they are, that reference is to be made. It is to a class of 
farms which may be designated as models, and which are distinguish- 
able for some special feature, that will receive brief mention here. 
Beginning in the eastern part of the State, the first that comes under 
observation is the 

Glenoe Stock Farm. — The property of Mr. Thos. Mclntyre. 
It is on New river a few miles below Jacksonville, in Onslow county, 
and embraces a large tract of level, sandy loam, which is highly 
improved and is growing all farm products and truck successfully. 
Besides, its barns are stocked with thorough and trotting-bred horses, 
Jersey, Holstein and other improved cattle, sheep and swine. It has 
a large poultry division, embracing all the leading fowls, including 
ducks, geese and turkeys. 

OccoNEECHEE Farm. — This farm is situated in Orange county, 
near Hillsboro, and is the property of Col. Julian S. Carr, of Durham, 
and like the above, is a model in its equipment of houses, barns and 
of stock. Here some of the most noted horses are kept, and the best 
types of cattle, sheep and swine; also all kinds of poultry. 

The Duke Farm. — This farm, also in Orange county, is at Uni- 
versity Station, on the North Carolina branch of the Southern Rail- 
way system; it is the property of Mr. W. Duke, of Durham, and is a 
model in its landscape as well as its more practical agricultural feat- 
ures. The farm has only been in operation a few years under its 
present ownership, and for so brief a period exhibits remarkable 
development, and yet only presents a crude picture of its future beauty 
and usefulness. 

The Rockwell Farm. — The Rockwell Dairy farm in Rowan 
county, at Rockwell Postoffice, may be taken as a type of the dairy 
farms which are springing up all over the State. This is the property 
of E. B. C. Hambly, and comprises a herd of more than a hundred of 
the choicest Jersey cattle to be found in this country, and the farm is 
conducted with a view of keeping this herd in typical con- 

1 66 North Carolina and its Resources. 


The sections of the Biltmore Estate now devoted to agricultural 
purposes are, with the exception of the tract known as the Plateau 
Farm, adjacent to the French Broad and Swannanoa rivers. The 
farm lands cover the alluvial bottoms and the neighboring hillsides. 
These bottoms were (fortunately for the present owner) originally too 
swampy to yield their full fertility to the cultivator. Now, however, 
they are the most productive portion of the farming lands. This 
result has been attained by systematic underdraining and deep culti- 
vation, nearly two hundred miles of drain tile having been laid in the 
past few years. The hillsides are a typical example of those in the 
South Vv'hich have been left to the tender mercies of the "renter." 
Continuous cropping without any return of fertilit}^ shallow cultiva- 
tion, and the washing down of the thin top soils, had reduced most of 
the land — never originally very fertile — to a condition in which the 
ordinary farmer would have abandoned it to broom-sedge and scrub 
pines. What it is possible to do w^ith such impoverished soils five 
years of persistent effort is beginning to show. The introduction of 
the clovers and cow peas into the rotation wherever possible, deep 
plowing and subsoiling, together with light yearly applications of 
manure or bone meal, have increased the returns threefold. The 
wages paid on these farms are almost double the regular rates, and it 
is only b}^ securing heavy crops, far above the average, that there can 
be any return for the large expenditure. 

Nearly all the hillside fields have been seeded dovv^n to pasture 
and the cultivated crops concentrated on the bottoms, where such 
labor-saving tools as gang-plows, grain and corn harvesters, can be 
profitabl}^ used. 

Many small farms were included in the purchases under which 
the estate was acquired. The majority of these were so scattered and 
remote that the only rational treatment was to replant them with the 
most suitable forest growths. Other tracts of cleared land were 
turned over to the landscape gardener to beautify, or were occupied 
by the constantly growing nursery department. Moreover, the Abor- 
etum road, tired of its picturesque winding among the hills and creeks 
comes out into the bottoms, taking in one bold dash some of the finest 
farming land on the estate. 

Certain fairly compact bodies of cultivated land, amounting in all 
to some 1, 800 acres, were retained for cropping, primarily for home 
supplies, viz: to feed the large number of work mules and horses 
which were needed for the heavy grading, hauling of material and 
road building. Manure for landscape planting was also needed, and 


BiLTMORE Farms. 167 

this was produced by the beef cattle fed en the farms. The Sheep 
and Ferry farms were at the same time set aside for the production of 
mutton and pork, but the low price of beef made the cost of the 
manure too high, and after a year spent in trying to produce 3^2 cent 
steers profitably, high grade Jersey cows were substituted. The sale 
of milk and butter from these was satisfactory, since previous! 3- all 
the fancy butter consumed in Asheville had been imported from the 
West. By the use of well bred Jersej" sires on these grades, a good 
v/orking dair^' has been graduall}' built up. 

The calls for registered stock, to form or to improve other herds 
in the South, have been so numerous that it has been decided to meet 
this- demand. During the last tv,-elve months sevent5"-one head of 
highh'-bred Jerseys have been purchased from four different herds, 
and it is intended to continue breeding, purchasing and culling out 
stock, until a herd is established which will be second to none. There 
are now over two hundred head on the estate, half of which are 
registered stock. 

The latest addition to the farms is an extensive Poultry Depart- 
ment. Its object is twofold. First, the production of broilers, eggs, 
etc., for the table of the owner; secondh', the improvement of the 
common barnyard fowl of the South b\' the introduction of better 
stock. For nearly a year an expert vrho acts as judge at the most 
important exhibitions in the United States and Canada has been com- 
missioned to purchase the best stock procurable. That he has suc- 
ceeded in this effort, all will agree who have inspected the pens of 
Gold and Silver Wyandottes, Barred and White Plymouth Rocks, 
Light Brahmas, Buff Cochin and Indian Games. The hatchings from 
these pens are promising to make a record at the shows next autumn. 

In the market gardens a call for high-class vegetables and small 
fruits has been met (a demand which is heaviest during the winter 
months), by the erection of a very complete group of buildings, 
comprising forcing houses, storage and root houses, office, carpenter- 
shop, shipping shed, etc. This department is conducting an 
extended series of tests of the varieties of vegetables and small fruits 
most suitable to this region. Most of the land is under irrigation, 
and this sj^stem will shortly be extended over the whole thirty acres, 
making it, vv'ith the underdrainage, almost independent of the rain- 
fall. Everj^ soil found in this section is represented here, from the 
black muck to red clay and almost pure sand. 

These buildings, with the sheep-barns on another farm, are the 
first permanent buildings to be erected for farming purposes. It is 
hardly necessary to say that they are constructed on the same liberal 

1 68 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

scale as everj'thing else on the Estate, of the best and most perma- 
nent materials, and that thej^ are furnished with all that is known to 
increase the perfection of the product or lessen the labor of the 

Nor are those who have a "sweet tooth" forgotten, for on the 
west side of the French Broad river, where the sourwood is the 
thickest and the wild flowers most varied and luxuriant, an apiarj^ 
has been placed. Here the gentle, golden-hued, Italian bees, of 
which there are over one hundred colonies, produce delicious honey, 
both "comb" and "extracted," literally by the ton. 

A flock of over two hundred Southdown sheep is kept on the 
Sheep Farm, and supplies mutton and lamb for consumption on the 
Estate. This flock will be added to largel}- , in the near future. 

From the Ferry Farm, one hundred and forty Berkshire and 
grade Berkshire swine were last season made into ham, bacon and 
sausage, all of which has been consumed by employees of the Estate. 

Only those branches of agriculture which are best suited to these 
mountain sections, and the study of which will be of benefit to the 
neighboring farmer, have been undertaken; no " fancy farming" has 
been indulged in, nor has anything been done for show. An elaborate 
system of bookkeeping for each department gives at the end of the 
month the difference between cost and receipts. This is done with 
tie conviction that experiments are of but little service to the average 
farmer, unless it can be shown to him by actual figures that improved 
methods bring improved returns. 

The work is conducted on so large a scale that some years are 
still required to bring all departments into running order and to per- 
fect the v/hole scheme. When that result is attained every efibrt will 
be made to give the public the benefits of experiments, by means of 
institute meetings, etc., in the hope that some may be encouraged to 
produce the proverbial two blades of grass where one or none has 
grown before. 

In the selection of farm help preference is given to young men, 
many of whom have already saved sufficient funds to purchase their 
own farms, and are starting in life with the determination to carry 
out a system which will yearly give them larger yields, and, there- 
fore, better homes. 


The State Agricultural Societj'^ will hold this year, 1896, its 
tliirty-sixth annual fair. It has large and conveniently located 
grounds near the city of Raleigh; fine half mile track, with ample 





Horticulture. 169 

buildings to cover all classes of exhibits. The society has done 
much to encourage agriculture, and to promote the raising of fine 
horses, cattle, sheep and swine. Its annual fairs call together not 
onl}^ the farmers but all classes of our people, for social pleasure and 
to compare notes and see the progress made in the avocations of 
farmer, trucker, gardener and fruitgrower. The fair is always held 
in October. 

Col. Benehan Cameron is President, and Mr. John Nichols, 



North Carolina has such a varied climate, ranging from the 
Mountain region, with its white pines, hemlocks and firs to the lower 
edge of the Coastal Plain region where we come within the northern 
limit of the forest growth of palm trees, that its capacity and adapt- 
ability for fruit culture is naturally divided into a number of regions. 
For this purpose we will divide the Coastal Plain region into two 
sections, the low level country bordering on the ocean and sounds, and 
extending inland an average of one hundred and twenty-five miles, 
and the Sand Hill section intervening between this and the Piedmont 
Plateau region. This last Plateau we also divide into lower and 
upper Piedmont, the lower part extends to the line of the Uharrie 
mountains, Occoneechee hills and Rougemont; the upper from these 
to the Blue Ridge. The Mountain region we will consider as a 
whole. For the consideration of the capacity of fruit culture we 
then make after these general divisions of the State five pomological 

The Coastal Plain Section is an extensive region of level land 
at a moderate elevation above the sea. The soil is generally of a sandy 
nature, interspersed with occasional clay beds, and many wide 
stretches of black, peaty soil of an almost inexhaustiL fertility. On 
the higher sandy lands the peach and plum find congenial homes. 
It is not as a rule a good apple country, the warm climate and the 
nature of the soil not being favorable to the apple, but there are very 
good apples grown in some parts, particularly of the early summer 
sorts for the Northern markets. But the fruit which thrives here to the 
greatest perfection of any of the orchard fruits is the pear. Nowhere 

ijo JNoRTH Carolina and its Kesources. 

else do pears attain such perfection as on the Coastal plain, and 
nowhere can the culture of this fruit be carried on more profitably 
with intelligent culture, though the culture at present there is not 
extensive except in a few localities. Here is the great home of the 
Scuppernong grape. In all the Coast region this grape attains 
greater perfection than any where else. It is in fact the native home 
of this grape and the place from which it has been disseminated. 
Seedling varieties of the same class of grapes have originated in this 
favored region. But while the Scuppernong is a russet grape the 
other varieties are almost invariably black. The finest of these 
grapes of the Rottindifolia class is the Jar-'i'^s, from Pitt Co., a grape 
of the largest size, fully as large as a good sized Damson plum, and 
decidedly the finest of its class. But it is the strawberry that has 
made for itself a greater place in the horticulture of the Coastal 
plain than any other fruit. The soil seems particularly adapted to 
the growing of the strawberry in the greatest perfection, and the 
earliness of the climate makes the crop of particular value for 
northern shipment. The persistent bearing of the strawberry in this 
section is a source of w^onder to all who see it for the first time. In 
the North, the strawberry season is a short one and soon over, but in 
this favored region the plants seem to never know when the season is 
over. Strawberries are commonly found in abundant supply on the 
tables of growers there the middle of July, from fields which sent 
the fruit to market the first week in April. Of course the shipping 
season for the northern markets ceases when the supply north of us 
becomes plentiful, but strawberries can be had most of the summer in 
this region. The strawberrj^ business has reached large proportions 
in the counties of Craven, I^enoir, AVaj-ne, Duplin, Pender, New 
Hanover, and Columbus, and is one of the most rapidly grovdng 
interests along the Atlantic Coast Line railroad. Blackberries do 
equally well though there has not been so much attention paid to 
their culture. The Lucretia dewberry, v^^hich can be shipped from 
this section in May has been found to be very profitable and its 
culture as well as that of the high bush varieties is extending. 
Raspberries have not been cultivated to much extent, as they are 
found not to ship so well long distances. Cherries, except the 
Morello and Duke classes do not thrive well in the Coastal region. 
The Chinese quince and the fine variety known as the Champion, 
which does not do very well at the North, would be found profitable 
fruits here. 

Fruit Growing. 171 

The Sand Hill Section. — This is the beginning of the great 
sand}' ridge that extends in a southwest direction from North 
Carolina, through South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana and terminates in Texas. It extends in this State 
through parts of the counties of Harnett, Cumberland, I.Ioore 
and Richmond, and is a well marked line of division between the 
Coastal plain and the lower Piedmont regions. It is a region of 
elevated sandy ridges, covered with a growth of long leaf pine, now 
in most sections very largely depleted by the operations of the turpen- 
tine gatherers and the lumbermen, which is being followed by a 
growth of scrub oaks of various species. Until recent years it has 
been a wild forest with little attempt to cultivate the apparently 
barren soil. The dr}^ soil and the balmy climate have of late years 
attracted attention to the region as a winter resort for persons afflicted 
with diseases of the throat and lungs, and the great benefit which has 
been received by many who have come there for their health, h?.3 led 
to permanent settlements of Northern people at Southern Pines and 
Pinehurst in Moore count5^ These settlers began to experiment with 
the cultivation of the soil, and it was found that this apparently 
barren soil has a v/onderful capacity for the cultivation of fruits of 
various kinds, particularly the grape, peach and blackberry. About 
the settlement know as Southern Pines, it is estimated that there are 
now about one thousand acres planted in grapes. These are grown 
entirely for shipping as fresh fruit to the northern markets, in July and 
August, though some experiments have been made in v.'ine making. 
Grapes start from this section about the middle of July and the cul- 
ture has been found remunerative to those who have given their 
vinej^ards proper attention. The Delaware and Niagara grapes grown 
here are noted as the best that reach the northern markets. More 
recently the peach has been planted. One orchard of three hundred 
and fifty acres paid in the fourth 5^ear, a profit of twenty per cent, on 
its cost in its first crop, and peaches are being planted more exten- 
sively than an}' other fruit; several hundred acres being set out 
the present spring (i8g6). The blackberry, mainly the Wilson Earl}'- 
variety, has been largely planted, and as the fruit reaches the 
northern market before strawberries are ripe they have been very 
profitable. Some have grown the I^ucretia dewberry, which goes to 
market the last of Ma}', and it has been found to be particularly 
profitable. Few experiments have been made here with straw- 
berries, but there is evidence that in proper locations they will be a 
very profitable crop. It is believed that other fruits can be grown 
equally Vv'ell here, such as the Japanese and American plums, and 

172 North Carolina and its Resources. 

some planting has been done. The State Horticultural Society in 
connection with and under the supervision of the N. C. Agricultural 
Experiment Station, has organized an extensive series of experiments 
with fertilizers on fruits of various kinds and vegetables which it is 
hoped will develop results of value to this section. At present it 
seems to be the peach and grape region par excellence of the State. 
The low price of land, and the ease with which it can be placed under 
cultivation, together with the healthy climate and splendid water, are 
attracting a class of intelligent settlers from the North, and the coun- 
try will soon become a community of fruit growers. It is elevated 
above the humid climate of the coast from five hundred to six hun- 
dred feet, w^hile the winter climate is warmer than that of the Mountain 
region and the dry air is very soothing to invalids, who can spend 
nearly all the winter in the open air. 

As intimated, the peach thrives in the Sand Hill region as well 
as the grape, and the development of the culture of this fruit has 
of late outstripped even the grape there. The most notable orchard 
there is that owned by the J. Van I^indley Company, near Southern 
Pines. This Company has now in bearing over three hundred and 
fifty acres in peaches, and has extended its planting the present spring 
(1896), to the extent of about one hundred acres more. The inten- 
tion is to make the orchard finally cover one thousand acres. 
The crop from this orchard, in 1895, was the first crop from the trees, 
and is said to have paid twenty per cent, on the investment on the 
whole tract of over one thousand acres. The same Company has 
planted about ten thousand pear trees, which are in a flourishing con- 
dition, but not as yet in a bearing state. The success of this large 
peach orchard has greatly stimulated the planting of trees in the 
Saud Hill country, and the available land in the immediate vicinity 
of the railroads, is rapidly being taken up and advancing in price. 

Experiments. — The State Horticultural Society has lately under- 
taken, in connection with the Agricultural Experiment Station, the 
most extensive experiments in the fertilization of fruit trees, vines 
and vegetables that have ever been attempted in the United States. 
The grounds are situated near the great Eiudley peach orchard, in 
the vicinity of Southern Pines, and comprise two separate plats cover- 
ing about one hundred and twenty acres of land. The grounds are 
accurately staked out into tenth and twentieth acre plats, with walks 
and drives separating them, and the experiments are made in various 
series to test the proper mode of applying fertilizers to promote the 
growth of fruits and vegetables, every conceivable variation being 
made so as to get at the proper combinations of the various forms 

Fruit Growing. 173 

of plant foods and re-agents. This work, being done with the greatest 
exactness by experts, will be of great help to those engaging in 
the culture of fruits and vegetables in this locality. These grounds 
will soon be one of the most attractive resorts to the visitors and 
residents of this section, and cannot fail to be of value to any student 
of fruit or vegetable culture. 

Lower Piedmont Section. — Less attention has been given to 
the culture of fruit in this section of the State than in any other. It 
includes the great cotton growing section, and the bright tobacco 
belt, and these crops have absorbed the attention of cultivators to the 
exclusion of everything else. But that fruits will thrive here has 
been proved by experience in many localities. A few years ago around 
Raleigh, there were extensive vineyards and the shipping of fruit 
paid well. But many of the grov/ers were discouraged and the 
industry is not being pushed. It has been shown by the success of 
those who have kept at the work and have used the approved methods 
of spraying the vines or of bagging the fruit, that grapes can still be 
made a source of profit if properly managed. Apples do well in this 
section if properly cared for, and, on the exposed uplands, the peach 
and plum will make profitable crops. On the warm slopes there is 
always danger that the trees will bloom prematurely and be caught 
by late frosts. In all this section of the State, the culture of small 
fruits can be made a profitable industry. Around Raleigh, the culture 
of plums has proved profitable, particularly the Japan varieties and 
the American sorts like the Wild Goose. 

Upper Piedmont Section. — This section, including the great 
stretch of rolling uplands, from the Uharrie range to the crest of the 
Blue Ridge, is one of the best regions for general farming in the south, 
and the lands are everywhere capable of a high degree of cultivation. 
While considerably worn in some parts, there are wide areas of very 
fertile soil, particularly along the courses of the rivers flowing from 
the mountains. The valley of the Yadkin is famous for the fertility 
of its bottom lands and there are many fine bodies of land along the 
valley of the Catawba, Vv'hile all along the foot hills of the Blue Ridge 
there are valley lands of exhuberant fertility. Fruits of all kinds 
thrive well in this favored region, and there is a greater exemption 
from untimely spring frosts than in any other section. Along the 
Blue Ridge are found the famous thermal belts, where destructive 
frosts are comparatively unknown, and where the fruit crops are more 
certain than anywhere else. These belts are found along the slopes 
of the Brushy mountains, in Wilkes, and other counties, particularly 
in Polk, and in this latter county there are quite a number of 

174 North Carolina and its Resources. 

people from the north settled and engaged in fruit culture. The 
frostless belts are found along the east slopes of the mountains, and 
seem caused by the settling of the cold air at night into the vallej^s, 
pushing up the warm air, and they show a luxuriant green in the 
autumn long after frost has browned everything in the valley 
below. The same influences protect the blooming trees in the spring. 
All over these uplands, and particularly in the upper part next the 
mountain barrier, fruit trees of all kinds flourish with proper attention, 
and many diseases that affect them in more northern localities are 
unknown. The culture of apples will prove a most remunerative 
business, when undertaken by intelligent cultivators and with the 
proper varieties. Many apples are grown there already, but as a 
rule, the varieties most popular in the North, are not grown to the 
extent they should be. The exhibits from North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia, at tiie Chicago Exposition, opened the eyes of apple dealers 
north to the great value of certain varieties that grow here to greater 
perfection than elsewhere. This is particularly true as to the Wine- 
sap and the York Imperial apples. The latter variety is grown to 
some extent under the name of Johnson's Fine Winter. During the 
past winter, (iSgs-'go,') these two varieties of apples from North Caro- 
lina and Virginia, have brought higher prices in New York and in 
Liverpool than any other apple, not excepting the famous Albemarle 
Pippin, of Virginia. In the black soil of the mountain coves, the 
Albemarle Pippin thrives as well as in its native localitj'. But theV/ine- 
sap and the York Imperial thrive over a wider range of country and 
there are fortunes in the cultivation of these two apples in this section. 
On the breezy uplands the peach reaches greater perfection than any- 
where, except in the Sand Hill countr)^; and in the neighborhood of 
Greensboro there are profitable orchards. In no section of the State do 
cherries reach such perfection, and the fine cherries of this section sell 
next to the product from California in the New York market, bring- 
ing at times as high as forty cents per pound. On the foothills the 
cherry will prove a most remunerative fruit crop. While the finer 
cherries do not thrive in the eastern part of the State, they here 
reach their highest perfection. Plums of the American and Japa- 
nese varieties are grown to a considerable extent and have been found 
to pay well. Pears also succeed well, and should be largelj'- grown. 
Grapes for wine making are grown to some extent and the fruit is of 
remarkably fine quality. By grafting on the native roots, and paying 
attention to spraying to prevent mildew, the fine varieties of the 
European grapes can be grown to great perfection. The possibilities 
in this line are but just being appreciated, and it is believed that 

Fruit Growing. 175 

success will attend the experiment. Sir-^U fruits of all kinds do 
remarkably well, and should be grown for home use and local markets, 
but for northern markets the crop from this section would be fore- 
stalled by the crops of warmer soils, so that it would hardly pay to 
grow them for this purpose. With intelligent and skillful culture 
and skill in packing and shipping, the varieties of apples named will 
prove the most profitable fruit for this region, particularly in the 
upper section next the mountains. The cheapness of land, the sunny 
climate and short winters combine to make this section a paradise for 
fruit growers. And when, in addition, we find health and good water 
there is hardly anything left above to desire. Though somewhat 
colder bj^ reason of elevation above the sea than the part of the State 
east of it, the upper Piedmont country is still a region of abounding 
sunshine in vrinter, and would make a delightful change to those tired 
of the frigid cold and deep snows of the North. The most enthusiastic 
admirers of this region are the settlers from the North who have made 
homes there. 

The Mountain Section. — This is the region of high plateaus 
and elevated vallej's between the Blue Ridge on the east and the Great 
Smok:^ range that separates the State from Tennessee. This region is 
the home of the apple, and is destined to become the greatest apple 
growing region in America v.-hen its capabilities in this respect are 
fully knov.m to fruit growers. Though the apple thrives here under 
the most negligent treatment and produces unfailing crops, there have 
been few attempts to grovv^ the fruit in a systematic manner, and the 
ignorance among the growers as to the proper manner of culling, pack- 
ing and shipping has caused the fruit of the mountain countr}^ to have 
a reputation that it does not deser\^e. From the early settlement of 
the country apples have been grown there from seed, and there is 
an embarrassment of riches in the shape of varieties that is unknown 
elsewhere. Many of these native seedling apples are of fine quality, 
while many are of inferior varieties, there having been a great 
•tendency to grow seedlings of the lyimbertwig class, because of their 
productiveness and keeping qualities, though of a ver}- inferior 
quality. The Bufi", a dr}' poor apple of the showy Ben Davis style is 
also largely grovv'n. But that any of the finer apples can be grown 
there to great perfection is bej^ond doubt, as has been shown hy 
those who have planted them. Then there are many of the native 
apples that are of such quality as to deserve propagation and 
increased cultivation. Here too the Winesap and the York Imperial 
reach great perfection, and here too they should be largely grown. 
The size to which apple trees attain here is a source of wonder to 

176 North Carolina and its Resourchs. 

those who have been accustomed to the trees in the North. In one 
orchard in Haywood county was measured a tree that had a girth of 
eleven feet and nine inches, and in the same orchard, which had 
never been cultivated there were a hundred other trees that were 
full three feet in diameter of trunk, and all in the most luxuriant 
health. All that is needed here is a population of fruit growers who 
understand the culture and handling of winter apples. Apples of 
the northern varieties grown in Watauga county, are hardly recog- 
nizable because of their greater size and beauty. With good rail- 
road connections southward (the natural market for the fruit of 
this section) the growing of apples cannot fail to be profitable. And 
when is added to this the general fertility of the soil, the pure cold 
water, fine grasses for dairy purposes, and the superb mountain scenery 
with the phenominally light snow fall, we have a region that combines 
all the advantages of the North in its bracing climate, with the added 
advantages of a short winter, abounding sunshine and little snow. 
It is a paradise for the stock raiser, the dairj'-man and the fruit 
grower It must not be assumed that the apple is the only fruit that 
will thrive in these valleys and elevated plateaus. In some parts of 
the mountain region the peach grows to great perfection, while in 
some parts it is not as successful as further east. But cherries, 
plums, quinces and pears are perfectly at home, and the grape reaches 
a high degree of excellence, and wine of the finest kind is being 
made. In Buncombe county, Col. Hoyt reports that he is succeeding 
in growing the Vinifera grapes by grafting them on the native roots, 
and the wine from his vineyards is gaining an enviable reputation. 
Small fruits thrive v^ith great perfection, and in the valleys of the 
northwestern part of this section the cranberry is indigenous. 


The northern Fox grape (Vitis I^abrusca) extends to a limited 
extent into North Carolina in the upper districts of the State. The 
Muscadine, (Vitis Vulpina,) the southern Fox grape has its home in 
North Carolina and here have originated all the valuable varieties of 
this species in cultivation. They have all so far as we are av/are 
been found as wild plants and none have been the result of the 
gardener's efforts. The best known of the varieties of this grape is 
the scuppernong, so called from the Scuppernong river near which it was 
found several hundred years ago. This is believed to be the veritable 
grape alluded to by Amadas and Barlowe, Lieutenants exploring 
under Sir Waiter Raleigh, and landing on Roanoke Island in 1584; 
described as follows: "We view^ed the land about us, being, where 

Native Fruits. 177 

we first landed very sandy and low toward the water side, but so full 
of grapes as the very beating and surge of the sea overflowed them, 
of which we found such plenty as well there as in all places else, both 
on the sand and on the green soil, on the hills as in the plains, as 
well as on every little shrub, as also climbing towards the tops of 
high cedars that I think in all the world the like abundance is not to be 
found; and myself having seen those parts of Europe that most abound, 
find such difference as were incredible to be written." In commen- 
ting on this. Dr. Hawks, in his History of North Carolina says: 
"The scuppernong derives its name from Scuppernong creek or river, 
at the north of Albemarle sound. The first vine was found in Tyrrel 
county by some of the first explorers under Amadas and Barlowe, 
and tradition relates that they transplanted a small vine with its 
roots, to Roanoke Island. That vine is yet alive and covers an 
immense extent of ground." In still further commenting he says: 
"In the time of I^awson (1714), there were six varieties of native 
grape known to him, which he particularly describes: * * two 
kinds of black bunch grapes * * and four varieties of fox 
grape * * Besides these, Lawson says he once saw a spontaneous 
white bunch grape in North Carolina," which we believe to be the 
Scuppernong of to-day and is evidently the seedling from the black 
grape described above. Since then some other valuable varieties of 
the Vulina species have been found growing wild and have been 
brought under cultivation. These are the Meish, Thomas, Flowers 
and more recently the James. This last variety has qualities which 
seem to place it at the head of all the grapes of its class. The 
berries are immense, probably the largest of any of our native grapes. 
The skin is thinner than any other Vulpina, and the quality is fine 
both for the table and for wine. The clusters are much larger than 
those of the Scuppernong and while the Scuppernong is of a greenish 
russet color the James is a glossy jet black, destitute of bloom, as all 
the varieties are. Grapes of this class are always grown on hori- 
zontal trellises or arbors and thrive best with this mode of training. 
The impression has long been prevalent that this class of grapes 
should never be pruned, and the result is that everywhere in the 
State the vines are seen with immense masses of wood scrambling 
over rude rail arbors, fresh support being added till they cover acres 
of land. The fact is that these grapes are peculiar in their mode of 
fruiting, and, are benefitted by proper pruning as much as any. But 
the pruning that suits the northern L,abrusca, Aestivalis Riparia and 
others that bear their fruit on the one year old wood will not do for 
the Vulpina class which bear their fruit on wood two years old. The 

178 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

pruning must be so directed as to preserve a suitable supply of two 
year old canes, and cut away the old and gnarled wood. Vines 
treated in this way can be restrained within reasonable bounds and 
the production of fruit to a given area be greatly increased. This 
class of grapes is destined to be the great wine grape of the south, 
particularly on the sandy soils of the Coast plain, where they reach 
their greatest perfection. When subjected to skillful treatment by 
expert horticulturists there is no doubt that great improvement will 
yet be made in the quality of the grapes. Some efforts have been 
made in the past to cross them with the lyabrusca and Vinifera 
species, but the cross seems to be too violent, and no success has 
been had in this line. The true line to work upon seems to be to 
select the best varieties and grow them from seed and by gradual 
selection and the rejection of inferior ones to gradually improve them 
in the desired qualities. This Vv^ork will be undertaken at the North 
Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, and it is hoped that 
varieties of value may be the result. So far the only russet colored 
variety of value is the Scuppernong, and it is said that the seedlings 
from this always result in black grapes. Still, as little has been done 
in the line of growing seedlings from the Vulpina class there is good 
reason to believe that intelligent efforts in this line will be rewarded 
by success. 


The Medoc Vineyard, in Halifax county, now owned by the 
Messrs. Garrett, is one of the largest wine-making establishments in 
the State. The vineyard was originally planted with scuppernong 
vines exclusively by Rev. Sidnej^ Weller. Messrs. Garrett have 
added largely other varieties and have increased the output. Much 
Scuppernong wine is still made, and it is said that five barrels have 
been made from a single vine. In favorable seasons the crop from 
this vineyard is about 175,000 gallons. Good brandy is also made. 
The wines from this vineyard have a high reputation all over the 

Tokay Vineyard. — A few miles north of Fayetteville is 
another vineyard largely devoted to the Scuppernong for wine mak- 
ing, belonging to Col. Wharton J. Green. He has very complete 
arrangements for the manufacture and storage of wine, and the 
product is making a national reputation. About 100,000 gallons are 
produced annually. A writer in a northern journal speaking of the 
wines of this Tokay vineyard says: "In general characteristics they 
resemble the Spanish and Madeira wines, and the sweet white is 

Vineyards. 179 

not unlike the Califoruia Mission, tliough much more delicate in 
bouquet, and, when given proper age, approaches the closest to a 
fine old Madeira of any wine yet produced in this country. This 
Vv^ine will constitute a basis for a good sherry wine when made with 
that view, and we have seen some samples of such from these vine- 
yards which strongly resemble old brown sherry and would do credit 
to any gentleman's sideboard or private cellar. Other samples again 
made from the Flowers, a black Scuppernong seedling, a drj^ wine, 
resemble certain red wines of Hungar3', already highly esteemed in 
this country, and as a sweet wine, bears a close relation to the "Span- 
ish Red." 

The Bordeaux Vineyards of Mr. James M. Pearce, near Fa}^- 
etteville, are largely planted in Scuppernongs, the fruit from which is 
shipped to other parts of the State. There are also large vinej-ards of 
Scuppernongs near Wilmington, and near "Whiteville, in Columbus 

The Engadine Vineyards, of Col. Hoyt, in Buncombe county, 
not far from Asheville, we have already noted. The Scuppernong is not 
grown here, as it does not do well in the mountain countr}-, but the 
wines made here are of excellent quality and reputation. In the 
great and nevv4y developed grape region about Southern Pines, in the 
Sand Hill region, no attempts of importance have been made in wine 
making, as the shipping of the early fruit has been too profitable to 
allow it. But it is likely that in the near future, the wine interest 
will be developed here too. This region is singularly exempt from 
the rot and other diseases that so annoy grape growers in other sec- 
tions of the country, and this fact alone renders the culture more 
profitable. The exemption from disease is also another inducement 
for the extension of the culture of the Scuppernong and other sorts 
of the Vulpina species, as these seem perfectly exempt from the 
fungus and insect troubles that annoy growers of other species. 

Happy Vali^Ey Vineyard. — This vineyard is in Cumberland 
count}^, near Fayetteville, and is almost exclusivel}^ a Scuppernong 
vineyard, containing some four hundred acres. It has one vine 
covering a space seventy-two by eightj^-four feet, illustrating very 
beautifully the character of the Scuppernong, and it is very pro- 
ductive, producing annually thirty or more bushels of grapes. Mr. 
G. W. Lawrence, the proprietor, is an enthusiastic advocate of the 
Scuppernong, both as a table and as a wine grape, his cellar being 
loaded with the finest bright yellow wines. 

i8o North Carolina and its Resources. 


While the nursery business has not reached the point of develop- 
ment in North Carolina that it has northward, there are nevertheless 
some extensive and well conducted establishments, which have the 
confidence of the people. It is a matter of great importance to 
planters of the peach, especially, that they should get trees grown at 
home, for the disease known as the " Yellows," which is decimating 
the orchards north, is unknown in North Carolina, and growers 
should take every precaution to prevent the introduction of the 
disease with trees brought from infected regions. The leading 
nurseries in the State are the following: 

The Pomona Nurseries. — These nurseries are situated near 
the city of Greensboro, at Pomona. They are conducted and owned 
by Mr. J. Van Lindley, one of the leading members of the American 
Pomological Society, and of the North Carolina Horticultural Society, 
and who is largely interested in the culture of fruit both in North 
Carolina and other southern states. Mr. lyindley was born a nursery- 
man, as his father followed the business before him, and by his energy 
and enterprise in getting the newest and best adapted fruits for the 
State has done a great deal to advance pomology in North Carolina, 
and has built up an extensive business, producing fruit trees of all 
sorts by the million. The extent of this nursery is shown by the 
fact that there are now 625,000 apple trees of various ages, five acres 
of apple seedlings for grafting, 400,000 peaches will be budded the 
summer of 1896, and there are 100,000 plum stocks for grafting, 
besides many thousands of apricots, nectarines, cherries, mulberries, 
grapes, pecans, English walnuts, Japan chestnuts, with many thous- 
ands of roses and ornamental trees and shrubbery. Four green- 
houses are used in the propagation and growth of ornamental plants. 
The nurseries occupy about three hundred acres of land. 

Greensboro Nurseries. — These nurseries are in the same 
neighborhood as the Pomona nurseries, and this business is more ex- 
tensive about Greensboro than elsewhere in the State. Mr. John A. 
Young is the proprietor. They are east of the city of Greensboro, and 
have at various times been under the management of difierent owners, 
but have been under the present ownership since 1884. The nurseries 
occupy two hundred and seventy-five acres of fine land. Thirty to 
forty men are annually employed as traveling agents and the trade 
is mainly in this State, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, lyouisiana 
and Virginia. An average of thirty-five men are employed in the 
nursery grounds. The Comet and the Greensboro peaches were 


Nurseries. i8i 

introduced by this nursery and are rapidly becoming standard 
varieties. The Greensboro is the newest peach and is owned jointly 
by Messrs. Young and Ivindley. 

Thk Cedar Grove Nurseries are situated at Shore, Yadkin 
county, and conducted by N. W. Craft. The soil and climate are 
favorable to the propagation of all varieties of ornamental, nut and 
fruit trees, as well as vines, shrubs and plants; all of which are kept 
in large numbers. 

Underdown Nurseries. — These nurseries were established 
some twenty years ago, near lycnoir, in Caldwell county. The work 
is confined to fruits and grapes, and only such varieties as are known 
by test to suit the surrounding region are propagated. These embrace 
among other specialties, the follov/ing apples: Baldwin, Blackburn, 
Buckingham, Magnum Bonum, Edwards, Tuttle, Coffer, Cragg, 
Winesap and the never failing I,imbertwig. 

Other Nurseries. — Besides the above, there are a number of 
important nurseries, viz.: Allen Warren & Son, Greenville; O. W. 
Blacknall, Kittrell; H. P. Kelsey, Kawana, Mitchell county; S. & P. 
Bilyeu, Southern Pines, and others. 


Years ago, before the advent of Peruvian guano the cultivation of 
vegetables for the great city markets was confined to the immediate 
vicinity of the cities, where large supplies of stable manure could be 
had, and for years after the farmers had got to using commercial 
fertilizers on grain crops it was the general opinion of gardeners that 
their crops imperatively demanded stable manure, and that the com- 
mercial fertilizers would not produce the crops of the trucker as well 
as manure. The means of rapid transportation from distant points 
was not so perfected that the products of southern climes could 
be laid down at the doors of the northern consumers at unseasonable 
times. But as the farmers in the warm, sandy lands of New Jersey 
began to experiment with fertilizers, and to grow crops like early peas 
and potatoes with them, the growers about the vicinity of New York 
and other large northern cities began to admit that for these crops 
the fertilizers might do, but that for the early cabbage the stable 
manure must be had, and that many other crops which they grew 
were too bulky to admit of the far away growers producing, even if 
they could grow them without stable manure. But gradually the 
growers about the cities got to experimenting with the new fertilizers 
and found that they could use them profitably as the supplies of stable 
manure grew more in demand and were only to be had at a higher 

1 82 North Carolina and its Resources. 

price. Then the means of transportation became better and better, 
and some enterprising men began to experiment in the growing of 
vegetables and small fruits around Norfolk, Va. But at first they 
were so wedded to the old notions about stable manure that they pur- 
chased large quantities both from Norfolk and in cargoes by sea from 
the north, paying at times as high as ten cents per bushel for the manure 
on their farms. Gradually the cheaper and more easily transported 
fertilizers took the place of the bulky and expensive stable manure, 
and the business was greatly stimulated. The war broke up the Nor- 
folk development for a time, but after its close the business was 
resumed with greater energy than ever. The northern people had 
got in the habit of expecting supplies of vegetables ahead of their 
season and the demand made the business of supplying it very profit- 
able. For a time it was supposed that Norfolk had a monopoly of the 
early vegetable and small fruit business. But fast steamers from the 
southern ports got to bringing supplies from more southern points, 
largely at first of watermelons, and gradually taking up other things 
as the growers found them to pay. The completion of railroad con- 
nections in eastern North Carolina led to experiments there in this 
industry, and it was soon found that we had in that section a soil and 
climate particularly favorable to the production of the crops most in 
demand. When the truck industry first began to extend southward 
the northern growers were alarmed when they saw peas in their mar- 
ket before they had planted their crops, and at first assumed that their 
occupation was gone. But as the industry extended further south it 
became evident that the southern competition was not an unmixed 
evil, for with greater supplies the people came to expect continuous 
supplies, and each section fell into line in its own season. The 
northern gardeners no longer got the fabulous prices formerly paid 
for their earliest products, but they soon found that when their turn 
came they had the practical control of the market from their near- 
ness and the freshness of their products. So a division of labor has 
been set up, and the products of each section are expected and sold in 
their respective seasons. The products from the south of course 
command the higher price from their earliness, and each section has 
found what it can best produce. In no part of the south has 
there been a greater development in this line than in North Carolina. 
Antedating the products of the Norfolk section by several weeks, and 
but little behind those of Charleston, and with lower freights than the 
latter place it is no wonder that the fertile soil of our eastern counties 
has developed the production of vegetable crops to the enormous 
amount they have now assumed. 

Trucking. 183 

The increasing wealth of the northern cities, and the demands of 
luxurious living have of late years developed there another branch of 
the market garden industry, that of forcing vegetables and fruits 
under glass in winter, by the aid of fire heat distributed over large 
areas by means of hot water or steam pipes. About Boston and New 
York this business has developed to an enormous extent, and the 
products being of the highest quality, bring the finest prices, making 
the investment very profitable. This business too is beginning to 
extend to distances from the great centres of population until the 
present winter, pineapples, grown under glass in Florida in parts of 
the State where they were not formerly grown, sold by reason of their 
superior quality for $1.50 each at wholesale. Cucumbers from hot- 
houses in Vermont are now sold every winter in New York at fancy 
prices. In these northern sections the winters are characterized by 
long spells of dark and sunless Vv^eather, the intense cold demands 
double glazed houses, and a very complete and expensive heating 
apparatus, with an enormous consumption of coal. In North Carolina 
our winters, even when uncommonly cold, are characterized by 
abounding sunshine, the value of which every one who has had any 
experience in the growing of plants under glass fully realizes. The 
general mild temperature makes cheaper houses available, less of 
heating apparatus and a smaller consumption of coal necessary. In 
fact many things that are grown profitably at the north in steam 
heated houses, can be grown to equal perfection here in simple cold 
frames, covered with loose sashes only at night and in dark and stormy 
weather. Boston lettuce, grown in steam heated houses aided by 
electric lights is shipped as far south as Washington and sold at a profit, 
while here we can grow equally as good a product during the whole 
winter, in frames, without a particle of fire heat. I^ettuce is now 
being grown to a large extent in the neighborhood of Wilmington 
with the aid of protecting plant cloth, which at best is a poor sub- 
stitute for glass, and the product is not so good as could be had by 
the use of glass. The growth of early vegetables in the open ground 
has developed to a wonderful extent from the small beginnings on the 
Atlantic Coast I^ine railroad near Wilmington. The development has 
been particularly noticeable about Newbern, Vv^here the lands in the 
immediate vicinity of the city are almost entirely devoted to the busi- 
ness. Here in the peninsula between the Neuse and Trent rivers, the 
gardens extend over near 10,000 acres. Having here the advantage 
of both water and railroad transportation there has been a wider 
development than any vv^here else. The level mellow lands respond 
quickly to the use of fertilizers, which are applied with lavish hands. 

1 84 North Carolina and its Resources. 

Not only about Newbern, but all along the Atlantic and North 
Carolina railroad, at Kinston and LaGrange, the market gardening 
industry has developed to a wonderful extent. On the Wilmington 
and Weldon branch of the Atlantic Coast I^ine the increase in this 
business has been equally marked. Here just north of Wilmington, 
the truck industry had its first beginning. Then, near Rocky Point, 
Mr. G. Z. French has seven hundred acres devoted to the culture of 
small fruits and early vegetables, and that point has become an 
important shipping centre. From Wilmington to Goldsboro, the 
development has of late tended more in the direction of strawberry 
growing than in vegetable culture, and the broad fields devoted to 
this fruit are one of the most attractive features of the country to the 
traveller on the railroad. Mr. J. A. Westbrook, at Mt. Olive, has 
made a conspicuous success in the culture of the strawberry. He 
bought fourteen years ago a worn out farm, and went to work grow- 
ing strawberries, with a capital of $1000 and a single horse. From 
this small beginning he has made a fine home, and a fertile farm from 
a very poor one and has bought several other farms here and one in 
Florida. His returns, net, from strawberries, on his home place last 
year were $14,000 from thirty acres in this fruit. It should be stated 
that part of this was from the sale of the new strawberry plant, I^ady 
Thompson. The cost of cultivating, fertilizing and shipping straw- 
berries here will run from $100 to $125 per acre annually. Along 
these lines of railroad, lands suitable for the growth of garden vege- 
table and small fruits are rapidly advancing in value, though there 
are wide areas still to be had at very low prices. As has been 
intimated, the greatest development is yet to come here in the skill- 
ful use of glass, and there is the greatest opening for men skilled in 
the use of glass in green houses and frames. This culture offers the 
best inducement for the investment of capital and skill of any business 
in the trucking section. There are as yet few men there who have 
had any experience in the handling of vegetables and fruits under 
glass, and it only needs to be started by skilled men to make it an 
assured success from the start. 

What is yet to be the future of the market garden interests in 
North Carolina no one can predict. Two years ago it was stated that the 
shipments of early truck from eastern North Carolina, amounted to over 
$4,000,000. From one farm, that of Messrs. Hackburn & Willett, near 
Newbern, $75,000 worth of products have been sold in a single season. 

North of the Albemarle Sound on the line of the Norfolk and 
Southern railroad, from Kdenton to Norfolk is another section where 
at various points the growing of early vegetable crops has been a 


Culture of Flowering Bulbs. 185 

source of great profit. This is particularly the case about Elizabeth 
City, where the transportation by water through the Dismal Swamp 
canal gives an additional outlet with the railroad. 

To men of small means the intensive culture of the truck and 
small fruit business is attractive, and to the man of large means and 
a knowledge of the business in all its branches there is in eastern 
North Carolina an opening for profitable investment in this line, 
unsurpassed by any other section of the Union. 


For generations all the bulbs of ornamental plants that are 
produced in this way have been imported from Holland and the 
south of Europe. For many years our growers thought it essential 
that the tuberose (Polyanthus Tuberosa) must be had from Italy 
in order to have the best blooming bulbs. Years ago some experi- 
ments of the late Isaac Buchanan on lyong Island, demonstrated that 
bulbs of superior quality could be grown on this side the ocean. 
But it was found that in the shorter northern season these evergreen 
bulbs could not be ripened to a blooming size from the offsets in a 
single season, and it was found that a more southern climate was 
needed. Experiments were made in Florida, but it was found that 
though the bulbs grew to a fine size there, the trouble was to get 
them to stop growing in time to prevent the flowering the same 
season, for this would render the bulbs worthless as the tuberose 
makes but one spike of flowers from a bulb, and the future bloom 
depends on the offsets made. Further experiments showed that the 
climate of eastern North Carolina was the happy medium between the 
short season of I^ong Island and the long one of Florida, and at once 
the business centered there. For 3"ears now the entire market for 
these bulbs both in America and Europe has been supplied by the 
growers of eastern North Carolina. Latterl}^ the English dealers 
have made an effort to promote the culture of the tuberose in South 
Africa, and large quantities were grown there, but their quality as 
acknowledged by the English Horticultural papers does not compare 
with that of North Carolina bulbs and the African bulbs are no longer 
wanted in London. But as fashion rules the demand for all classes of 
flowers, the tuberose has become less fashionable than formerly, and 
a decreased demand has caused lower prices, so that while the business 
is still fairly remunerative it is not so profitable as formerly. But more 
recent experiments have demonstrated that we have in various parts of 
the State, soils and climate adapted to the growth of other flowering 
bulbs that are in large demand by the florists near the great centres 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

of fashion for forcing under glass in tlie winter months. It has been 
shown that we can grow here to as great or even greater perfection 
all the hyacinth bulbs for which Holland has become famous, and 
that the lilies can be produced here far better than those that are 
imported from the south of France, and that the early blooming 
Roman hyacinths and the white Italians, which have been the mon- 
opoly of the south of France and Italy, can be produced here of far 
better quality than in Europe. Professor W. F. Massey, the active 
Horticulturist, of North Carolina Experiment Station, a florist of 
long experience, has been making active efforts to interest the north- 
ern wholesale dealers in this matter, and bulbs produced at the station 
grounds have attracted great admiration among the New York florists, 
and many dealers are now endeavoring to encourage the culture here, 
preferring of course to get their supplies at home rather than go abroad 
and pay duty on them. The result of the efforts of Prof, Massey in 
getting a substitute or an ally or allies for the tuberose seems destined 
to be successful, and it looks as though the time is not far distant 
when North Corolina will become as famous for bulbs as Holland has 
been, when our growers become as skillful in the handling and curing 
of the various bulbs. But the general culture of flowering bulbs will 
not be confined to the eastern region as that of the tuberose has been, 
for it is found that for some of them a different soil and climatic con- 
dition are better. That section will probably excel in the growth 
of the tuberose, narcissus, freezia and amaryllis, while the upland 
sandy lands of the long leaf pine belt will become the home of the 
lilies, and hyacinth, and gladiolus, though the Narcissus will do 
equally well there. The deep sandy soils of the long leaf pine 
region seem especially adapted to the growth and perfection of the 
lily tribe, as extensive experiments have shown. A few years ago 
a New York importer had 100,000 lily bulbs arrive from France in a 
damaged condition so that they were entirely unsaleable. He sent 
them to Aberdeen in the sand hill country of this State, and in one 
season's growth, in the hands of absolutely inexperienced cultivators, 
they attained such perfection as to astonish all who saw them on their 
return to New York, and the florists who bought them for forcing 
were so pleased with the results that the next season they all wanted, 
some of the same kind of bulbs. Professor Massey sent the past 
season bulbs of a great variety, grown at the Station grounds near 
Raleigh, in a soil not believed to be the best for the purpose, which 
were pronounced by the Garden and Forest, the leading authority in 
such matters, to be better by far than any imported bulbs that had 
ever been seen in that city. Experiments with the bulbs showed that 

' » c '^- v„ , iKv.-'.- 


Culture of Flowering Bulbs. 187 

they forced under glass better than the imported ones and that even 
the Chinese Sacred lyily (Narcissus Tazetta) made more bloom than 
the imported Chinese bulbs, and far superior to those that had been 
grown in Bermuda. So much space to the bulb industry is given 
because the prospect is that it is to become in many parts of the State 
a leading and most profitable industry, and in the hope that the facts 
stated may attract the attention of experts in bulb culture to the 
capacity of our soil and climate for this work. 

An effort has been made to get a list of those engaged in the 
cultivation of the tuberose and other flowering bulbs, but has resulted 
in only a partially complete list. The following comprises a list of 
those along the line of the Wilmington and Wei don railroad, with the 
probable amount of their tuberose crops. At Wallace, in Duplin 
county, J. W. Stallings, 200,000; D. H. Wallace, 100,000; Milton 
Southerland, 100,000; Z. J. Carter & Son, 400,000;. At Teacher's: 
J. C. Mc'Millan, Jr., 100,000. At Rose Hill: W. B. Southerland, 
100,000. At Magnolia: H. E. Newberrj^, 1,000,000; J, F. Croom & 
Bro.; 1,000,000. There are also large quantities of these bulbs grown 
at other points on the same road and also at Faj-etteville, so that it will 
be perfectly safe to put the present production of the tuberose alone 
at near 5,000,000 bulbs annually. One of the tuberose growers has 
already an annual contract with a Chicago house to take all the 
Roman hyacinths he can produce up to a million. It is only a ques- 
tion of time when the bulbs that are now grown for the American 
market in the south of France and Italy, will be grown in North 
Carolina and there is no more inviting line of culture for expert 
gardeners than in growing these bulbs here for the trade. 


The existence in most parts of the State of abundant water- 
power, the abundance, value and variety of the raw material, and its 
proximity to favorable seats for its conversion into the manufactured 
fabric, and the natural aptitude of the people for mechanical industries, 
early made North Carolina foremost among the Southern States in the 
character of a manufacturing State. In iron she was usefully 
conspicuous during the revolutionary war. In the manufacture of 
textile fabrics she may be regarded as the pioneer in the south, her 
cotton factories antedating similar works in both Virginia and South 
Carolina — her factories, at the beginning of the late civil war, 
exceeding those of any State in the south. The war swept away 

North Carolina and its Resources. 

roost of the existing establishments, the invaders aiming to inflict a 
deadly blow upon the industries of the State as one of the surest steps 
at subjugation — perhaps with an eye also to the suppression of that 
rivalry which might grow formidable after the restoration of peace, 
with the advantages possessed by the south in climate, in the cost of 
labor, in the economy of living, in the saving ofthe costs of transporta- 
tion, and the more decided advantage in the proximity of the cotton 
fields to the factories. The almost universal destruction of the 
existing cotton factories was a stunning blow to North Carolina, but 
not a fatal one, for its force was the same as that inflicted upon all 
the other industries of the State, corporate and individual. In all of 
them recuperation began from the same dead level of universal ruin 
and disaster. The same hopeful look into the future, the same 
undaunted courage in accepting calamity, the same indomitable 
energy in the retrieval of losses, the same steady determination to 
persevere against the most formidable obstacles which make up the 
North Carolina character, had splendid illustration when the restora- 
tion of constitutional government and the restoration of wise financial 
S57Stems made it possible to engage again in those industrial pursuits 
demanding the application of capital and the possession of the 
necessary skill. And the increase of the manufacture of cotton is so 
great as to have become a prominent feature in the industrial history 
of the State. One feature is not to be overlooked: it indicates a 
change in sj^stems and habits only to be wrought by the stern 
lessons of adversity, and must be accepted as one of the undreamed of 
blessings which sometimes are enforced by the teachings of war. Once 
it was that all the skill of managers, superintendents and machinists 
was introduced from the northern factories. The instances were rare 
when a youug southern man applied himself to the acquisition of the 
necessary skill and experience to take charge of a factory. Now 
3'^oung men of the south make no hesitation in stepping on the lowest 
round of the ladder and ascending, by gradual but steady step, to the 
topmost round, qualified to take charge of all the intricate and 
complex details of a business for which the habits of the south once 
pronounced them inapt or disqualified by social position. Northern 
skill and experience are not discarded or excluded, but real industrial 
independence is only attained where those who engage in enterprises 
involving the problems of success or failure are themselves capable of 
conducting them. Thus it has come to pass that, from the seaboard 
to the mountains, by the use of steam or wa-ter-power, cotton factories 
are established, created by home capital, in large measure conducted 
by home skill. 

Cotton Mii^ls. 


(Prepared by a practical Cotton Spinner.) 

It is certain that no industry in the State has thriven with such 
rapidity or been more healthy in its growth than that of cotton 

For many years there has been no cessation in the extension of 
mill plants or in the erection of new ones and at the present moment 
there are probably as many or more mills in the course of erection 
than at any other period. 

The rapid progress of the past few years is clearly seen from a 
comparison of the number of looms and spindles now at work with 
the figures given in the Hand Book of 1893. 

The figures at the date of the last publication were: — 

Spindles. Looms. 

1893 506,342 9,128. 

and are now (1S96) 879,740 19,633. 

This growth is at a rapid rate but is none the less healthy, for 
the mill stocks of this State stand fully as high in the estimation of 
investors as those of any other State and the industry in North 
Carolina has suffered as little, or perhaps less, than that of any other 
State in the periodical waves of depression that influence cotton 
manufacturing all the world over. 

Among the difl&culties of, and the drawbacks to, manufacturing 
in the Old World and even in the eastern States of the Union, is the 
one of transit of raw material and finished product. For a hundred 
years the spindles of the world have depended almost entirely on 
America for their supply of cotton, and now, notwithstanding the large 
crops raised in Egypt, India, China and South America, probably 
two-thirds of the spindles in existence use cotton that is grown in the 
South. These mills have to bear heavy freight charges, both on the 
raw cotton and again on the reshipment of manufactured goods; goods 
which still to a large extent are re-imported into this country. 
Again the older manufacturing countries have to deal with labor that 
is organized in trades unions, which insist on high wages, short hours, 
with laws that have been passed incurring all kinds of restrictions 
and regulations which, however desirable they may be from a philan- 
thropic or politico-economical standpoint, are none the less galling to 
the average business man. In addition, the older established mills have 
often to contend with worn out and antiquated plant and machinery. 

The business men of North Carolina were among the first to see 
the opportunities of a new era of cotton manufacturing: how, by 

iQO North Carolina and its Resourcks. 

adopting the latest and most improved machinery and by placing it 
in modern mills designed for economical working, they could utilize 
the willing labor in their midst and the cotton around their doors, 
thus keeping the money representing the cost of manufacture at home. 
The difference in value of the average sized crop of North Carolina 
cotton if sold as manufactured fabrics at about 15 cents, instead of 7 
cents in the bale, would amount to $16,000,000 per annum, a larger 
portion of which sum would remain in the State. 

The advantages of North Carolina as a manufacturing section and 
the reasons that have made it so successful are thus obvious. Raw 
material at the mill door, a regular supply of cotton of even grade 
and staple, absence of obnoxious State restrictions and grandmotherly 
legislation on factory questions, plentiful supply of wood for fuel or 
proximity to water powers, and an abundance of cheap labor, have all 
had their influence. 

Perhaps the most potent reason has been the labor; all through 
the State there seems to be an abundant supply of teachable and 
tractable help, especially in the foot-hills of the mountains. They 
make, with some little instruction, exceedingly satisfactory mill 
operatives, their onl^^ fault being a spirit of unrest, a desire to move 
about from mill to mill, rather than settle in one place. The oppor- 
tunity of mill work is usually valuable to these people in consequence 
of their lack of elementary education and consequent unsuitability 
for many industrial occupations. In the cotton mills, however, this 
lack of education is far from being a drawback and as before stated 
they are found to be excellent help. Another feature of the 
cotton mill industry in this State is the number of small mills. 
Usuallj' this is considered a disadvantage as the modern tendency is 
to increase the size of the mill to reduce the cost per pound of finished 
product. In North Carolina the small factory is a useful institution, as 
small communities that otherwise could not have a mill at all can often 
afford a small one; many small water powers can be developed and 
utilized, and the small mill offers facilities for close supervision and 
for working up local supplies of cotton while the financial results often 
bear comparison with those of larger concerns. 

Although mills of this type exist in considerable numbers, yet 
there are many in the State of larger proportions, for example, the 
Henrietta mills, which afford employment to the inhabitants of what 
is now quite a town which has grown up on a site that ten years ago 
was one of the quietest woodland tracts in the State. Another, the 
Victor mill, which is one of the group of twelve mills now at work, 
or in course of erection in the city of Charlotte, is representative of 

O I 

o Lj 
o o 

Cotton Mills. 191 

tlie smaller type. In addition, other towns like Salisbury, Graham, 
Burlington and Greensboro have become quite important manufactur- 
ing centres and possess fine mills. 

The future possibilities of cotton manufacturing in the State are 
great. The motive power applied is either water or steam. Of the 
former the aggregate is about 3,500,000 horse powers. Professor 
Kerr said that "if the whole of this were emploj^ed in manufacturing 
it would be adequate to turn 140,000,000 spindles. The water power 
of North Carolina would manufacture three times the entire crop of 
the country, whereas all the mills on the continent only spin one- 
quarter of it. Putting the crop of the State at 400,000 bales, she has 
power to manufacture fifty times that quantity." See chapter on 
water powers elsewhere. 

The choice between w^ater power and steam is determined by the 
comparative economy in the use of either the one or the other. In 
many cases there will be no hesitation in the adoption of the first, for 
natural conditions at once emphasize the decision. At the falls of the 
Roanoke, of the Tar river, on the rapid declivities of Haw and Deep 
rivers, on never-failing streams in Cumberland and Richmond coun- 
ties, on the enormous forces of the two Catawbas, and perhaps else- 
where, a second thought would never be given to the application of 
any other power than that so exhaustlessly provided by nature and 
so easily and economically controlled. Elsewhere steam offers itself 
as the ready and convenient agent in such convenient form that the 
location of a new factory is rather made subservient to the convenience 
of transportation than to the character of the power to be applied; and 
thus it is that cotton factories are found everywhere in operation in the 
State, on the flat lands and by the sluggish waters of the eastern sec- 
tion, along the bold streams and the abundant water-falls in the 
middle section, or on the more turbulent torrents of the Mountain 

As shown, there is practically no limit to the power available for 
mill purposes and there is no limit to the cotton available, as when 
the mills reach the point when they exhaust the supply available 
from the State, cotton will be shipped from the States less favorably 
situated for manufacturing, and as New England can employ 
14,000,000 spindles, the Continent of Europe 27,000,000 and England 
45,000,000, there is no reason why the mills in the south should not 
continue to multiply for many years to come. 

The capital invested in Cotton mills in North Carolina, is esti- 
mated at $13,132,750, and the money paid in wages to cotton mill 
help annually $2,854,300, for the day work alone. As a considerable 


North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

number of mills work day and night in brisk business times, this 
estimate will be largely exceeded. 

The products are varied and comprise yarns from the coarse 
carpet warp to the skein yarns for lace curtains, while the weaving 
mills, in addition to sheetings, shirtings and drills, make ginghams, 
plaids, chambrays, stripes, cheviots, towels, etc. There are also 
several mills engaged in making cotton ropes, cordage and webbing as 
well as a number of cotton knitting mills, both for socks and 

The large increase of cotton mills has been the means of intro- 
ducing other industries, such as a card clothing factory, belting 
factories, reed and harness works, roll covering shops, machinery 
repair shops and many establishments for the manufacture of mill 
accessories, all adding to the prosperity of the State. The city of 
Charlotte has become recognized as the commercial centre of the cotton 
mill business in the south, all the important textile machinists and 
makers of mill supplies being represented there. 

A list is appended of all the cotton mills in the State and in 
addition to those given, companies have been organized for the 
purpose of building cotton mills at the following places: — Albemarle, 
Charlotte, Cherryville, Hillsboro, Jamestown and Mount Pleasant. 


County and Post Office. 

Alamance Elon College.. 

Alamance Elon College.. 

Alamance Burlington... . 

Alamance Burlington... . 

Alamance Burlington... . 

Alamance Burlington... . 

Alamance Burlington... . 

Alamance Burlington.... 

Alamance Burlington... . 

Alamance Burlington.. . . 

Alamance. . . ...Graham 

Alamance Graham 

Alamance Graham 

Alamance Graham 

Alamance Graham 

Alamance Swepsonville. 

Alamance Haw River.. . . 

Alamance Haw River.. . . 

Alamance Haw River. . . . 

Alamance Big Falls 

Name of Mill, President or Manager. 

Altamahaw; Holt, Grant & Holt. . . ... 

Ossipee; J. N. Williamson & Son 

Glencoe; W. E. & J. H. Holt 

Lakeside; Samuel M.Holt 

Carolina; J. H. & W. E. Holt & Co.. . 

Alamance, E. M. Holt & Sons 

Aurora; Lawrence 8. Holt.. 

Elmira; W. L. & E. C. Holt 

E. M. Holt; J. H. Erwin 

Windsor; J. H Holt, Jr. & R. L. Holt 
Saxapahaw; White, Williamson &Co 

Oneida, (No. 1) ; L. Banks Holt 

Oneida, (No. 2); L. Banks Holt 

Belmont; L. B. & L. S. Holt 

Sidney; Scott, Donnell & Scott 

Virginia; George Rosenthal, Treas.. . 
Granite Mfg. Co., Chas.T. Holt, Pres 
T. M. Holt Mfg. Co. C. T. Holt, P„-„ 
Cora Mfg. Co., Charles T. Holt, P 
Juanita; G. Rosenthal ^^^ 

No. of 



No. of 






*In course of construction. 

Cotton Factories. 


County and Post Office. 

Alexander Taylorsville. 

Anson Wadesboro. . . 

Buncombe Asheville. . . . 

Burke Mor°:anton.. . 

Name of Mill, President or Manager. S 

Taylorsville; J. H. Moore 

Wadesboro; W. T. McClendon, Pres. 
Asheville; L,. Banks Holt, President. 

Burke Valdese [Hosiery Mill; John Meier. 

Cabarrus Concord 

Cabarrus Concord 

Cabarrus Concord , 

Cabarrus Concord , 

Caldwell Granite Falls. 

Caldwell Patterson. . . . 

Catawba Newton 

Catawba Newton .... 

Catawba Maiden 

Catawba Maiden , 

Catav/ba Maiden 

Catawba Monbo 

Catawba Monbo 

Cabarrus;J. M. Odell 

Cannon; J. M. Odell, President 

Odell; J. M. Odell, President 

Patterson Mfg. Co. G. W. Patterson. . . 
Granite Falls Mfg. Co., W. P. Ivey.. . 
Gwyn Harper; Gwyn, Harper & Co... 

Newton; B. D. Heath 

Newton Hosiery Mill , 

Union; Martin Carpenter 

Maiden; H. P\ Carpenter & Sons 

Providence; H. F. Carpenter & Sons.. 
Long Island; Geo. H. Brown, Treas... 

Monbo; C. L. Turner 

J. M. Odell Mfg. Co. J. M. Odell 

No. of 

No. of 

Chatham Bynums... 

Chatham Siler City iHadley, Peoples & Co 

Cleveland. Laundale | Cleveland; H. F. Schenck 

Cleveland Double Shoals Double Shoals; E. A. Morgan 

Cleveland Shelby. 

Cleveland Shelby. 

Cleveland Stubbs. 


. . Belmont; A. C. Miller, Treasurer 

.. Lauraglen; R. B, Miller, Secretary... 
. . ^Buffalo Manufacturing Company.... 

Craven Newbern jNev.-bern Knitting Mill, H. Rishton... 

Cumberland. ..Hope Mills... .JHope Mills (No. i) S. H.Cotton 

Cumberland... Hope Mills... .jHope Mills (No. 2) S. H. Cotton 

Cumberland. ..Fayetteville.. .Beaver Creek & Bluff; H. W. Lilly. .. 

. .Faj^etteville. . . 'Faj-etteville; A. A. McKeathan, Sec... 

..Fayetteville.. .Phcenix, J. D. McNeill, Secretary 

, .Fa3^etteville. . . •*W. L. Holt, Pres 

..Manchester.. . I Manchester; John F. Clark 

Davidson Lexington.. . . IWennonah (Nos. i & 2) W. E. Holt. . 

Durham Durham JErwin; B. N. Duke, President 

Durham Durham [Durham Hosiery Mill; Geo. Graham 

Durham Durham jGolden Belt Knitting Mill; J. S. Carr 

Durham Durham t Commonwealth; V. Ballard 

Durham East Durham. |Pearl; W. H. Branson 

Durham East Durham. Durham; W. H. Branson 

Durham Willardsville.. Willard; A. G. Cox 

Edgecombe. ...Tarboro iTarboro; A. M. Fairly 

Forsyth Salem jSouth Side; H. E. Fries 

Forsyth Salem JArista; F. & H. Fries 

Franklin Franklinton. .jSterling; S. C. Yann, Treasurer 

Franklin Laurel jLaurel; J. F. Jones 

Gaston Cherryville. . .'Cherryville; David Manny 

Gaston Crowder's Mt.lCrowder's Mount.; R.H.Garrett, Pres. 

Gaston Dallas [Dallas; L. L. Suggs , 

Gaston Harden. ...... 'Harden; O. D. Carpenter 

Gaston Stanley Creek Stanley Creek; A. P. Rhyne, Pres. . . . 

Gaston Gastonia Gastonia; R. G. C. Love. President. . . 





II, 0161 



Gaston Mt. Holly. 

Ga.ston Mt. Holly. 

Gaston Mt. Holly 

Mt. Holly; A. P. Rhyne & Co. 

Albion; A. P. Rhyne & Co 

Nims; ;M. R. Dewstoe 



















2, coo 

*In course of construction. 


North Carolina and its Resources. 

County and post Office. 

Gaston Mt. Holly 

Gaston Gastonia 

Gaston Gastonia 

Gaston Gastonia 

Gaston McAdeosville. 

Gaston Mountain Is. . 

Gaston King's Mt 

Gaston King's Mt 

Gaston King's Mt . . . 

Gaston Bessemer City 

Gaston Lowell 

Gaston Stanley Creek 

Gaston Belmont 

Gaston Lowell 

Guilford Highpoint 

Guilford Kimesville — 

Guilford Jamestown . . . 

Guilford Gibsonville. . . 

Guilford Gibsonville.. . 

Guilford Greensboro. . . 

Guilford Greensboro. . . 

Guilford Greensboro. . . 

Guilford Greensboro. . . 

Halifax Scotland Neck 

Halifax Weldon 

Halifax Weldon 

Henderson. . . .Flat Rock. . . . 
Henderson. . . .Hen'rsonville. 

Iredell Turnersburg... 

Iredell Statesville 

Iredell Mooresville,. . 

Lincoln •. . Lincolnton — 

Lincoln Long Shoals . . 

Lincoln Lincolnton — 

Lincoln Lincolnton... . 

Lincoln Lincolnton — 

Lenoir Kinston 

Mecklenburg .Charlotte 

Mecklenburg. .Charlotte 

Mecklenburg. .Charlotte 

Mecklenburg. .Charlotte 

Mecklenburg . . Charlotte. . . . 

Mecklenburg . . Charlotte 

Mecklenburg. .Charlotte 

Mecklenburg. .Charlotte 

Mecklenburg. .Charlotte 

Mecklenburg. .Charlotte 

Mecklenburg. .Huntersville.. 

Mecklenburg. .Davidson. 

Mecklenburg. .Davidson. ... 

Mecklenburg. .Pineville 

Moore Jonesboro .... 

Montgomery.. . Milledgeville . 
Montgomery.. . Milledgeville . 
Nash Rocky Mount. 

Name of Mill, President or Manager. 

Tuckaseegee; A. P. Rhyne, President. 

Modena; J. D. Moore 

Trenton; G. U. Ragan, Treasurer 

*G. A. Gray; G. A. Gray 

McAden; Dr. J. H. McAden 

Mountain Island; W. J. Hooper & Co. 

Dilling; F. Dilling 

Enterprise; W. O. Ware 

King's Mountain; J. S. Mauney 

Southern Cotton Mills; J. M. Odell.... 
Spencer Mountain; J. S. Wilson, Jr... 

J. G. Morrison 

Stowesville; T. H. Gaither 


Empire Plaid Mills; E.H.C.Field.Tr's 

Mt. Pleasant; W. M. Kime, Treas 

Oakdale; J. S. Ragsdale, Treas 

Mineola; L. S. Holt 

Hiawatha; B. Davidson 

^Proximity; F. J. Murdoch 

Guilford; (Corporation) 

Crown Mills; G. D. Devenish, Treas.. 

Hocamuga Mills 

Scotland Neck; A. McDowell 

*United Industrial Co.; of Roanoke.... 
*Roanoke Cotton Mills; W. Parker.... 
Carolina Knitt'g Mills; P.W.Hart & Co 

Hendersonville Mills; (Hosiery) 

Turnersburg; Stimpson & Steele 

Statesville; W. Wallace 

Mooresville, J. E. Sherrill 

Elm Grove, R. S. Reinhart, Treas 

Long Shoals 

Laboratory; D. E. Rhyne & Co 

Lincoln; J. A. Abernathy 

Dearmouth; J. L. Keistler 

Orion Knitting Mills; J. F. Taylor 

Charlotte; R. M. Gates 

Atherton; D. A. Tompkins 

Ada; M. C. Mayer 

Victor; Geo. E. Wilson 

Alpha; C. Scott 

Highland Park; W. E. Holt 

*0. A. Robins Co., (Sash Cord) 

Crowley; John Crowley 

Louise; H. S. Chadwick 

Charlotte Oil & Fert. Co. (Batting),. . 


Cornelius; J. B. Cornelius 

Linden; J. P.Monroe 

Dover; J. P. Wilson 

Jonesboro; E. F. Acree 

Yadkin Falls; F. J. Murdoch 

National Mfg. Co 

Rocky Mount; Thos. H. Battle 

No. of 















No. of 






•In course of construction. 

Cotton Factories. 


County and Post Office. 

New Hanover.. Wilmington. . 

Orange Hillsboro 

Pasquotank Elizabeth City 

Pasquotank... .Elizabeth City 

Randolph Randleman.... 

Randolph Randleman. . . 

Randolph Franklinsville 

Randolph Cedar Falls. . . 

Randolph Ramsuer 

Randolph Franklinsville 

Randolph Worthville 

Randolph Randleman. . . 

Randolph Coleridge 

Randolph Staley 

Randolph Randleman. . . 

Randolph Gray Chapel. . 

Randolph Worthville.. . . 

Randolph Randleman. . . 

Randolph Ashboro 

Richmond Rockingham.. 

Richmond Laurel Hill. . . 

Richmond Laurel Hill... 

Richmond Laurel Hill. . . 

Richmond Rockingham. . 

Richmond Rockingham. . 

Richmond Rockingham. . 

Richmond Rockingham. . 

Richmond Rockingham.. 

Robeson Maxton 

Rockingham. .Reidsville 

Rockingham. .Leaksville .... 

Rockingham . . Mayo 

Rockingham . . Madis on 

Rowan China Grove. . 

Rowan China Grove. . 

P..owan Salisbury 

Rowan Salisbury 

Rowan Salisbury 

Rowan ....Salisbury 

Rutherford. . . . Henrietta 

Rutherford Forest City . . . 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Laurel Bluff. . . 

Surry Mount Airy.. . 

Stanly Albemarle. . . . 

Union Monroe 

Wake Raleigh. . . 

Wake Raleigh.. . 

Wake Raleigh... 

Wayne Goldsboro 

Wilson Wilson... 

Name of Mill, President or Manager 

Wilmington ; Hugh MacRae 

*Hillsboro Cotton Factory; Hock Co. 

*Elizabeth City; Dr. McMullen 

Fowler; S. Fowler 

Randleman; J. H. Ferree, Treasurer.. 
Powhattan; J. S. Walker, Treasurer.. 
Randolph; Hugh Parks, Treasurer. . . 

Cedar Falls; J. M. Worth 

Columbia; J. S. Spencer 

Franklinsville; B. Moffitt, Treasurer.. 

Worth (No. i);J. M. Worth 

Naomi Falls; S. Bryant, Treas 

Enterprise; J. A. Cole, Treas 

Staley ; 

Randleman Hosiery Mill;S.G.Newlin. 
Piedmont Hosiery Mill;W. M. Courts. 

Engleworth; H. M. Worth 

Plaidville; James. H. Ferree, Treas.... 
Ashboro Knitt'g Mills;A.C. McAllister 

Ledbetter; T. B. Ledbetter 

Richmond; M. Morgan 

Ida; M. Morgan 

Springfield; M. Morgan 

Roberdel; Robt. L. Steele 

Pee Dee; W. C. Leak 

Great Falls; W. I. Everett, Treasurer 

Midway; Leak, Watt & McRae 

Steele's; Robt. L. Steele 

Maxton; W. L. Field 

Edna; J. W. Arrington 

*Spray; Dr. George Mebane 

Mayodeu; W. C. Ruffin, Secretary 

Madison; S. Mead 

Patterson; J. W. Cannon 

Braiding W'ks. S. Littman (Cordage) 
Rowan Knitting Mills, T. Bearbaum. 

Salisbury; F. J. Murdoch 

Vance; F. J. Murdoch 


Henrietta (Nos. i & 2); J. S. Spencer. 

^Florence; R. R. Haynes 

Elkin; T.J. LiHard 

Chatham Mfg. Co 

Laurel Bluff; A. J. Thompson 

Hamburg; L. F. Ross 

Efird Mfg. Co. ; J. W. Cannon 

Monroe; W. C. Heath, Treasurer.. . . 

Caraleigh; F. O. Moring 

Pilot Mills; J. N. & W. H. Williamson 

Raleigh; C. G. Latta , 

Wayne; Solomon Weil 

Wilson; A. Branch 

No. of ^^ 
Spin- No. of 
dies. I-ooms 


































•In course of construction. 


North Carolina and its Resources. 



Alamance Snow Camp.. 

Ashe Helton 

Buncombe Weaverville. 

Chatham ...... Patterson. . . . 

Forsyth Salem 

Guilford Freeman 

Haywood Waynesville. 

Surry Mt. Airy 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Mt. Airy 

Name of Mili., Owner or President. 

Dixon; T. F. Mclver 

Helton; Perkins, Waugh & Co 

Reems Creek; John Cairns 

Gwyn Harper Co.; S. F. Harper. . . 

Salem; F. & H. Fries 

Freeman's; Bodie & Freeman 

Richland; D. Drayton, Perry & Co. 

Green Hill; M. J. Hawkins 

Elkin; Chatham Mfg. Company 

A. Allred 

No. of 

No. of 






















Among the most important by-products of cotton is tlie business 
of crushing the seed for oil, which is again followed by the value of 
the meal for both stock food and as a source of nitrogen in fertilizers, 
and of the hull as a stock food. The seed as they come from the gin 
are per ton, physically composed about as follows: 

Short lint 75 pounds 

Hull 915 " 

Oil 300 " 

Meal 610 " 

The short lint has a limited sale for use in batting and waddings 
The hull is now extensively used as stock feed — it was formerly used 
as fuel at the mills. The oil is used to make lard, soap, candles, 
table or "olive" oil, to pack sardines, as a lubricant and for illumina- 
tion in mines, &c. It is sold through commission merchants in our 
great cities. The meal is used as a stock food and largely in the 
manufacture of fertilizers. The hull and meal mixed in proper 
proportions, make a very nearly complete food for the fattening of beef 

Appended is a table showing the distribution of the cotton seed,., 
fertilizer and bone mills in the State: 

Cotton Seed, Fertilizer and Bone Mills. 



County and Post Office. 

Carteret, Beaufort 

Columbus, Wilmington 

Craven, Newbern 

Cumberland, Fayetteville.... 

Durham, Durham 

Edgecombe, Battleboro 

Edgecombe, Conetoe 

Edgecombe, Tarboro 

Edgecombe, Tarboro 

Edgecombe, Tarboro 

Guilford, High Point 

Guilford, Jamestown 

Guilford, Jamestown 

Mecklenburg, Charlotte. . . . 

Mecklenburg, Charlotte 

New Hanover, Wilmington.. 
New Hanover, Wilmington.. 
New Hanover, Wilmington.. 
New Hanover, Wilmington.. 
Pasquotank, Elizabeth City.. 

Richmond, Laurinburg 

Richmond, Gibson Station... 

Rockingham, Reidsville 

Wake, Raleigh 

Wake, Raleigh 

Wayne, Goldsboro 

Fish Scrap 



Cotton Seed Oil & Meal. 


Cotton Seed, Oil & Cake. 
Cotton Seed, Oil & Cake. 
Cotton Seed, Oil & Cake. 
Cotton Seed, Oil & Cake 


Cotton Seed, Oil & Meal 

Bone Meal.. 

Bone Meal 

Fert. & Cotton Seed Oil. 
Cotton Seed Oil & Meal. 




Cotton Seed Oil & Meal. 
Cotton Seed Oil & Meal. 
Cotton Seed Oil & Meal. 

Acid Phosphates. . - 



Fert. & Cotton Seed Oil. 
Pert. & Cotton Seed Oil. 

Owner or Manager. 

Bell, Westbrook & Co. . . 

Acme Mfg. Co 

E.H.&. J.A.Meadows Co. 

J. R. Williams 

Durham Fertilizer Co.... 

Dr. R. H. Speight 

N. B. Dawson 

W.N. Smith 

E. V. Zeoller 

F. S. Royster Guano Co.. 

Joseph Crudup 

Henry Potter 

Ragsdale & Smith 

Charlotte Oil & Fert. Co. 

N. C. Cotton Oil Co 

Navassa Guano Co 

Powers, Gibbs & Co 

J. F. Garrell&Co 

N. C. Cotton Oil Co. 

Cotton Seed Oil Co 

Robt. Covington 

Marlboro Mill Co 

Reidsville Fert Co 

Caraleigh Phos.Fert. Wks 
N. C. Cotton Seed Oil Co. 
Goldsboro Oil Co 


This is one of tlie State's most important industries; it has been, 
perhaps, the most stimulating in its effects upon trade and in develop- 
ing the energy and enterprise of the people, especially in the towns. 
Indeed, it may be called the "town-building industry" of the State, 
amply illustrated in Durham, Winston, Reidsville, Henderson and in 
many other towns of less prominence, or in less degree attributable to 
the manufacture of tobacco. There can be no questioning the 
influence of this industry on the cities named, and all over the tobacco 
growing area of the State there are busy, thriving villages and 
communities which owe much to the presence of tobacco in one form 
or another. It has been a potent factor in building up the fortunes of 
the people, and will continue to be of great value to the State. As a 
matter of interest, the following table will show the distribution of 
the factories in North Carolina. 

North Carolina and its Resources. 










Buncombe , 


Caswell . . . 
Caswell . . . 
Davie. ... 












Davie , 

Davidson. . 
Davidson. . 
Davidson , . 
Davidson . . 
Durham . . . 
Durham. . . 
Durham . . 
Durham.. . 
Durham . . , 
Durham.. . 
Durham . . 
Durham . . 

Durham . . 


Forsyth . . . 

Forsyth. . . 

Forsyth . . . 

Forsyth . . . 

Forsyth . . . 

Forsyth . . . 

Forsyth. . . 

Forsyth. . . 

Forsyth . . . 

Forsyth . . . 

Forsyth . . . 

Forsyth . . . 


Name of Factory and Owner or Manager 

Taylorsville Tobacco Co., R. P. Matheson. 

Tobacco Factory; Smith & Beckham 

Cigars; Asheville Cigar Co 

Cigars; A. Trifield 

Tobacco Factory; E. I. Holmes & Co 

Tobacco Factory; C. C. Mc.Carty , 

Tobacco Factory; Porter & Yates , 

Tobacco Factory; Ashworth & Jason 

Sally Michael Tobacco Co. Laxton Bros... 

Tobacco Factory; King Bros 

Tobacco Factory; N. E. Oliver 

Sherrill's Tobacco Co.; J. F. Long. 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Cigar Factory; J 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

; H. C. Burrus 

; Jno. R. Martin 

; J. G. Peebles 

; H. T. Smithdeal 

;C. D. Ward 

; Sanford & Williams 

; Robertson & Son 

; S. A. Jarvis & Co 

; James Sheek 

; Rufus Bowles 

; J. R. Cornelison 

; H. W. Dulin 

; E. Frost 

; Wm. F. James 

;T. F. Atkinson 

; A. A. Springs 

. A. Leach & Co 

;T. S. Dale & Co 

; Green, Rea & Co 

; R. Everhart 

Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Co.; J. S. Carr. . 
Morris Manufacturing. Co.; S. F. Tomlinson.. 

American Tobacco Co., W. Duke Sons Co 

Mallory Durham Cheroot Co 

Cigars; Sam'l Cramer & Co 

J. Y. Whitted Tobacco Co., Corporation 

Lyon & Co., Tobacco Works, Corporation . . . 

Cigars & Cigarettes; S. R. Carrington 

Cigars; Lyon & Reed 

Tobacco Factory, Farmers' Alliance Mfg. Co.. 

Tobacco Factory; Bailey Bros 

Tobacco Factory; J. A. Bitting 

Tobacco Factory; Blackburg-Harvey & Co. . . . 

Tobacco Factory; F. M. Bohannon 

Tobacco Factory; Brown Bros. & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Bynum & Crutchfield 

Tobacco Factory; Brown & Williamson. 

Tobacco Factory; R. L. Candler & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Casey & Wright. 

Tobacco Factory; Casper-Efland-Miller Co.. . . 

Tobacco Factory; W. S. Clarey & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Dalton, Farrow & Co 

Tobacco Factory ; Dalton, & Ellington 

Tobacco Factory; W. B. Ellis & Co 

Post Office. 








Fair View. 






















Yadkin College 

Yadkin College 


























Tobacco Factories. 



Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth . 
Forsyth . . 
Forsyth . 
Forsyth . 
Forsyth . . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth . . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 
Forsyth. . 

Name of Factory and Owner or Manager. 

Tobacco Factory; Hamlen Iviipfert & Co. . 

Tobacco Factory; B. F. Hanes 

Tobacco Factory; P. H. Hanes & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Ed. Rintels & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Hodgins Bros. & Lunn.. 

Tobacco Factory; H. B. Ireland & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Kerner Bros , 

Tobacco Factory; Lockett, Vaughn & Co.. 

Tobacco Factory; S. A. Ogburn 

Tobacco Factory; Ogburn, Hill & Co 

Tobacco Factory; M. L. Ogburn 

Tobacco Factory; Reynolds Bros , 

Tobacco Factory; R. J. Reynolds & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Ed. Rintels & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Taylor Bros , 

Tobacco Factory; T. L. Vaughn & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Cox & Co 

Tobacco Factory; O. J. Sheppard , 

Tobacco Factory; Walker Bros 

Tobacco Factory; W. A. Whitaker 

Tobacco Factory; T. F. Williamson & Co., 
Tobacco Factory; N. S. & T. J. Wilson.. . . 

Tobacco Factory; W. W. Wood & Co 

Smoking Tobacco; Byerly & Son , 

Smoking Tobacco; W. C. Lassiter & Co. . , 

Smoking Tobacco; T. F. Leak & Co 

Smoking Tobacco; Mosley & Martin 

Tobacco Works; Central Commercial Co... 

Tobacco Works; Ebert, Payne & Co ,, 

Smoking Tobacco; Walker Bros , 

Cigars; J. D. King 

Cigars; Liipfert & Jones , 

Cigars; V. O. Thompson 

Cigarettes; Liberty Tobacco Works 

Cigarettes; Brown Bros & Co 

Cigarettes; W. F. Smith & Son 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

Tobacco Factory 

J. G. Fulton 

J. F. Shaffner 

F. A. Crews 

N. D. Sullivan.. 

Greenfield & Galloway. . 

J. M. Greenfield 

Lowery Sons & Co 

Leak Bros. & Hasten. . , 

Beard & Roberts 

J. F. Kerner & Co 

B A. Brown 

Shore, Atkins & Co 

O. J. Lehman 

R. R. Holmes 

Alonzo Mitchell 

E. L. Harris 

D. C. Farrawbow 

J. Walter Howell 

Elias J. Jenkins 

W. P. Pickett & Co 

Tobacco Factory 

Cigar Factory; W. H. Snow 

Tobacco Factory; H. C. Brittain. . 
Tobacco Factory, Jno, F. Highfill 

Post Office. 
























































High Point. 

High Point. 




North Carolina and its Re;source;s. 










Guilford. ... 







Iredell ,. . 




McDowell... . 






Orange . . . . 
































Name of Factory and Owner or Manager. 

Tobacco Factory; Ogburn & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Jno. L. King & Co 

Tobacco Factory; E. J. & A. J. Stafford 

Tobacco Factory; Leak Bros. & Hasten 

Tobacco Factory; Lea & Tate 

Cigar Factory; S. B. Kersey 

Cigar Factory; P. C. Heath 

Cigar Factory; J. A. Hodgin 

Cigar Factory; W. F. Clegg 

Tobacco Factory; Irwin & Poston 

Tobacco Factory; Miller & Clifiord. 

Cigars; Louis Clark 

Smoking Tobacco; J. H. McElwee 

Tobacco Factory; Iredell Tobacco Co 

Tobacco Factory; Rankin Bros. Tobacco Co. . 

Tobacco Factory; Benson & Plyer 

Tobacco Factory; Kee & Co 

Tobacco Factory; H. Clark & Son 

Tobacco Factory; Ashe & Sons 

Tobacco Factory; Morgan Tobacco Co 

Cigar Factory; E. L. Martin 

Cigar Factory; C. H. Eckstein & Son 

Tobacco Factory; Atlantic Tobacco Works. , . 

Tobacco Factory; Rocky Mt. Tobacco Wks 

Tobacco Factory; N. W. Brown & Bro 

Tobacco Factory; R. C. Hill 

Tobacco Factory; H. P. Jones & Co. 

Tobacco Factory; S. T. Forest 

Tobacco Factory; J. N. Ranes & Co 

Smoking Tobacco; Long & Hubbard 

Tobacco Factory; J. C. & E. B. King 

Tobacco Factory; D.F.King 

Tobacco Factory; J. B. Taylor Tobacco Co. . . 

Tobacco Factory; Wm. Shultz & Co 

Tobacco Factory; B. F. Ivie 

Tobacco Factory; Alliance Mfg. Co 

Tobacco Factory; Joyce, Garrett & Stone 

Tobacco Factory; W. P. Grogan 

Tobacco Factory; R. P. Price 

Tobacco Factory; C. L. Smith 

Tobacco Factory ; Dez. Martin 

Tobacco Factory; J. W. Mangum 

Tobacco Factory; Pegram & Penn ,. . . . 

Tobacco Factory; F. R. Penn & Co 

Smoking Tobacco; R. P. Richardson, Jr 

Tobacco Factory; R. T. Stone & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Robert Harris & Bro 

Tobacco Factory; Watt, Penn & Co 

Tobacco Factory; A. H. Motley Co 

Tobacco Factory; Johnston Bros 

Tobacco and Cigar Fac'y; Wm. Lindsay & Co. 

Tobacco Factory; D. L. Gaskill 

Tobacco Factory; Holmes & Miller 

Tobacco Factory; J. R. Jewell 

Tobacco Factory; A. J. Fair 

Tobacco Factory; J. G. Fulton 

Tobacco Factory; M. Smith, Sr 

Tobacco Factory; D. N. Dal ton. 

Tobacco Factory; Culler & Co 

Post Oflace. 























Rocky Mount. 

Rocky Mount. 





Bethel HiU. 


























Walnut Cove. 

Walnut Cove. 




Tobacco Factories 



Stokes. . 
Stokes. . 
Surry . . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry . , . 
Surry. . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry . . 
Surry . . ; 
Surry. . . 
Surry . . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry. . . 
Surry . . 
Surry. . . 
Vance . . 
Vance . 
Vance . . 
Wake . . . 
Wayne . . 
Wilkes. . 
Yadkin. , 
Yadkin. , 

Name of Factorj' and Owner or Manager. 

Post Office. 

Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factor}^ 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factors- 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factor}' 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Tobacco Factory 
Cigar Factory; W 

Cigar Factory; Armfield & Co 

Tobacco Factory; L. J. Key 

Tobacco Factory; G. L. Matthews 

Tobacco Factory; H. H. Marion 

Tobacco Factory; Coroliua Tobacco Co.. . . 

Cigars and Cigarettes; D. Aycock 

Tobacco Factory; Davis Tobacco Co 

Tobacco Factory; J. E. Pogue 

Smoking Tobacco; Jesse G. Ball 

Cigars; J. M. Norwood 

Cigars; W. A. Sutton 

Smoking Tobacco; Bright Belt Tobacco Co. 

Tobacco Factory; J. D. Scott 

Smoking Tobacco; Michie Tobacco Co 

Tobacco Factory; R. H. Spainhour , 

Tobacco Factory; Gilliam Bros 

Tobacco Factory; J. C. Green & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Hall & Davidson 

Tobacco Factory; W. H. Reeves 

Tobacco Factory; Joshua Spicer 

Tobacco Factory; J. T. Welborn & Co 

Tobacco Factory; Wilson Tobacco Works.. 

Tobacco Factory; W. L,. Kelly 

Tobacco Factory; E-L. Jarvis 

Tobacco Factory ; J . E. Zachary 

Tobacco Factory; James Spear 

; D. W. Dodd 

, Culler & Sons 

; Bernard & Sullivan 

; R. G. Franklin 

; Forkner & Key 

; J. R. Forkner 

; W. R. Doss & Bros 

; Samuel Forkner & Co. . . . 
; G. W. Samuels & Co..., 

; J. R. LeAvellyn & Co 

; H. Holvfield 

; W. P. Dobson & Co 

; Forkner, Redman & Son. 

; Redman Bros 

; Dix,Flippin&Co 

; V. Boyles' Tob. Co 

; Dobson & Bros 

; E.J. Stone & Son 

; Key, Simmonds & Co. . . . 

; Sparger Bros 

; Ashby's Sons, L. W 

, Forkner, Olive & Co 

; R. L. Gwynn & Bros 

; W. E. Patterson & Co 

; Fulton Bros 

; J. D. Satterfield & Co 

; Prather & Whitlock 

; Wm. C. Moore 

; Hadley & Smith 

; W. L. Moody 

; Lower}', Sons & Co 

; McKinney & Bro 

E. Cox 

. King. 

, Culler 





, Dobson. 
, Dobson. 



Pilot Mountain. 

Pilot Mountain. 

Pilot Mountain. 

Pilot Mountain. 

Pilot Mountain. 

Pilot Mountain. 

Pilot Mountain. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

ilt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 

Mt. Airy. 














Moravian Falls. 




Roaring River, 









North Carolina and its Resources. 


Name of Factory and Owner or Manager. 

Post OflSce. 


Tobacco Factory; J. H. Vestal 



Tobacco Factory; V. S. C. Way 

Cross Roads Cli 


Tobacco Factory; W. E. Bovender 

Tobacco Factory; Morse & Wade 

East Bend 



Tobacco Factory; R. G. Patterson 

East Bend 


Tobacco Factory; Jno. A. Martin 

East Bend. 


Tobacco Factory ; J. H. Warren 



Tobacco Factory; E. C. Kirkman 

Mount Nebo. 


Tobacco Factory; Vestal & Wooten , 


Scattered all over the State may be found great numbers of 
small industries, some employing steam, some water power and others 
worked by hand. These include the manufacture of buggies, carria- 
ges, wagons, hubs, spokes, handles, furniture, sash, doors and blinds, 
buckets and leather, and tanneries, grist mills, canneries, ice factories 
and other industries of miscellaneous character. Comparatively insig- 
nificant taken singly, but taken collectively showing an aggregate of 
energy and thrift wholly commendable. Without an attempt to 
separate or classify beyond designating the county and post office 
where located, the very imperfect list is appended. 

County and Post Office. 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Alamance Haw River 

Alamance Burlington 

Alamance Burlington 

Alamance Burlington 

Alamance Mebane 

Alexander.... Taylorsville 

Alexander Taylorsville 

Alexander Dealsville 

Alexander Dealsville 

Alexander Vashti 

Anson Wadesboro 

Anson Wadesboro 

Anson Goodman 

Anson Cedar Hill 

Ashe Helton 

Ashe Creston , 

Ashe Jefferson , 

Ashe Transou , 

Ashe Treetop 

Ashe Sussex 

Ashe Grassy Creek. . 

Ashe Grassy Creek. . 

Bertie Aulander , 

Bertie Aulander 

Bertie Aulander 

Bertie Windsor 

Roller Flour Mills; Granite Mfg. Co. 

Harness Works; C. C. Townsend & Co. 

Buggy Works; T. J. Fonville. 

Roller Flour Mills; S. Ireland & Son. 

Furniture; White Brothers. 

Roller Flour Mill; U. S. Alspaugh. 

Tannery; J. M. Matherson. 

Tannery; S. M. Deal & Sons. 

Saddle & Harness Co; J. M. Deal. 

Spokes & Handles; Campbell & Williams. 

Wagon and Buggy Factory; D. li. Saylor & Son. 

Wagon Works; H. D. Pinkston. 

Tannery; J. C. Goodman. 

Wagon Works; Springer & Green. 

Roller Flour Mill; W. E. Perkins & Bro. 

Wagons and Buggies; N. J. I,illard. 

Tannery; Foster Brothers. 

Tannerv; S. M. Transou. 

Tannery; G. W. Ray & Son. 

Wagons, Carts, &c.; R. L,. Pierce. 

Tannery; George Collier. 

Furniture; F. H. Hatch. 

Wagons and Buggies; W. D. Hoggard. 

Creamery; A. J. Demming & Son. 

Wagons and Buggies; Louis Donaldson & Co. 

Wagons and Buggies; E- S. Dail. 

Miscellaneous Industries. 


County and Post Ofnce. 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Bertie Kelford 

Bertie Merry Hill 

Bertie Quitsna 

Bladen Bladenboro 

Bladen Council Station. . 

Buncombe Asheville 

Buncombe Asheville 

Buncombe Biltmore 

Buncombe Biltmore 

Buncombe Candler 

Buncombe Weaverville 

Buncombe Weaverville 

Buncombe Grace 

Burke Morganton 

Burke Morganton 

Burke Morganton 

Bnrke Morganton 

Cabarrus Mt. Pleasant 

Cabarrus Concord 

Cabarrus Concord 

Caldwell Lenoir 

Caldwell Lenoir 

Caldwell Lenoir 

Caldwell Lenoir 

Caldwell Lenoir 

Caldwell . . .Lenoir 

Caldwell Cora 

Caldwell Granite 

Caswell Milton 

Caswell .. . . , .. .High Towers. . . . 

Catawba Hickory 

Catawba Hickory 

Catawba Hickory 

Catawba Hickory 

Catawba Newton 

Catawba Newton 

Catawba Catawba 

Catawba Clairmont 

Chatham Lockville 

Chatham Bynums 

Chatham Gulf 

Chatham Ore Hill 

Cherokee .Murphy 

Cherokee Andrews 

Chowan Edenton 

Clay Hayesville 

Clay Hayesville 

Clay Hayesville 

Clay Hayesville 

Clay Hayesville 

Clay Hayesville 

Clay Hayesville 

Clay Hayesville 

Clay Tusquittee 

Clay Sweet Water. . . . 

Clay Irena 

Cleveland King's Mountain. 

Cleveland Kings Mountain. 

Cleveland King's Mountain. 

Wagons and Buggies; Parker & Norfleet. 

Wagons and Buggies; Granby Cooper. 

Spoke & Lumber Co.; O. H. Perry. 

Gem Canning Co.; W. R. Davis. 

Turpentine Tools; J. P. Council. 

Ice; Asheville Ice Co. 

Roller Flour Mills; H. I. Collins. 

Furniture; G. W. Vanderbilt. 

Brick and Tiles; G. W. Vanderbilt. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. B. Cole. 

Tannery; W. B. Cheek. 

Pottery Works; M. Shuford. 

Creamery; W. H. Calvern. 

Roller Flour and Corn Mill; W. G. Hagan. 

Wagons and Buggies; J. H. Coffee & Bro. 

Tannery; W. F. Camp, Manager. 

Sash, Blinds, &c.; Morganton Mfg. &Trad. Co. 

Wagon and Buggy Works; Heintz & Lefler. 

Roller Flour Mill; Lippard & Barrier 

Tannery; G. W. Brown. 

Roller Flour Mills; Moore & Lutz. 

Land and Lumber Co.; Corporation. 

Blue Ridge Furnitnre Co.; E. M. Winsyead. 

Furniture; Keitz Bros. 

Blue Ridge Spring & Mattress Co. ; J.R. Widby. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; P. L. Baker. 

Fruit Cannery; A. G. Corpening. 

Roller Mills; Russell & Moore. 

Roller Flour Mills; W. B. Lewis. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. L. Warren. 

Piedmont Wagon Co.; F. J. Long. 

Tanner}'; C. Gaither. 

Tannery; A. S. Abernathy. 

Roller Flour Mills; A. Y. Sigmon. 

Tannery; M.J. Rowe. 

Roller Flour Mills; Corporation. 

Tannery; J. J. Smith. 

Roller Flour Mills; John Setzer. 

Roller Flour Mills: John Barringer. 

Roller Flour Mills; C. W. Bynum & Bro. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. M. Mclver. 

Roller Flour Mills; O. T. Edwards. 

Cannery; Alfred Morgan. 

Cannery; C. M. Watson. 

Lumber Mills; J. W. Branning. 

Sash, Doors, Blinds, &c.; C. W. Culberson. 

Tannery; J. J. Scroggs. 

Tannery; Snider & Hill. 

Tannery; W. E. Angle. 

Tannery; A. B. Thompson. 

Wagons, Buggies, &c.; G. T. Cheek. 

Furniture; R. M. Webb. 

Wagons & Buggies; John Palmer. 

Wagons and Carts; W. H. Poteat. 

Wagons and Carts; T. R. Griffin. 

Wool Carding and Cleaning; W. S. Ledford 

Tannerjs A. T. Cansler & Rhyne. 

Roller Flour Mills; W. O. Wair & Son. 

Wagon Works; George Cornwell. 


North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

County and Post Office. 

Cleveland Shelby 

Cleveland Shelby 

Cleveland Shelby 

Cleveland Laundale..., 

Cleveland Sharon 

Cleveland Lattimore. .. 

Cleveland Bellwood . . . 

Cleveland Bellwood . . . 

Cleveland Polkville . . . 

Columbus Hub 

Craven New Bern . . 

Craven ...... .New Bern.. . 

Craven New Bern... 

Craven New Bern.. . 

Craven New Bern.. . 

Craven New Bern.. . 

Craven New Bern... 

Craven New Bern... 

Craven New Bern... 

Craven New Bern... 

Craven New Bern... 

Craven New Bern. . 

Craven New Bern . . 

Craven New Bern .. 

Craven New Bern . . 

Craven New Bern . . 

Craven New Bern . . 

Craven New Bern . . 

Cumberland . . .Fayetteville 
Cumberland , . .Fayetteville 

.Fayetteville , 
. .Fayetteville . 
, ..Fayetteville. 
, ..Fayetteville. 
. ..Fayetteville. 
. .Fayetteville. 
. ..Fayetteville. 
, ..Fayetteville. 

Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 

Currituck Moyock 

Davidson Ivexington . . . . 

Davidson Lexington . . . . 

Davidson Lexington . . . . 

Davidson Lexington . . . . 

Davidson Lexington . . . . 

Davidson Lexington . . . . 

Davidson Fairmount . . . . 

Davidson Jackson Hill . . 

Davidson Thomasville . . . 

Davidson Thomasville . . . 

Davidson Thomasville... 

Davidson Thomasville... 

Davidson Tyro Shops . . . 

Davidson Linwood 

Davidson Denton 

Davie Mocksville . . ... 

Davie Mocksville. . . . 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Roller Flour Mills; S. Hoard. 

Roller Flour Mills; B. Blanton. 

Wagons and Buggies; J. W. Lineberger. 

Fruit Cannery; W. C. Lee. 

Fruit Cannery; J. W. Bowen. 

Implements, &c.; W. T. Calton & Co. 

Tannery; P. M. Knatt. 

Tannery; W. Hoyle. 

Tannery; T. Elliott. 

Butters Lumber Co.; H. Butters. 

Ice; B. S. Guion. 

Lumber; Congdon & Co 

Lumber; Stimson & Co. 

Lumber; J. B. Clark. 

Lumber; W. B. Ellis. 

Lumber; J. S. Basnight. 

Lumber; J. L. Moody. 

Lumber; VV. B. Blades. 

Roller Flour Mill; J. A. Meadows. 

Carriages and Buggies; H. Wingfield. 

Barrel Factory; Jones Manufacturing Co. 

Elm City Barrel Factory, B. B. Neal. 

Barrels, Crates, &c.; George Bishop. 

Castings, &c., W. J. Boyd. 

Shuttle Block Works; C. L. Ives. 

Lumber; Broadus & Ives. 

Lumber; S. E. Sullivan. 

Gaskill Mattress Co.; F. T. Patterson. 

Castings, &c.; J. N. Emmett. 

Castings, &c.; Thomas Ward. 

Furniture; Newberry & Son. 

Shuttle Blocks; L. A. Weeden. 

Woodenware; C. S. Taylor. 

Carolina Machine Mfg. Co.; Russell Bros. 

Ice; J. B. Starr. 

Oak Barrels, R. M. Nimocks. 

Turpentine Tools; Walter Watson. 

Cedar Works; A. A. McKeithan, Jr. 

Buggies and Wagons; A. A. McKeithan, Jr. 

Beut-wood Works, Coil Hoops; J. P. Denny. 

Cross Creek Mfg. Co, (Wood). D. Rose. 

Mattresses; C. R. Van De Car. 

Roller Flour Mills; Grimes Brothers. 

Wagons; Rothrock Brothers. 

Roller Flour Mills; M. K. Gray. 

Castings, &c.; C. A. Thompson. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Wm. Frank. 

Furniture; Plummer & Gray. 

Roller Flour Mills; Smithy Spain. 

Tannery; J. M. Badgett. 

Roller Flour Mills; T. S. F. Lambeth. 

Coffins; Petree & Riles, 

Chairs; D. S. Westmoreland & Son. 

Furniture; J. H. Lambeth. 

Roller Flour Mills; Owens & Co. 

Roller Flour Mill; S. Spain. 

Roller Flour Mill & Wool Carding. 

Roller Flour Mills; Horn Bros. & Johnson. 

Lumber; Denny, Owens & Co. 



County aud Post Office. 

Davie Mocksville 

Davie Farmington . . 

Davie Advance 

Davie Cana 

Davie Cana 

Duplin Warsaw 

Duplin Faison 

Durham Durham 

Durham Durham 

Durham Durham 

Durham Durham 

Durham Durham 

Durham Durham 

Durham Durham 

Durham Durham 

Durham Durham 

Durham South Lowell. . 

Durham Willardsville... 

Edgecombe Tarboro 

Bdgecombe Tarboro 

Edgecombe .... Tarboro 

Edgecombe .... Tarboro 

Edgecombe . . . .Tarboro 

Edgecombe Tarboro 

Edgecombe . . . .Rocky Mount. . 
Edgecombe . . . .Rocky Mount. . 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Winston 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Salem 

Forsyth Blakely 

Forsyth Bethania 

Forsyth Bethania 

Forsyth Bethania 

Forsyth Kernersville. . . 

Forsyth Kernersville . . . 

Forsyth Kernersville.. . 

Forsyth Kernersville. . . 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Copper Stills; W. A. Weant. 

Roller Flour Mills; A. W. Ellis. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; A. C. Wood. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. W. Etchison. 

Spokes and Handles; Green & Son. 

Crate Factory; T. B. Pierce. 

Crate Factory; J. W. Mallard. 

Soap Works; Corporation. 

Roller Covering Co.; Corporation. 

Carriages and Buggies; Seeman & Son. 

Carriages and Buggies; R. T, Howerton. 

Golden Belt Bag Factory; Corporation. 

Wooden ware; Corporation. 

Cannery; J. T. Pinnix & Co. 

Wooden ware; Lee & Wheeler. 

Ice; W. W. Whitted. 

Roller Flour Mills; Corporation. 

Roller Flour Mills; Cox & Christain. 

Carriages and Buggies; M. L. Hussy. 

Carriages and Buggies; J. T. Hyatt. 

Chewing Gum; J. W. Powell. 

Creamery; C. H. King. 

Creamery; J. W. Powell. 

Creamery; L. L. Staton. 

Flag Marsh Creamery; T. H. Battle. 

Dunbar Creamery; R. H. Battle. 

Tobacco Casing Machinery; Corporation. 

Roller Flour Mills; D. L. Shore. 

Wagons; S. W. Farrabee. 

Machinery; Kesler Bros. 

Wood Workers; Miller Bros. 

Wagons aud Carts; S. J. Nissen. 

Wagons and Carts; Spaugh Bros. 

Pumps; C. H. Tise 

Buggies and Coaches; J. A. White & Son. 

Tiles and Brick; Winston Brick & Tile Co. 

Cigarette Machines; Cigarette Machine Co. 

Builders of Wood Work; Fogle Bros. 

Fruit and Vegetable Cannery; C. F. Jenkins. 

Broom Factory; C. F. Jenkins. 

Metal Cornice W'ks;Senseman &Brickenstein, 

Machinery; C. A. Hege & Co. 

Carriages and Buggies; F. C. Meinung. 

Chairs and Tables; Holland & Weisner. 

Wagons and Carts; C. F. Nissen & Co. 

Wagons and Carts; G. E. Nissen & Co. 

Tobacco Boxes; Spaugh Bros. 

Woodworking Machinery; J. A. Vance. 

Pipes, Earthenware &c.; D. T. Crouse. 

Coffins and Furniture; F. C. Vogler & Son. 

Roller Flour Mill; F. & H. Fries. 

Roller Flour Mill's; Eugene A. Conrad. 

Wagon Works; W. A. Stoltz. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. F. Miller. 

Roller Flour Mills; E. T. Kapp. 

Wood Manufacturing Co.; Lewis & Huff. 

Cannery; Edwards & Stone. 

Wagons and Buggies; Peadry& Phillips. 

Tannery; I. Herner. 


North Carolina and its Resources. 

County and Post Office. 

Forsyth Kernersville 

Forsyth Kernersville. . . . 

Forsyth Kernersville 

Forsyth Walkertown 

Franklin Laurel 

Franklin Laurel 

vGaston Stanley Creek. . , 

Gaston Mt. Holly 

Gaston .Belmont 

Gates Gatesville 

Gates Adair 

Gates Sunbury 

Guilford Pomona 

Guilford Gibsonviile 

Guilford Gibsonviile 

Guilford Gibsonviile 

Guilford Gibsonviile 

Guilford Brown's Summit, 

Guilford Liberty Store... . 

Guilford Colfax 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford High Point 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro . . . . , 

Guilford Greensboro . . . . . 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Guilford Greensboro 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Roller Flour Mills; Wm. Helper. 

Roller Flour Mill; H. E. Harman. 

Wagons and Buggies; B. Y. Clark. 

Tobacco Boxes, &c. ; Leight Bros. 

Creamery; J. F.Jones. 

Wagons and Buggies; J. F. Jones. 

Cannery; R. M. Johnson. 

Roller Flour Mills; R. M. Jenkins. 

Cannery; Hall & Stone. 

Carriages and Buggies; W. H. Standin. 

Carriages and Buggies; J. H. Brooks. 

Wagons, Carts, &c.; Pierce & Speight. 

Sewer Pipes, Tilings, &c.; J. Van Lindley. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; W. C. Michael. 

Roller Flour Mills; O. L. Huff. 

Cannery; J. V. Wagoner. 

Tannery; Thomas Overman. 

Doggett Roller Flour Mill; A. Hines. 

Tannery; J.J. Busick. 

Cannery; Cude Brothers 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; W. C. Michael. 

Roller Flour Mills; Teague & Horney. 

Sash, Doors, BHnds, &c.; R. F. Dalton. 

Furniture; T. F. Wrenn. 

Furniture; J. H. Willis. 

Furniture; W. H. Ragan. 

Furniture; J. H. Tate. 

Castings, &c.; O. U. Richardson. 

Chair Factory; J. B. Best. 

Mattresses and Lounges; J. C. Callum. 

Spokes and Handles; J. Elwood Cox. 

Furniture; J. P. Redding. 

Cannery (Fruit and Veget'ble); J.B.Best &Bro. 

Cotton and Fruit Baskets; W. H. Snow. 

Roller Flour Mills; North & Watson. 

Roller Flour Mills; T. J. Willis. 

Roller Flour Mills; Causey & Lewis. 

Furniture; Greensboro Furniture Company. 

Wagons, Carts, &c.; C. E. Landreth. 

Hogsheads, Boxes, &c.; R, W. Brooks. 

Mattresses, Sofas, &c.; J. C Callum. 

Stoves, Agric'lt'ral Imp.,&c.; G.Sergeant &Co. 

Steel and Iron Furnace; J. M. Worth. 

Castings, Mach'y, &c.; G. T. Glasscock & Son 

Ice; Wm. E. Worth. 

Ice; L. S. Barnes. 

Eagle Foundry and Mch. Wks.; W. J. Teague. 

Sash,Doors,Blinds &c;W. D. Mendenhall & Co. 

Southern Varnish & Paint Co.; Corporation. 

Sash, Doors,Blinds,&c.; J. R. Mendenhall & Co. 

Spokes and Wood Works; Scott & Eldridge. 

Brick and Tile; Greensboro B. & T. Co. 

Spokes and Handles; B. H. Merrimon. 

Cannery; Gilmer & Smith. 

Cannery; G. L. Anthony. 

Cannery; John Tucker. 

Carriages, Buggies, &c.; Lewis & Huff. 

Cultivators; Gilmer, Trexler & Phipps. 

Sash, Doors, Blinds, &c.; Stock Company. 

Miscellaneous Industries. 


County and Post Office. 

Guilford Colfax 

Guilford Guilford College 

Guilford Guilford College 

Halifax Hobgood 

Halifax Scotland Neck . . 

Halifax Scotland Neck. . . 

Halifax Wei don 

Halifax Tillery. 

Harnett Dunn 

Harnett Dunn 

Harnett Dunn 

Haywood Waynesville 

Haywood Wajmesville 

Haywood Waynesville 

Haywood Waynesville 

Haywood Waynesville 

Haywood Waynesville 

Haywood Waynesville 

Haywood Clyde 

Henderson Zirconia 

Henderson Dana 

Henderson Flat Rock 

Henderson Hendersonville. . 

Henderson Hendersonville. . 

Henderson Hendersonville. . 

Henderson Horse Shoe 

Hertford Murf reesboro . . . . 

Hertford Winton 

Hertford Winton 

Hertford Winton 

Hertford Union 

Hertford Tunis 

Hertford Tunis 

Hyde Fairfield 

Hyde Swan Quarter . . . 

Hyde Englehard 

Iredell Statesville 

Iredell Statesville 

Iredell Statesville 

Iredell Statesville 

Iredell Statesville 

Iredell Statesville 

Iredell Statesville 

Iredell , . . Mooresville 

Iredell. Mooresville 

Iredell Mooresville 

Iredell Cool Springs .... 

Iredell FJagle Mills 

Iredell Scotts X Roads . . 

Iredell Scotts 

Iredell Troutman's 

Lenoir Kinston 

Ivcnoir Kinston 

Lincoln Lincolnton 

Lincoln Lincolnton . .. 

Lincoln Lincolnton . . . 

Lincoln Lincolnton . .. 

Lincoln Lincolnton . . . 

Lincoln Lincolnton . .. 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Cannery; Cude Brothers. 

Leather and Shoe Co.; S. W. H. Smith. 

Harness and Leather; George Edgerton. 

Cannery; E. P. Hyman. 

Southern Sweet Gum Co.; W. H. White & Co. 

Buggies, &c.; J. E. Woodward. 

Roanoke Corn Mill; Navigation & Water-P-Co. 

North Carolina Lumber Co.; Mr. Turner. 

Plows, Castings, &c.; J. A. McKoy Co. 

Wagons, Carts, &c.; W. D. Thornton. 

Southern Paige Mfg. Co.; A. R. Wilson, 

Wagons and Carts; McKeehan & Co. 

Spokes, Handles, Pins, &c.; B. F. Smathers. 

Barrels, Pumps, Staves, &c.; W. H. Cole. 

House Furnishing Material; C. E. Satterwait. 

Insulator Pin Factory; Hellams & Ellis. 

Cheese and Butter; A. Howell. 

Tannery; W. A. Herrin. 

Roller Flour Mills; Morgan & Killiam, 

Handles, Spokes, Rims, &c. ; W. T. Davis & Co. 

Blue Ridge Canning Co., P. T. Ward & Co. 

Carolina Canning Co.; P. W. & R. R. Hart. 

Sash, Doors, Blinds, &c.; T. W. Bennett & Co. 

Tannery; Taylor & Williams. 

Cannery; J. P. Shepard. 

Cannery; W. B. Ledbetter. 

Agricultural Machinery; F. Furguson. 

Buggies, Wagons, &c.; H. B. Vann. 

Buggies, Wagons, &c.; C. Banks & Co. 

Lumber; W. P. Taylor. 

Buggies, Wagons, &c.; H F. Duke. 

Lumber; Chowan Lumber Co. 

Lumber; J. A. Isham. 

Buggies and Carts; W. A. Williams. 

Buggies and Carts; George Hodges. 

Furniture; G. T. Burrus. 

Roller Flour Mill; Stimson & Co. 

Buckets, Boxes, Tubs, &c.; C. L. Wagoner. 

Tannery; S. A. Sharp. 

Tannery; J. T. Allison. 

Creamery; Dr. J. J. Mott. 

Spokes, Handles, &c.; Stock Company. 

Roller Flour Mills; Mott & Sullivan. 

Roller Flour Mills; Templeton, Williams & Co. 

Tannery; W. C. Patterson. 

Shoes and Harness; W. A. Wilson. 

Garden Valley Roller Mill; Turner & Holeman 

Roller Flour Mills; J. E. Stimpson. 

Roller Flour Mills; Morrison & Co. 

Roller Flour Mill; Henry Gilbert. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. S. Troutman. 

Buggies; Ellis & Randolph. 

Buggies, Carriages, &c.; C. Randolph. 

Pioneer Roller Flour Mills; A. Costner. 

Indian Creek Roller Mills; Rudisil & Son. 

Castings and Implements; F. H. Turner. 

Fruit and Vegetable Cannery; J. T. McLain. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; W. W. Motz. 

Furniture; William Motz. 


North Carolina and its Resources. 

County and Post Office. 

Macon. ., 








Madison... . . .. 


McDowell . 

McDowell . . . . 

McDowell. . . . 

McDowell. . . . 








Mecklenburg. . 

































.Lincolnton . . 

. Lincolnton . . 

.Lincolnton . . 

.Lincolnton . . . 


.Williamston. . 




Hamilton .... 
Hamilton .... 

. Marshall 


• Halewood . . . 






. Charlotte 




.Charlotte . . . . 



. Charlotte 



. Charlotte 






..Charlotte . . . . 


..Charlotte . . . . 

..Charlotte . . . . 






...Charlotte . . . . 

...Charlotte . . . . 



...Hopewell . . . . 







...Mt. Gilead.., 

...Mt. Gilead.., 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Castings; Carry &Babbington. 

Mica Mill; Samuel Lander. 

Furniture; Edward James. 

Roller Flour Mills; T. J. Ransom & Son. 

Furniture; John Ammons. 

Furniture; Martin & Biggs. 

Lumber; Martin Lumber Co. 

Buggies; Robersonville Buggy Works. 

Parmele-Eccleston Lumber Co. 

Barrel and Hoop Factory; J. P. Boyce. 

Carriages, &c.; Slade & Jones. 

Roller Flour Mills; W. B. Rumsey. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. W. Roberts. 

Roller Flour Mills; M. Bruce. 

Tannery; Blanton & Co. 

Furniture; D. R. Roper. 

Tannery; Dysart & Co. 

Locust Pins; J. N. McNaughton. 

Machine Works; Liddell & Co, 

Tompkins Machine Shop; D. A. Tompkins Co, 

Mecklenburg Iron Works; John Wilkes. 

Batting Works; F. Oliver, President. 

Moffitt Machine Shops; J. R. Pharr. 

Machine Shops; Park Manufacturing Co. 

Furniture; J. A. Elliott. 

Broom Company; J. Roessler, Agent. 

Card Clothing; James Leslie. 

Loom Reeds and Harness; Lazelle, R. & H. Co, 

Leather Belting; J. P. Wilson. 

Bagging and Ties; Margolins & Co. 

Flour Mills; Julian & Thompson. 

Iron Fronts and Furnaces; I. N. McCousland. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; R. E. Cochrane. 

Mantels & Interior Fin.; Asbury & Finger. 

Roller Covering Works; D. A. Tompkins. 

Mantels & Interior Finishing; F. W. Ahrens. 

Cotton Mill Machinery; D. A. Tompkins Co. 

Cheese and Butter; J. M. Davis. 

Candies; J. Fasnach. 

Spokes, Handles and Rims; J. H. Carson. 

Candies; J. W. Lewis. 

Ice; A. J. Hagood. 

Saddles and Harness; Shaw-Howell Harn. Co. 

Wagons and Buggies; W. S. Wearn. 

Brick and Drain Pipes; W. H. Houser. 

Mattresses; E. M. Andrews. 

Blacksmith's Bellows; J. H. Weddington. 

Star Broom Factory; A Brown. 

Harness and Saddles; W. E. Shaw. 

Fruit Cannery; D. I. Sample. 

Fruit Cannery: J. S. McElory. 

Fruit Cannery; W. M. Kerns. 

Fruit Cannery; W. D. Alexander. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. V. Bost. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. L. Hall. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; B. C. Beckwith. 

Tannery; F. McAuley. 

Coffins and Furniture; J. A. Lisk. 

Miscellaneous Industries. 


County and Post OfiBce. 

Montgomery. ,..Mt. Gilead 

Montgomery. . .Mt. Gilead 

Montgomery. . .Eldorado 

Montgomery. ...Eldorado 

Montgomery Star 

Moore Southern Pines. . 

Moore Carthage 

Moore Carthage 

Moore West End 

Moore Sanford 

Moore Sanford 

Moore Sanford 

Moore Sanford 

Moore Aberdeen 

Moore Aberdeen 

Moore Aberdeen 

Moore Aberdeen 

Moore Aberdeen 

Moore Jonesboro 

Moore Jonesboro 

Nash Battleboro 

Nash Rocky Mount . . . . 

New Hanover. ..Wilmington 














Industry and Owner or Manager. 

New Hanover, 
New Hanover 
New Hanover, 
New Hanover, 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover, 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover. 
New Hanover.. .Wilmington 

New Hanover. .Wilmington 

New Hanover.. . Wilmington 

New Hanover. .Wilmington 

New Hanover. .Wilmington 

New Hanover. .Wilmington 

New Hanover. .Wilmington 

Northampton . . Woodland 

Northampton . .Jackson 

Northampton.. .Jackson 

Orange Hillsboro 

Orange Hillsboro 

Onslow Jacksonville 

Onslow Jacksonville .... 

Pamlico Bayboro 

Pamlico vStonewall ....... 

Pamlico Oriental 

Pasquotank Elizabeth City. . . 

Pasquotank. . . .Elizabeth City. . . 

Pasquotank Elizabeth City. . . 

Pasquotank Elizabeth City. . . 

Pasquotank Elizabeth City. . . 

Pasquotank Elizabeth City. . . 


Wagons and Buggies; Mr. Blalock. 

Steam Flour Mill; F. McAuley. 

Tannery; N. M. Thayer. 

Shoe and Harness Co.; N. M. Thayer. 

Roller Flour Mills; B. L. Allen. 

Crates and Baskets; Fred Chandler. 

Carriages and Buggies; Tyson & Jones. 

Lumber; Walter Mills. 

House Builders' Supplies; W. E. Lumber Co. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; J. W. Scott. 

Furniture; Scott & Lemon. 

Casting and Machines; M. M. Moffitt. 

Carriages and Buggies; O. M. Kelly. 

Lumber; R. N. & H. A.Page. 

Lumber; Adams & Co. 

Lumber; J. Rollins. 

Wagons, Carts, &c.; Aberdeen Mfg. Co. 

Castings and Implements; Aberdeen Foundry. 

Agr. Implements & Machinery; Kelly Bros. 

Pottery, Tiling, Drain Pipes; T. N. Campbell. 

Creamery; T. B. Braswell. 

Creamery; R. H. Ricks. 

Broom Factory; J. P. & L. Taylor. 

Roller Flour Mills; Boney & Harper. 

Engines, Boilers & Agr.Machinery; H. A. Burr. 

Creosote; Carolina Creosote Company. 

Roller Flour Mills; W. P. Oldham. 

Ice; Wni. E. Worth & Co. 

Harness; Fennell Harness Co. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Fore & Foster. 

Castings and Machinery; Burr & Bailey. 

Wood Alcohol, &c.; Imperial Pine Product Co. 

Carriage and Wheel Works; W. P. Boney & Co. 

National Rice Milling Co.; Norward Giles. 

Oyster Canning Co.; T. D. Meares 

Carriages and Buggies; P. H. Hayden. 

Carriages and Buggies; W. T. Ketchum. 

Lumber; Pike Lumber Co. 

Engines, Boilers, Castings; C. M. Whitlock. 

Lumber; Hilton Lumber Co. 

Lumber; Peregoy Lumber Co. 

Lumber; Kidders' Lumber Co. 

Lumber; William Chadbourn &. Co. 

Carriages and Buggies; Whitty & Co. 

Wagons, Carts and Buggies; Wright Bros. 

Harness Factory; W. T. Picard. 

Alliance Shoe Factory; Farmers' Alliance. 

Alliance Tannery; Farmer' Alliance. 

Wagons, Buggies, &c.; J. G. Gardner. 

Lumber; Parmele-Eccleston Lumber Co. 

Truck Barrels and Crates; Hooker &. Sawyer. 

Lumber; Pamlico Lumber Co. 

Lumber; Oriental Lumber Co. 

Castings and Implements; T. M. Lilliston. 

Ice; W. E. Dunsion. 

Lumber, Mouldings, &c.; J. B. Blades. 

Lumber, Mouldings, &c.; John Cramer. 

Lumber, Mouldings, &c.; Wm. Straughn. 

Lumber, Mouldings, &c.; Foreman & Co. 


North Carolina and its Resources. 

Conuty and Post Office. 

Industry and Owner or i^anager . 

Pasquotank. . 

. . Elizabeth City . . . 

Lumber, Mouldings, &c.; W. W. Griffin & Co. 


..Elizabeth City... 

Nets and Twine; F. S. Brown. 


. .Elizabeth City... 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Thos. Commander. 


. . Elizabeth City . . . 

Carriages, Buggies &c.; J. F. Saunders. 


..Elizabeth City... 

Roller Flour NLiWs; White & Roper. 


..Elizabeth City. .. 

Roller Flour Mills; William Parlin. 


..Elizabeth City... 

Sash, Doors & Blinds; C. E. Kramer. 

Perquimans. . 


Carriages and Buggies; Toms & McMullin. 

Perquimans. . 


Carriages and Buggies; W. H. Ward. 

Perquimans. . 


Lumber; Fleetwood & Jackson. 

Perquimans. . 


Lumber; Major & Looniis. 

Perquimans. . 

. .Wiufall 

Box Lumber; Alonzo Winslow. 

Perquimans. . 

. .Belvidere 

Tannery; M. White. 


. . Roxboro 

Wagons and Buggies; R. E. Daniel & Son. 


. . Roxboro 

Wagons and Buggies; Cheek & Co. 
Roller Flour Mills; I. C. Pass. 


. . Roxboro 


. . Roxboro 

Buggy Factory; C. C. & J. S. Critchner. 
Lake Roller Mills; J. A. Long & Co. 




. . Roxboro 

Buggies, Wheels, Rims,&c.; O. Bullard. 
Loche Lilly Roller Mills; Winstead & Long. 


. .Chublake , 


. .Coleridge 

Enterprise Roller Mills; J. A. Cole. 


. .Ramsuer 

Alberta Chair Works; A. W. E. Copel. 

Randolph.. . . 


Wood Finishing & Lumber; C. C. McAlister. 
Roller Flour Mill; R. R. Ross. 

. .Ashboro 

Randolph. ..'. 


Wood and Iron Works; C. J. Cox. 


. .Ashboro 

Furniure; P. H. Morris. 

Randolph. . . . 

. .Ashboro 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Guilford Mfg. Co. 

Randolph. . . . 

. .Ashboro 

Wagons; S. W. Kivett. 

Randolph. . . . 

. .Archdale 

Archdale Roller Mills. 

Randolph. . . . 

. . Worthville 

Fruit Cannery; H. M. Worth. 

Richmond. ... 

. .Laurinburg 

Fruit & Vegetable Cannery; D. Stewart. 

Richmond. ... 

. .Rockingham. . . . 

Fruit & Vegetable Cannery (i); A Stewart. 

Richmond. ... 

. . Rockingham .... 

Fruit & Vegetable Cannery (2); A. Stewart. 


. .Pelham 

Roller Flour Mills; Candler & Bethel. 

Rockingham . 

. .L,eaksville 

Carriages and Buggies; J. W. Harper. 


. .Leaksville 

Carriages and Buggies; Hampton & Co. 

P^ockingham . 

. .Berry 

Fruit and Vegetable Cannery, Settle Bros. 
Creamery; E. B. C Hambly. 

. .Rockwell 


..Mill Bridge 

Roller Flour Mills; Harrison & Page. 


..Mill Bridge 

Creamery; J. M. Harrison. 


. .Enochville 

Roller Flour Mills; C. J. Deal. 


. .Cleveland 

Roller Flour Mills; P. M. Brown. 


..China Grove 

Roller Flour Mill; M. M. Ketchie. 


. .Salisbury ...... . 

Roller Flour Mills; J. S. McCubbins. 


. .Salisbury 

North Side Flour Mills; D. R. Julian. 


. .Garfield! 

Roller Flour Mills; Phillips & Pool. 


.South River 

Roller Flour Mill; J. Lindsay, Manager. 

Rutherford . . 

. . Avr 

Tannery; Frank Reynolds. 
Roller Flour Mill; Beam & Co. 

Rutherford. . 

. .Ellenboro 

Rutherford . . 

. .Rutherfordton.. . 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; L. E. Powers. 

Rutherford. . 

. . Rutherfordton. . . 

Rims, Spokes and Handles; J. S. Rowland. 

Rutherford . . 

. .Rutherfordton.. . 

Roller Flour Mills; J. S. Rowland. 

Rutherford. . 


Carders and Spinners; Bostic Card. & Wool Co. 
Carriages and Buggies; Lewis & Co. 


. .Autryville 



. .Clinton 

Crates and Butter Dishes, &c.; A. F. Johnson. 

. .Clinton 

Furniture; David Clifton. 

Sampson. . . . 
Sampson . . , . 

. .Clinton 

Cannery; George Smith. 
Baskets, Crates, &c.; T. P. Pierce. 

. .Warsaw 

Miscellaneous Industries. 


County and Post Office, 

Stanly Whittey 

Stanly Big Lick 

Stanly Norwood 

Stanly Albemarle 

Stanly Millingport 

Stanly Richfield 

Stanly New L,ondou. . . . 

Stokes Dalton 

Stokes Walnut Cove . . . . 

Stokes Walnut Cove. . . . 

Stokes Walnut Cove 

Stokes Walnut Cove. . . . 

Stokes Walnut Cove. . . . 

Stokes Pine Hall 

Stokes Pine Hall 

Stokes Dillard 

Stokes Gerinanton 

Stokes Sandy Ridge 

Stokes Sandy Ridge.... 

Stokes Sandy Ridge ... 

Stokes Sandy Ridge. . . . 

Stokes ,... Sandy Ridge.... 

Stokes Francisco 

Stokes Slate, 

Stokes Danbury 

Stokes Danbury 

Stokes Danbury 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Elkin 

Surry Boonville 

Surry Pilot Mountain. . 

Surry Mt. Airy 

Surry Mt. Airy 

Surry Mt. Airy 

Surry Mt. Airy 

Surry Mt. Airy 

Swain Bryson City 

Swain Bryson City 

Swain Bryson City 

Swain Bryson City 

Swain Bryson City 

Swain Swain 

Tyrrell Columbia 

Union Waxliaw 

Union Alton 

Union Love's Level. . . . 

Union Monroe 

Union Monroe 

Union Monroe 

Union Ruben 

Vance Henderson 

Vance Henderson 

Vance Henderson 

Vance Henderson 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. S. Efird. 

Roller Flour Mills; D. E. Efird & Co. 

Roller Flour Mills; M. E. Blalock. 

Wagons and Buggies; Albemarle W. & B. Co. 

Roller Flour Mills; E. Eudy. 

Roller Flour Mills; Ritchey Bros. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; James Beatty. 

Wagon Works; A. H. Hargrove. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Walnut Cove Lb'r Co. 

Foundry; Miller & Cook. 

Wagons, Carts, &c.; Clodfelter & Lancaster. 

Roller Flour Mills; J.J. Blockham. 

Plows, Castings, &c.; Miller Iron Co. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Capell & Binford. 

Roller Flour Mills; L. W. Andrews. 

Tobacco Boxes; K. W. Mitchell. 

Roller Flour Mills; H. A. Morris. 

Tobacco Boxes; S. Amos. 

Tobacco Boxes; J. E. Shelton. 

Wagon Works; John Hutcherson. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. E. Shelton. 

Tannery; J. C. Andrews. 

Roller Flour Mills; R. W. George. 

Roller Flour Mills; John Slate & Sons. 

Wagons; H. M. Joyce. 

Tannery; J. F. Pepper. 

Roller Flour Mill; D. W. Dodd. 

Lumber; Wm. Poindexter. 

Lumber; L. H. Carter. 

Castings, Plows and Potware; D. Brookshire. 

Shoes; Elkin Manufacturing Co. 

Wagons and Carts; Hubbard & Roth. 

Roller Flour Mills; Elkin Manufacturing Co. 

Furniture; Green & Gray. 

Buggies and Carr'g's; M. S.Woodhouse & Bro. 

Wagons and Carts; J. S. & S. E. Marshall. 

Buggies, Carriages, &c.; L. H. Huff. 

Furniture; Mt. Airy Furniture Co. 

Roller Flour Mills; A. E. Sides. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Galloway & Belton. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Marshall Mill Co. 

Insulator Pins, Staves, &c.; B. B. Lake. 

Sash, Doors, Blinds, &c. ; Coffin & McDonald. 

Tannery; John Sutton. 

Insulator Pins, &c.; A. B. Allison & Co. 

Insulator Factory; E. Everett. 

Tannery; H. McHan. 

Wagons and Carts; D. A. Sampler. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. D. Adams. 

Jugs and Pottery; Thomas Gay. 

Canner}^; T. L. Love. 

Cannery; Stock Company. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; J. Shute &Sons. 

Fruit and Vegetable Cannery; Stock Co. 

Barrels, Crates, &c.; James Moore. 

Wagons, Buggies, &c.; Crow & Manton. 

Cannery; Henderson Canning Co. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Robert Baum. 

Roller Flour Mills; Silas Powell. 


North Carolina and its Resources. 

County andPost Office, 

Vance Henderson 

Vance Henderson 

Washington. . . .Plymouth 

Washington. . . .Roper 

Washington. . . . Scupper nong. . . 

Washington. . . . Creswell 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh .. 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Raleigh 

Wake Wake Forest. . . . 

Wake Wake Forest. . . . 

Wake Wake Forest. . . . 

Wake Cary 

Wake Rogers' Store. . . 

Warren Warrenton 

Warren Warrenton 

Warren Warrenton 

Warren Warrenton 

Watauga Boon 

Watauga Boon 

Watauga Watauga Falls. . 

Watauga Vilas , 

Watauga Most 

Wayne Goldsboro , 

Wayne Goldsboro < 

Wayne Goldsboro 

Wayne Goldsboro 

Wayne Goldsboro 

Wayne Goldsboro 

Wayne Goldsboro 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; R. Pinkston. 

Roller Flour Mill; J. S. Pothress. 

Pine and Juniper Lumber; Plymouth Lum.Co, 

Pine and Juniper Lumber; R. L. Roper. 

Barrels, Boxes, Crates, &c,; T. J. Basnight. 

Barrels, Boxes, Crates, &c.; A. Alexander. 

Wagons and Carts; J. A. Mills. 

Ice; Jones & Powell. 

N. C. Car Company; W. F. Ashley, Supt. 

Lobdell Car Wheel Works; W.E.Ashley, Supt. 

Wagons and Carts; J. W. Evans. 

Candies; A. D. Royster. 

Engines, Boilers, Agr. Mch.; Allen & Cram. 

Leather Manufacturers; E. F. Wyatt & Son. 

Candies; Barbee & Pope. 

Brooms & Mattresses; Institute for Blind. 

Roller Flour Mills; J. A. Mills. 

Ice & Refrigerator Co.; T. L. Eberhardt. 

N. C. B'ldg. & Sup. Co. ; Hicks, Ellington & Co. 

Blank and Rec. Books; Edwards & Broughton. 

Furniture; R. Roles & Son. 

Wagons and Carts; W. H. Hollowav. 

Blank and Rec. Books; E. M. Uzzell. 

Wagon Works; A. Bowen. 

Foundry & Machine Shops; J. H. Gill. 

Tobacco Flues; Charles Lumsdon. 

Carriages and Buggies; T. B. Yancy. 

Tobacco Flues; J. Lewis Hardware Co. 

Printing and Wrapping Papers; J. N. Holding. 

Wire Mattresses; A. F. Purefoy. 

Agricultural Implements; W. B. Dunn & Co. 

Bed Springs; Corporation. 

Wagons, Plows and Impl'ts; J. P. H. Adams. 

Tannery; Louis Wilson. 

Roller Flour Mill; R. D. Fleming. 

Spokes and Handles; A. & W. B. Crinkley. 

Carriages and Buggies; J. M. Ransom. 

Carriages and Carts; W. E. Davis. 

Tannery; Coffee Brothers. 

Tannery; H. W. Hardin. 

Tannery; E. M. Green. 

Roller Flour Mill; J. P. Council. 

Roller Flour Mill; Horton & McBride. 

Sash, Doors, Blinds, &c.;N. O'Berry. 

Furniture; W. H. Borden. 

Plows and Castings; W. H. Smith. 

Barrels, Hoops and Lumber; F. C. Overman. 

Agricultural Machinery; Dewey Brothers. 

Ice; Goldsboro Ice Co. 

Crates and Baskets; Stock Co. 

Wayne Goldsboro Wagons and Buggies; Moore & Robinson. 

Wayne Goldsboro Bricks and Tiles; H. L. Grant. 

Wayne Goldsboro JHandles; Dean, Pearson & Co. 

Wayne Goldsboro {Cleaning and Grinding Rice; Stock Co. 

Wayne Mt. Olive Crates, Baskets, Boxes, &c.; G. W. Bridges. 

Wilkes Wilkesboro Wool Carding; Moravian Wool Carding Co. 

Wilkes Wilkesboro Ins'l'r. Pin & Bracket Wks.; R. A. Spainhour. 

Wilkes NorthWilkesboroTannery; C. C. Smoot & Sons Co. 

Wilkes North WilkesborolShuttle Blocks; J. L. Turner. 



Miscellaneous Industries. 


County and Post OiEce. 


North Wilkesboro 

Wilkes . . . 





. . . .Miller's Creek. . . 

Wilson . . . 


Wilson . . . 


"Wilson . . . 

. . . .Wilson 

W^ilson . . . 


Yadkin . . . 

East Bend 

Yadkin . . . 

East Bend 

Yadkin . . . 

East Bend 

Yadkin . . . , 

East Bend 

Yadkin . . . 

East Bend 

Yadkin. . . , . 



. . . .Boonville 


. . . .Yadkinville 


. . . .Yadkinville 


. . . .Yadkinville 


. . . . Hampton ville.. . . 


. . . .Hamptonville. . . 


. . . .Hamptonville. . . 

Industry and Owner or Manager. 

Sash, Doors and Blinds; Wallace & Barnes. 

Pottery; Kennedy & Co. 

Ship Pm Works; D. E. Page. 

Roller Flour Mill; Turner & Wyatt. 

Buggies and Carriages; Hackney Bros. 

Roller Flour Mill, J. T. Wiggans. 

Creamery; C. T. Finch. 

Iron Works; Geo. H. Wainright. 

Cannery; Morse & Wade. 

Buggies and Carriages; J. G. Huff. 

Buggies and Carriages; T. A. Smitherman. 

Cannery; R. Patterson. 

Roller Mills; J. G. Huff. 

Tannery; J. H. Williams. 

Buggies and Carriages; M. I^. Woodhouse. 

Furniture; John James. 

Tannery; S. H. Mackey. 

Roller Flour Mill; Benj. Shore. 

Tannery; 8. M. Haynes. 

Tannery; G. W. Miller. 

Tannerv; Luther Miller. 

Note — The above list represents only such industries as are reported by voluntary corres- 
pondents to the Department of Agriculture, and does not claim to be accurate or nearly so. 


The history of railroad construction in North Carolina would 
make an interesting chapter, but it would be out of place in these 
pages. With such an history, the name of Dr. Joseph Caldwell, at 
one time president of the University, would be inseparably linked. 

The first line chartered in the State was that between Fayette- 
Yille and Salisbury, 1833; it was surveyed and finally failed for lack 
of funds. The Raleigh and Gaston railroad w^as begun in 1836, and 
completed in 1840. In the same year, the Wilmington and Weldon 
railroad was completed between the terminals. This road was 
one hundred and forty -six miles in length and was then one of the 
longest roads on the continent; and, indeed, longer than any at that 
date in Europe. 

The North Carolina railroad — Goldsboro to Charlotte — two hun- 
dred and twenty-three miles in length, was completed in 1856, and 
the next year saw the completion of the Atlantic and North Carolina 
railroad from Goldsboro to Morehead and Beaufort harbor; it is ninety- 
seven miles long and links the east with the great Piedmont region. 
I^ater the western links of the system were completed, from Salisbury 


North Carolina and its Resources. 

to Morganton first, and then after delays; hindrance in time of war 
and lack of funds after, the road finally reached Asheville, at which 
point it divided; the Paint Rock branch was completed in 1882 and 
the Murphy branch in 1890. These older roads formed the back-bone 
to the many other lines now operated in the State, and all make con- 
nections with or form part of the great main lines of the United 
States. The total length of railroad from Murphy in Cherokee 
county, to Beaufort harbor on the Atlantic, is 538.20, miles, and is 
full of interest and scenic beauty from the shell bedecked shores of 
old Ocean to the towering crests of the cloud-kissed Balsams. The 
total number of miles of railroad in the State is 3,616.58. 

The following statement shows the railroads, steamboats, tele- 
graph lines, other property and their valuation: 


Atlantic Coast Line System 

Albemarle and Raleigh 

Cheraw and Darlington 


"Wilmington, Columbia& Augusta 
"Wilmington, Chadburn&Cou way. 

Wilmington and Weldon 

Norfolk and Carolina 

Tarboro Branch 

Scotland Neck Branch 

Midland Branch 

Wilson & Fayetteville Branch.... 

Nashville Branch 

Clinton Branch 

Washington Branch 


Southern Railway System. 

Atlanta and Charlotte Air-Line.. 

Atlantic, Tennessee and Ohio 

Asheville and Spartanburg 

Charlotte, Columbia & Augusta. 

Danville and Western 

H. Ft., R., Ashboro & Southern.. 

Coster & Thomas, Trustees 

North Carolina 

North Carolina Midland 

Northwestern North Carolina. 

Oxford and Clarksville 

Oxford and Henderson 


State University 

Statesville and Western 

L 120.3.5@8,500 
West'n N.Carolina. \ 85.60 "8,000 

( 125.55 "3,500 


Seaboard Air- Line System. 


Carolina Central. 

205.211 @ 4,500 
10 " 9,000 
58 " 6,000 


.\ 53 

( 25. 




54. 2S 









7 33 








Value of 

I 216,920 00 

43,230' 00 

76,700 00 

666,400 00 

63,825 00 

1,740,800 00 

584,205 00 

128,350 00 

531,780 00 

64,890 00 

1,215,000 00 

68-355 00 

47,390 00 

102,760 00 




5 31,370 00 

2,998 25 

11,125 08 

95,942 44 

4,080 00 

279,322 00 

112,529 16 

lt),455 00 

96,353 00 

4,000 00 

224,748 00 

12,207 00 

8,758 00 

18,587 00 

$5,550,605 00 $918,474 93 |189,347 00 

• I 

11,745 00 
2,520 00 
1,000 00 
9,772 00 
500 00 

80,440 00 
9,210 00 
5,400 00 

22,170 00 
85 00 

26,985 00 
2,940 00 
1,260 00 

15,320 00 

488,700 00 
249,865 00 
307,650 00 
124,780 00, 
2,250 00, 
105,875 00 

40,623 98 

5,930 00 

17,921 89 

23,049 34 

,647,195 00 

14,660 00 
1,555,185 00 


114,708 00 

5,430 00 
6,650 00 
3,250 00 
3,890 00 

4,140 00 

150,309 00 
3,860 00 

27,115 OOJ 12,300 00 

14,756 80] 5,875 00 
2,.';00 00 
4,6.30 00 
1 ,000 00 

$ 260,035 00 

48,748 25 

88,825 08 

772,114 44 

68,40o 00 

2,100 562 00 

705,944 16 

150,205 00 

650,303 00 

68,975 00 

1,466,733 00 

83,502 00 

.57,408 00 

136,667 00 

8,765 00 

118,645 00 
8,310 00 

3,950 00 

43,230 00 

4,000 00 

$390,905 01 $255,014 00 

1,598 00 
211,477 00 

$6,658,426 9S 

534,753 98. 

262,445 00 

328,821 89 

151,719 34 

2,250 OO 

118,580 00 

10,000 00 

1,802.767 00 

71,310 00 

460,245 00 

254,451 80 
61,630 OO 

470,330 00 
24,635 OO 
46,190 00 

2,309,075 00 

122,060 OO 

$7,031,264 01 

75 00 
26,655 00 

16,333 00 
1,793,317 00 

Railroads and Steamboats. 



Durham and Northern , 

Georgia, Carolina and Northern. 




Raleigh and Gaston 

Raleigh and Augusta 

Roanoke and Tar River 

Seabord and Roanoke 



Aberdeen and Rock-Fish.. 
Aberdeen and West End.. 

Atlantic and North Carolina 

Atlantic and Danville 

Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley 


Cashie and Chowan 

Wellington and Powellsville 

Ohio River and Charleston 

Danville, Mocksville & Southw'n. 
E. Tennessee & W. N. Carolina., 


Glendon & Gulf Mfg. & Min. Co. 

Northampton and Hertford 

Hoffman and Troy 

Jamesville and Washington 

Chester and Lenoir 

Marietta and North Georgia 

Norfolk and Southern 

New Hanover Transit Co 

Norfolk and Western. ^ 

Roanoke & Southern Division. > 
Lynchburg & Durham Division. ) 

Moore County 

Raleigh and Western 

SuffolK and Carolina 

Suffolk Lumber Company 

Warren ton 

Wilmington, Newbern & Norfolk. 
Wilmington Railwaj' Bridge Co.. 
W^ilmiugton Sea Coast 


Total 1,171,511 









10. '.26 














64 53 











Value of 


17,420 00 
4,324 94 

197,415 00 
142,740 00 

30,990 00 

12,580 00 

24,600 00 
1,135,300 00, 301,570 00 

mm \\ 2^'058oo 

142,840 00 

203,800 OOi 43,000 58 

$4,438,890 00,5603,448 52 










2.40 . 








28,000 00 

\ 74,937 50 

511,300 00 

112,000 00 

1,779,500 00 

43,200 00 

36,250 00 

26,O0J 00 

264,960 00 

20,000 00 

9,300 00 

16,000 00 

17,160 00 

18,0U0 00 

5,250 00 

14,000 00 

193,590 00 

53,000 00 

372,420 ) 

97,020 5 

6,240 00 

3,000 00 

14,105 00 

64,450 00 
19,774 90 
225,540 00 
3.800 00 
4,000 00 
6,150 00 
75,205 00 


5,800 00 

2,500 00 

450 00 

200 00 

400 00 

23,375 00 


220,635 00 
149,564 94 
31,440 00 
12,780 00 
25,000 00 
1,460,245 00 

13.800 OOl 1,016,638 00 

4,420 00 
2,900 00 

147,260 00 
219,700 58 

$ 80,575 00 S5,122,913 52 

200 00 

2,400 00 

43,350 00 

750 00 

36,250 00 

1,2' 00 

322,790 00 

217,850 00 

18,750 ) 

70'J j 

1,000 00 

63,750 00 

22,500 00' 

6,240 00 

316,715 00 

80,000 00 

35,430 00 

30,000 00 

2,500 00 

2,8o5 00 
12 365 00 
1,525 00 
2,750 00 
3,200 00 
2,800 00 
9,815 00 
3,100 00 

111,853 00 

1,320 00 

6,500 00 
1,000 00 
1,350 00 

072 52 
,216 77 

5,280 00 

605 97 
000 00 
500 00 
5G0 00 

:,000 00 

1,350 00 

325 00 

7,000 00 

2,320 00 

600 00 

40,300 00 

17.479 00 
4,731 00 

342 00 

922 50 

700 00 
20,670 00 

200 00 
150 00 

31,200 00 
91,442 50 

619,100 00 

132,524 90 

2,041,290 00 

48,200 00 

40,250 00 

32,150 00 

346,665 00 

21,000 00 

13,515 00 

28,365 00 

18,685 00 

21,075 00 

8,450 00 

23,800 00 

205,725 00 

56,700 00 

621,593 00 

7,580 00 

356,o41 52 

241,797 77 

25,072 00 

1,000 00 
75,278 47 
29,500 00 

9,440 00 

380,945 00 

80,000 00 

39,630 00 

41,000 00 

$4,816,3.52 50 5684,203 16'fl88,739 50 55,689,295 16 

Telegraph companies— Poles, Wires and Batteries. Valuation. 

Western Union Telegraph Company S 176,392 24 

Atlantic Postal Telegraph Company 

Carthage Telegraph Company 

Pittsboro Telegraph Company 

Louisburg Telegraph Company , 

Norfolk and Southern 

United Telegraph Company 

Cleveland Springs Telegraph Company 

Oak Ridge and Stokesdale Telegraph Company 

Elizabeth City and Norfolk Telegraph Company.... 

Lenoir and Blowing Rock Telegraph Company 

Swepsonville Telegraph Company 

Carolina Postal Telegraph Company 

Wilmington and Southport Telegraph Company... 

Total $212,602 72 

Pullman Palace Car Company 81,043 65 

31,645 48 
210 00 
250 00 
250 00 
975 00 
120 00 
50 00 
210 00 
1,090 00 
480 00 
225 00 
205 00 
500 00 


North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 


Moccasin River Steamboat Company , 

Cape Fear River Towing and T. Company 

Albemarle Steam Navigation Company 

Pamlico Towing Company 

Home Transportation Company 

Fairfield Canal Company 

A. W. Styron 

Styrons Transportation Company 

Cashie Steam Navigation Company , 

J. G. and F. Wood 

Fleetwood and Jackson 

Farmer's Co-operation Company ■. 

New Bern Lumber Company 

D. W. Raper& Company 

Dixon & Dixon 

David Styron 

Old Dominion Steamship Company 

Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company 

M. E. Sutton 

Jno. W. Harper 

Y-Talter Taft 

W. H. Ward 

Black River Steamboat Company 

Cape Fear River Transportation Company 

J. T. Harper 

Chas. Wessell 

Branning Manufacturing Company 

New Bern and Snow Hill Steamboat Company. 

Chas. L. Ives 

J. T. Lassiter 

J. C W^hitty 

Roanoke and Tar River Steamboat Company 

I,ake Drummond Canal and Water Company 

"Wilmington Steamship Company 

Fairfield and Elizabeth City Transportation Company 

J. H. Riley 

A. J. Gatlin 

Kinds of Property. 

Steamers , 

Steamers , 




Canal Property , 


Steamers , 



Steamers... , 






Steamers and Wharves. 

Canal Property 


Steamers , 



Steamers , 


Steamers , 





Steamers and Wharves... 



Canal I'roperty 








$ 1,500 00 

21,000 00 

1,000 00 

1,1)00 00 

3,000 00 

6,453 00 

500 00 

4,000 00 

1,000 00 

3,600 00 

1,200 00 

S.'iO 00 

400 00 

800 00 

600 00 

600 00 

42,0(10 00 

100,000 00 

1.000 00 

8,000 00 

1,500 00 

1,000 00 

7,100 00 

6,200 00 

3,000 00 

700 00 

6,000 00 

1,000 00 

800 00 

l,3on 00 

1,000 00 
6, .500 00 
1,600 00 
50,000 00 
1,000 00 
1,000 00 
1,000 00 

$289,003 00 


Atlantic Coast Line System 716.91 miles, valuation, $ 6,658,426 93 

Southern Railway 1,062.69 miles, valuation, 7,031,264 01 

Seaboard Air Line 665.47 miles, valuation, 5,122,913 00 

Miscellaneous 1,171.51 miles, valuation, 

3,616.58 miles. 

Pullman Palace Car Company 


Telegraph Companies 

3,295 16 

$ 24,501,899 62 

81,043 65 

289,003 00 

212,602 72 

$ 26,084,548 99 


There are semi-monthly, monthly and yearly publications in 
North Carolina, but here it is only intended to present a list of 
newspapers, circulated in daily, semi-weekly and weekly editions. 




Alamance . . . 
Alamance. . . 



Alleghany... . 
Alexander... . 






Brunswick.. . 
Buncombe.. . 
Buncombe.. . 
Buncombe. . . 


Cabarrus . . . . 









Chatham . . . , 
Cherokee. . . . 


Chowan , 

Cleveland . . . 
Cleveland . . . 
Cleveland . . . 
Cleveland . . . 
Columbus . . . 
Columbus... . 
Columbus... . 



Cumberland . 
Cumberland . 
Davidson. . . . 
Davidson . . . 






Edgecombe. . 






Franklin . . . . 







Burlington. . 


Washington . 


Washington . 


Asheville, . . . 


Asheville. . . . 














King's Mountain. 
Boiling Springs . 






New Bern 

New Bern 

Fayetteville . . . . 





















Name of Paper. 

Alamance Gleaner Weekly 

Burlington News Daily and Weekly 

Wadesboro Messenger Weekly 

Wadesboro News Weekly 

Alleghany Star Weekly 

Index Weekly 

Washington Progress Weekly 

The Progressive Age Weekly 

Washington Gazette Weekly 

Evening Messenger Daily 

Windsor Ledger Weekly 

Southport Leader Weekly 

Asheville Citizen Daily and Weekly 

Morning Gazette Daily 

Western Carolina Advocate Weekly 

Morganton Herald Weekly 

Concord Times Weekly 

Daily Standard Daily and Weekly 

Lenoir Topic Weekly 

Caswell News Weekly 

Chronicle Weekly 

Hickory Mercury Weekly 

Press Weekly 

Newton Enterprise Weekly 

Beaufort Herald Weekly 

Chatham Record Weekly 

Murphy Bulletin Weekly 

Cherokee Scout Weekly 

Courier Weekly 

Progressive Reformer Weekly 

Rural Reformer Weekly 

Shelby Aurora Weekly 

Cleveland Star Weekly 

Columbus News Weekly 

Star of Columbus. Weekly 

The Sun Weekly 

Journal Daily 

Journal Weekly 

North Carolina Baptist Weekly 

Fayetteville Observer, . . .Daily and Weekly 

Davidson Dispatch Weekly 

Thomasville News Weekly 

Davie Times. Weekly 

Durham Daily Sun Daily 

Morning Herald Daily 

Durham Weekly Globe Weekly 

Durham Recorder Weekly 

Tarboro Southerner Weekly 

Union Republican , Weekly 

Sentinel Daily and Weekly 

Southern Tobacco Journal Weekly 

Silver Advocate Weekly 

Franklinton Weekly Weekly 

Franklin Times Weekly 

Gastonia Gazette Weekly 

Public Ledger Weekly 

Free Will Baptist Weekly 

The Record Daily and Weekly 

The Patriot Weekly 


North Carolina and its Resources. 












Henderson . . . . 





Jackson ....... 








Mecklenburg. . 
Mecklenburg. . 
Mecklenburg. . 











New Hanover.. 
New Hanover.. 
New Hanover.. 
New Hanover.. 
New Hanover.. 





Pasquotank. . . . 
Pasquotank.. . . 
Pasquotank. . . . 
Pasquotank.. . . 


Perquimans. . . 
Perquimans. . . 





High Point 


Scotland Neck. 



Waynesville... . 
Waynesville.. , . 


Murfreesboro. .. 



Mooresville . . . . 

Sylvia . 




Lincolnton. . . ., 


















Rocky Mount . . 
Rocky Mount. . 


Wilmington . . . . 
Wilmington... . 
Wilmington.. . . 
Wilmington. . . . 
Wilmington.. . . 




Chapel Hill. ... 


Elizabeth City.. 
Elizabeth City.. 
Elizabeth City.. 
Elizabeth City.. 




Greenville . . . . , 

Name of Paper. 

Christian Advocate Weekly 

Carolina Methodist Weekly 

Enterprise , Weekly 

Roanoke News Weekly 

The Commonwealth Weekly 

Central Times Weekly 

County Union , Weekly 

Western North Carolina Baptist. . . .Weekly 

Waynesville Courier Weekly 

Clyde Register Weekly 

The Times Weekly 

Index Weekly 

The Mascot Weekly 

The Landmark Semi-Weekly 

The Toiler Weekly 

Tuckaseegee Democrat Weekly 

The Herald .Weekly 

Herald Weekly 

Free Press Semi-Weekly 

Lincoln Courier Weekly 

Lincoln Democrat Weekly 

Franklin Press Weekly 

Martin County Sun Weekly 

Charlotte Observer Daily and Weekly 

The Messenger Weekly 

Charlotte News Daih' 

Mecklenburg Times Weekly 

Register Weekly 

Africo-American Presbyterian Weekly 

Charlotte Democrat Weekly 

Times Weekly 

Carthage Blade Weekly 

Aberdeen Telegram Weekly 

Progress Weekly 

Sanford Express Weekly 

Free Lance Weekly 

Marion Herald Weekly 

Argonaut Weekly 

Phoenix Weekly 

The Rattler Weekly 

Review Daily 

Messenger Daily and Weekly 

Dispatch Daily 

Morning Star Daily and Weekly 

North Caroliira Presbyterian Weekly 

Patron and Gleaner Weekly 

Orange County Observer Weekly 

Hillsboro Recorder Weekly 

Tar Heel Weekly 

Onslow Blade Weekly 

Elizabeth City News Weekly 

North Carolinian Weekly 

Economist-Falcon Weekly 

Fisherman and Farmer .Weekly 

Person County Courier Weekly 

Perquimans Record Weekly 

Eastern Courier Weekly 

King's Weekly Weekly 

Eastern Reflector Daily and Weekly 




Randolph... . 
Richmond. . , 
Richmond. . . 
Richmond. . . 








Rutherford. . 
Sampson . . . . 
Sampson . . . . 






Swain ....... 





















Watauga . . . . 






















Forest City 







Mt. Airy 

Bryson City 

Bryson City 




Beaver Dam 









Raleigh . 







Plymouth , 




North Wilkesboro. 
North Wilkesboro. 


Wilson . . .. 


Name of Paper. 

Ashboro Courier Weekly 

The Rocket Weekly 

Spirit of the South Weekly 

Southern Index Weekly 

Maxton Blade Weekly 

Scottish Chief Weekly 

Robesonian Weekly 

Webster's Weekly Weekly 

The Review Weekly 

Reformer Weekly 

Leaksville Gazette Weekly 

Truth Weekly 

Star of Zion Weekly 

The Evening World Daily 

Ledger Weekly 

Sampson Democrat Weekly 

Caucasian Weekly 

Stanly News Weekly 

North Carolina Voice Weekly 

Danbury Reporter Weekly 

Elkin Times Weekly 

Yadkin Valley News Weekly 

Herald Weekly 

Bryson City Times Weekly 

Transylvania Hustler Weekly 

Monroe Enquirer Vv'eekly 

Monroe Journal Weekly 

Our Home - . . Weekly 

Gold Leaf Weekly 

The Hustler Weekly 

Progressive Farmer Weekly 

Biblical Recorder Vv'eekly 

Press— Visitor Daily 

The Gazette Weekly 

Christian Sun Vv'eekly 

North Carolinian Weekly 

News and Observer Daily and Weekly 

The Lodge Weekly Weekly 

T he National Outlook Weekly 

State Republican Weekly 

Caucasian Weekly 

The Record Weekly 

Warrenton Gazette Weekly 

Roanoke Beacon Weekly 

Watauga Democrat Weekly 

The Headlight Weekly 

Argus Daily and Weekly 

North Wilkesboro News Weekly 

The Hustler Weekly 

Chronicle Weekly 

Wilson Times Weekly 

Wilson Advance Weekly 

220 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 


This is a topic of interest to the people of North Carolina from 
the marked fact of their present homogeneousness, excepting, of 
course the important and large element of the African race, and the 
small and inferior remnant of the aboriginal Indian, still in possession 
of a large territory in the western part of the State, and the still 
smaller body of half-breeds, known as the Croatans, occupying a 
portion of Robeson county, and believed, fancifully or otherwise, to 
be the descendants of the members of the lost colony of Captain 
John White, the first effort at permanent settlement made by 
Anglo-Saxon whites on the American continent. The whites 
of this State, now so intermingled and blended by intermar- 
riage and industrial intercourse as to present between them few 
distinctive traits of their origiUj are the descendants, mediately or 
immediately, of the dominant European races coming directly 
to our shores, but more largely the off-shoots of the northern 
colonies grown populous and powerful enough to indulge in that early 
development of the American characteristic, love of change and adven- 
ture, or the more practical motive of bettering' their condition by the 
acquirement of new lands, unrestricted in limit, of nearly nominal 
cost, and with the fame of unbounded fertility and unequalled 

Of those coming direct to our shores, the immigrating colonies 
were small and infrequent. After the efforts of colonization on the 
waters of the north-eastern section of the State, in 1584, under the 
auspices of Sir Walter Raleigh and his successors, had failed, a long 
interval passed away before decided or successful effort was made to 
plant other colonies on our shores. Among the more ambitious and 
well considered schemes was that of Sir John Yeamans, who, about 
the year i659-'6o, landed within the mouth of the Cape Fear river a 
body of several hundred colonists of English birth or descent, from the 
island of Barbadoes. A settlement at about the same spot had pre- 
viously been made by adventurers from New England, who thus made 
this section favorably known, and who eventually abandoned it, 
disappointed in over- wrought expectation. In like manner the 
colony of Sir John, or the larger body of it, moved first to Port Royal, 
in South Carolina, and subsequently to the spot where they founded 
the present city of Charleston, but leaving behind them the impress 
of a good name and a high character, permanently stamped and mani- 
festing itself upon their descendants in the present city of Wilmington 
and other points on the lower Cape Fear. 

Population. 22 1 

In lyog, the Baron De Gra£fenreid, with a colony of Swiss, estab' 
lished himself at the confluence of the rivers Neuse and Trent, and 
there founded the present city of New Bern — a settlement destined ta 
be permanent, but of slow growth, and receiving few farther acces- 
sions from the native land of the founder. 

A small colony of Huguenots found a refuge from persecution in 
the same section, biit, beyond the impress of their principles and 
their names, contributed only in small degree to the settlement of 
North Carolina. 

Perhaps the largest body of native Europeans coming approxi- 
mately at one time, and constituting a distinctive foreign element, 
was the Scotch or Highland colony, which occupied the country 
along the upper waters of the Cape Fear, now know as the counties of 
Bladen, Cumberland, Moore, Robeson, Richmond and Harnett. 
These came, some voluntarily, most of them by compulsion, after the 
disastrous defeat of CuUoden, in 1746. They have also blended with 
the other European families, but still retain in marked degree their 
national characteristics of piety, morality, and care of education. 

The lyOrds Proprietors, through their influence and inducements 
ofi"ered, added to the population, which, however, came in singly or 
in small groups and increased slowly, though early in the colonial 
history making the Coastal Plain region the most populous in the State. 

The other chief elements of settlement were refugees from reli- 
gious persecution in Virginia, who gradually filled up the north- 
eastern peninsula around the waters of Albemarle sound and 
contiguous territory. In process of time, bodies of immigrants 
arrived from New Jersey and Pennsylvania, hearing of the rich lands 
and fine climate of the upper country. Some bodies of these were of 
German descent. A still larger body was Scotch-Irish. Both planted 
themselves in harmonious contiguity from Orange county on the east 
to Catawba county — as that county became eventually known — along 
the rich bottoms or the finely timbered uplands of the Eno, the Yad- 
kin and the Catawba rivers, and became the foundation of that 
population destined to prove in coming years its love of liberty, its 
hostility to oppression, its indomitable courage, its wakeful care of 
education, its intense religious fervor, its energies and its industry; a 
population, withal, so widely diffused as to have been greatly instru- 
mental in forming the character of the North Carolinian by the domi- 
nation of these leading traits and qualities. 

The location of his large colony of Moravians by Count Zinzen- 
dorfif, in 1754, in the present county of Forsyth, is the only instance 
of attempted complete isolation, of the seclusion of an entire colony, 

222 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

and the culture of peculiar ideas and creeds — ideas and creeds more 
in harmony with the real aim and ends ot a pure Christianty than 
human philanthropy has often aimed to put in practical force. This, 
like all other colonies, has in process of time blended with the great 
mass, but with the distinct and triumphant survival of its nobler 
characteristics — benevolence, integrity, devotion to morality, religion 
and education, and that untiring energy which brought prosperity to 
the wilderness colony, and future increase of growth and wealth to 
those fine towns, Salem and Winston, the matured or rather still grow- 
ing and maturing outgrowth of the simple, pious, un-ambitious, reli- 
gious Moravian colony. 

Of the negro population it suffices to say that it is chiefly descended 
from the slaves captured in former years in Africa, and introduced 
into the South by English, Dutch, and, in later years, New England 
slave-ships. Importation of slaves into North Carolina was very rare 
after the beginning of this century. The increase, therefore, has 
been from natural causes, a genial climate, a humane public system 
and the kindly temper of the owners, a temper softened as much by 
humanity — very often by affection — as it was influenced by interest. 
Through these combined causes, the negro population increased until 
it early attained the ratio to that of the whites it has held and still 
holds — about one-third of the whole. 

Since the emancipation of the race, the policy of the State 
government, sustained by a just and humane public sentiment, has 
done everything consistent with the existence of insuperable and 
ineradicable ethnical antagonisms, to efface all the badges of former 
slavery. The negro has all the rights of the citizen, and is secured 
and protected in the exercise of them with the same jealous safe- 
guard of the law as the white citizen. He testifies before the courts 
without question as to race competency; he accumulates, if he will, 
property, personal and real; he is admitted on the same terms with 
the whites to the practice of the learned professions; he has the 
amplest freedom in the exercise of his religious beliefs, and the 
most absolute control in his ecclesiastical affairs. His infirm, the 
deaf, the dumb, the blind and the insane, are cared for by the State 
in institutions, proportionately to the number of patients, as large, 
as well built, as costly, and as well supervised by competent 
heads, as those of the whites. His education is well provided for, 
and though he pays a little more than one-third of the poll-tax, and 
one-thirtieth of such property tax as is assigned to the maintenance 
of the school fund, his allotment of that fund is in proportion to 
population, not to that of race contribution. 

Population. 223 

The Indian portion of the population is confined to the 
mountain counties of Jackson, Swain and Graham. They are a rem- 
nant of the tribe which was removed in 1836 to the trans-Mississippi 
reservation, and which obtained the consent of the government to be 
exempted from the decree of expatriation. They were allotted in the 
counties above named a tract of about 100,000 acres, and left in the 
enjoyment of their former habits and customs. They are for the 
most part christianized, and speak both English and their native 
tongue. They are peaceable and generally law-abiding, but do not 
accumulate property, are only industrious enough to meet daily 
wants. There are about 1,800 of them, and they increase slowly. 

Of the Croatans of Robeson county, little definite can be said. 
Their origin is involved in doubt, though it is clear that they form a 
mixed and distinct class of the blended Indian and white races. 
These people are provided by the State with their separate schools, 
and they take great interest in the education of their children. 

The total population of North Carolina, by the last census, was 
1,617,947. These are divided as follow: Whites, 1,049,191; colored, 
567,170; Chinese and Japane:?e, 15; Indians (exclusive of the Croa- 
tans), 1,571. The normal rate of increase is about 250,000 each 
decade, but during the last few years considerable immigration from 
the north and northwest has come to the State, and it will be entirely 
within bounds to estimate for the present (1896) population at not 
less than 1,750,000 

It is interesting to note that the same census puts the entire for- 
eign-born population of the State at 3,742. This illustrates the 
homogeneousness of the mass of population. No immigration from 
foreign countries comes directly to North Carolina, but the immigra- 
tion mostly coming into the State, and which is mostly desired, 
comes from New England, the Middle and Northwestern States. 

Following is a table, showing the population by counties, made 
tip from the last census: 

Whites. Coi<ore;d. Totaj;. 

Alamance 12,688 5,583 18,271 

Alexander 8,588 842 9,430 

Alleghany ,. 6,061 462 6,523 

Anson 10,237 9,790 20,027 

Ashe 15.033 595 15,628 

Beaufort 11,869 9,203 21,072 

Bertie 7,885 11,291 19,176 

Bladen , 8,646 8,117 16,763 

Brunswick 6,139 4, 761 10,900 

Buncombe 28,640 6,626 35,266 


North Carolina and its Resourcks. 













Columbus. . . . 


Cumberland. . 



















Henderson . . . 








Lincoln , 






























































































































































Population. 22 = 


Moore 13.985 

Nash 12,186 

New Hanover 10,089 

Northampton 9)224 

Onslow 7,392 

Orange 9,705 

Pamlico 4,767 

Pasquotank 5,201 

Pender 5,967 

Perquimans 4,719 

Person 8,251 

Pitt 13.192 

Polk 4,807 

Randolph 21,848 

Richmond 10,989 

Robeson 16,629 

Rockingham 15,197 

Rowan 17,142 

Rutherford 15,073 

Sampson 15,960 

Stanly 10,629 

Stokes 14,386 

Surry - 16,926 

Swain 5,652 

Transylvania 5,368 

Tyrrell 3,000 

Union 15,712 

Vance 6,434 

Wake 26,093 

Warren 5,880 

Washington 4,961 

Watauga 10,180 

Wayne 15,115 

Wilkes 20,633 

Wilson 10,884 

Yadkin 12,421 

Yancey 9>i97 

State total ,,.. , ,, 1,055,382 562,565 1,617,947 





























3,347 . 















































9, IQO 


The religious denominations of North Carolina stand upon 
absolute equality in respect to the laws. The vigorous temper of the 
people during Colonial days in resisting the imposition of a State 
religion has never relaxed; and the absolute severance of church and 

226 North Carolina and its Resources. 

State became a cardinal and inviolable principle in the assumption of 
popular sovereignty. The laws and the constitution extend no 
special favor to creed or denomination, assuring freedom to all who 
worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences. 

The following table, carefully calculated by those in authority in 
the several denominations, will serve to show the names of the 
denominations and the number of communicants or members in each 
for the year 1895-96: 

Methodist Episcopal Church South, (white). . . 129,040 

Methodist Episcopal Church South, (colored).. 17,000 

African M. E. Zion, (colored) 121,000 

Methodist Protestant 16,416 

Methodist Episcopal Church, [Northern] (col.) 7,200 

Quakers (or Friends) 5,466 

L/utherans (white) 16,000 

Lutherans, (colored) 1,000 

German Reformed Church 3,200 

Moravians 3,829 

Presbyterians 30,292 

Associate Reformed Presbyterians, (white).... 2,300 

Christians, (O'Kellyites) 14,508 

Episcopalians 9,000 

Baptist, (Missionary, white and colored) 265,579 

Baptist, (Anti-Missionary) 9, 75° 

Baptist, (Campbellites) 6,000 

Baptist, (Free Will) 20,081 

Baptist, ( Free Will, colored) 19,000 

Roman Catholics, (white) 3,800 

Roman Catholics, (colored) 200 


The government of North Carolina is a pure democracy. It is 
based upon the will of the people as expressed in the Constitution, 
an instrument framed by them in their sovereign capacity through 
delegates appointed for that purpose. The will of the people of this 
and of each State, when thus expressed, and in conformity to the 
Constitution of the United States — for the will of the people of each 
State is subordinate to the collective will of the people of all the 
States — is the supreme law. The State Constitution thus made is 
the measure and test of all laws passed by the I^egislature, and these 
laws must stand or fall by their agreement or disagreement with 

Government and Taxation. 227 

The Constitution is a short instrument but wide in its scope and 
bearing. It contains a brief statement of the fundamental principles 
of civil and individual liberty, creates the diflferent departments of 
government — Executive, Legislative and Judicial — and prescribes the 
powers of each; establishes educational, charitable and penal institu- 
tions; directs who shall be liable to duty in militia; and prescribes 
the rights of citizenship. 

The Legislature enacts laws. The Judiciary passes upon them 
when a question arises as to their constitutionality, and expounds 
them when a question is presented as to their meaning. The execu- 
tion of the law is intrusted to the Executive. The Executive in this 
State possesses no veto upon the acts of the Legislature. When the 
law is once made, his duty, as that of every other citizen, is obedi- 
ence in his sphere. 

The rights of citizenship are the only points for consideration here; 
and these depend upon age, residence and previous citizenship. 

A citizen of a foreign country can make himself a citizen here by 
becoming a resident; declaring before the proper tribunal his purpose 
to become a citizen; and taking the prescribed oath of allegiance. 

A citizen of any other of the United States becomes a citizen 
here by changing his residence from that State to this. 

All persons who are born and continue to reside within this 
State are citizens thereof. 

The chief privilege of citizenship is suffrage. The Constitution 
ordains that, "every male person born in the United States, and every 
male person who has been naturalized, twenty-one years old, or 
upward, who shall have resided in this State twelve months next 
preceding the election, and ninety days in the county in which he 
offers to vote, shall be deemed an elector." 

Citizenship under the Constitution of North Carolina, carries 
with i\ high and important rights apart from suffrage. It confers a 
right to an education by the State, such as will qualify the citizen for 
the duties to be performed. If he be without property, it gives him 
a right to support from the county, if incapable of earning it by sick- 
ness or old age. If he has property and is overtaken by irremedial 
misfortune, it exempts from execution personal property to the value 
of five hundred dollars, and vests in the owner in fee-simple the home- 
stead and the dwellings and the buildings used therewith not exceed- 
ing in value one thousand dollars, to be selected by him. The 
unfortunate have thus a secure refuge in case of disaster in business. 

It regulates taxation by providing that the General Assembly levy- 
ing a tax shall state the object to which it is to be applied, and enjoins 

228 North Carolina and its Resources. 

that it be applied to no other purpose. It establishes an equation 
between the property and the capitation tax by directing that the 
capitation tax levied on each citizen shall be equal to the tax on 
property valued at three hundred dollars in cash. The capitation tax 
is levied on every male inhabitant in the State over twenty-one and 
under fifty years of age, and shall never exceed two dollars on the 
head. The effect of this limitation upon the capitation tax restricts the 
tax on each hundred dollars worth of property to sixty-six and two- 
thirds cents. It further directs that the amount levied for county 
purposes shall not exceed the double of the State tax, except for a 
special purpose and with the approval of the Legislature. 

The rate of State tax now levied for the present year is twenty- 
one and two-thirds cents on one hundred dollars valuation, besides 
eighteen cents for school purposes, and three and one-third cents for 
pensions. In addition there are taxes levied on certain pursuits, 
industries and interests devoted to certain purposes, some in aid of 
the general school fund, some for interest on public debt. 

The following statement from the State Auditor's Report for the 
year ending November 30, 1895, sets forth the aggregate number and 
value of the various subjects of taxation in the State, and the gross 
amount of the State, school and county taxes derived from the same. 

State Taxes. 
Number. Vahiation. 

27,602,376 acres of land $115,081,323 00 1253,178 91 

70,219 town lots 43,006,74100 94,61483 

152.343 horses 6,862,28400 15.09703 

115,038 mules 5,698,82500 12,53742 

860 jacks and jennies 45,83300 10083 

36,850 goats 32,90100 7238 

621,188 cattle 4,543.55500 9.99582 

1,198,027 hogs 1,778,92400 3,91364 

376,052 sheep 361,72300 795 79 

Farming utensils, &c 12,323,37500 27,11143 

Money on hand or on deposit 3,576,726 00 7,868 79 

Solvent credits 18,924,24000 41.633 33 

Stock in incorporated companies. . . 3,310,92400 7,28403 

Railroads, steamboats, telegraph and 

express companies 25,084,548 99 62,711 37 

Privilege taxes 55.454 27 

All other personal property 18,932,527 00 41.651 5^ 

Total valuation $259,564,449 99 $634,021 43 

ScHOOi, Taxes. 

167,300 white polls $250,458 85 

63,931 colored polls 94,436 58 

Bankstock 5,177 25 

Government and Taxation. 229 

Railroad property 39.205 99 

General property — white 363,258 68 

General property — colored 12,861 92 

From other sources iii 00 

Total school taxes $765,510 27 

County Taxes. 

County purposes f 693,809 12 

Special county taxes. 345.558 64 

Total county taxes $1,039,367 76 

The executive power of the State Government is vested in a 
Governor and a I^ieutenant Governor, elected by the popular vote for 
the term of four years, the Governor ineligible for two successive 
terms; an Attorney General, a State Treasurer, an Auditor, a Secre- 
tary of State, and a Superintendent of Public Instruction, all of whom 
are eligible for re-election. 

The legislative department, also elected by the popular vote, 
elected for the term of two years, and holding biennial sessions. The 
Senate consists of fifty members, and is presided over by the lyieuten- 
ant Governor of the State, and the House of Representatives, of 120 
members, presided over by a speaker elected from arLong the mem- 
bers of the same. The sessions are limited by the Constitution to 
sixty days, but may be prolonged on emergency, but with suspension 
of the/i?r diem pay. Extra sessions may be called by the Governor 
should urgent cause make it necessary; but such sessions are limited 
to twenty days, but may be extended farther, under the limitations of 
pay that govern the regular sessions. 

The Judicial department consists of a Supreme Court, presided 
over by a Chief Justice, and, in conjunction with four Associate 
Justices, forming the highest court in the State. The Justices are 
elected for a term of eight years, and are eligible to re-election. 

The Circuit or Superior Court is composed of twelve members, 
elected by the people of a like number of districts, and are elected for 
the same length of term and the same eligibility to re-election as the 
Justices of the Supreme Court. 

In addition to these are two criminal circuits, embracing a few 
counties each, having original jurisdiction in all criminal matters 
originating in their respective circuits, but having none in civil 
causes of action. 

The above, together with the magistrates' courts, having juris- 
diction over small sums and minor offences, and the Boards of County 
Commissioners, having supervision over the direction and administra- 
tion of county affairs, constitute the Judicial system of North Carolina. 

230 North Carolina and its REvSources. 


The State's bonded debt, at present, stands as follows: 

New 4 per cent Consolidated Bonds $3>347.75o 

6 per cent. N. C. R. R. Construction Bonds. . . 2,720,000 

Total bonded debt 56,067,750 

The interest on the 4 per cent, bonds is due semi-annually, in 
January and July, and is paid upon presentation of coupons, out of 
special taxes levied for the purpose. 

The interest on the 6 per cent, bonds is provided for out of the 
rental coming into the State Treasury from the N. C. railroad. 

The Amount of this 6 per cent, interest per 

annum is $163,200 

The rental coming from State's stock in the N. 

C. R. R. lease has been 180,012 

For six years it is to be 210,014 

Then for 93 years finishing out the 99 yrs. lease 225,015 

The total interest then will be: 

On 4 per cent, bonds, per annum 133,910 

On 6 per cent, bonds, per annum 163,200 

Total interest 1297,110 

The State owns $136,750 of the 4 per cent, bonds, and the State 
Board of Education, $143,250 of the 4 per cent, and $2,000 6 per 
cent, bonds, as an investment. 

There are old refundable bonds still outstanding, which will 
require $270,910 new 4 per cent, bonds, provided they shall be pre- 
sented before January i, 1897, at which time the law expires. 

The 6 per cent, bonded debt, $2,720,000 was incurred for the 
construction of the North Carolina railroad, which is in great part 
owned by the State. The income from the dividends realized by the 
road is not only sufficient to pay the interest but leaves a surplus 
which is regularly funded from year to year, the aggregate of which 
will extinguish the debt at the maturity of the bonds. This debt 
does not now impose nor will it in the future impose, one cent of tax- 
ation upon the people of the State. The first amount, $3,347,750-, 
therefore represents the entire debt for which the property of the 
State is subject to be taxed. 

The total valuation of real and personal property in North Caro- 
lina is, according to the auditor's report for 1895, $259,564,449.99. 
But the valuation of property in this State is known to be much 

Geologic Survey. 231 

below its real value. Taking, however, the valuation as given in the 
auditor's report, it will be seen that a very small tax is required to 
meet the annual interest on the 4 per cent, bonds, amounting to only 
$133,910 per annum. 


The North Carolina Geological Survey, as at present organized, 
was authorized by the General Assembly in 1891, and in May, of the 
same year, Professor Joseph A. Holmes was commissioned as State 
Geologist. The object of the survey was two fold, as expressed in 
the act creating it: " the thorough examination of the nature and 
extent of the mineral and timber resources of the State." During the 
first years after his appointment, Professor Holmes devoted his ener- 
gies to the gathering of the unpublished information of former Geol- 
ogists — Emmons and Kerr — many of the results from both having 
been lost by not being published; and in connection with this a large 
amount of exploration was found necessary before entering more 
directly upon the special new work contemplated by the framers of 
the law. After this reconnoisance work, he associated with him an 
able corps of assistants, and has issued the following bulletins: Iron 
Ores; Gold Deposits; Road Materials and Road Construction; The 
Forests, Forest I,ands and Forest Products; Forest Fires; Monazite 
and Monazite Deposits; Corundum and Basic Magnesian Rocks, and 
besides these he has in preparation or in press the following additional 
Bulletins: Building Stone in North Carolina; Timber Trees; Water 
Powers; Gold Mining in North Carolina; Drinking Water Sup- 
plies; Clay Deposits and Clay Industries; Mica Deposits and Mica 
Mining; Mineral Waters; lyistof Elevations and an Historical Sketch 
of North Carolina Scientific and Eco:iomic Surveys, and Bibliography 
of North Carolina Geology and Mineralogy. These Bulletins are 
mailed to those desiring information on the special subjects treated, 
on receipt of the postage; address the State Geologist, at Chapel Hill, 
or Raleigh, N. C. The progress of the work has been most gratify- 
ing and the appreciation of its usefulness is steadily growing among 
the people of the State. 

232 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 


North Carolina being essentially an agricultural State, it is but 
natural to find provision in the State Constituion for an Agricultural 
Department, which is fully sustained by legislation wholesome and 
wise. The existence of the department amply demonstrates the 
breadth and determination of the intelligence of the State to elevate 
its chief industry to its rightful dignity and prominence as an 
avocation. The Department has a peculiar and a particular work, 
a work devoted to the promotion of the interests of the agricultural 
masses; the broadening of their opportunities and guaranteeing them 
protection from the purchase of fraudulent fertilizers. The laws 
governing and directing the State Board of Agriculture have been 
changed from time to time, bringing it in closer touch with the 
people and rendering it more effective in the discharge of its duties 
relating to the fertilizer control, the analytical part of which is 
done by the Experiment Station under its direction. Its equipment 
of suitable and conveniently arranged buildings is ample; its revenue 
is sufQcient for its present needs, and its powers abundant. The 
Agricultural Department came into existence with the sanction of 
popular sentiment and under the shield and protection of the public 
law, and stands not only as a monument to the enlightened spirit of 
the age, but a beacon light of hope and encouragement to that great 
fundamental interest which, more than all others, has been the 
victim of neglect, the least consideration of statesmanship. 

The Department occupies a building in the city of Raleigh, 
arranged so as to be specially adapted to its many uses and, in the 
prosecution of the work assigned to it it has done — and this will 
sufl&ce to illustrate its usefullness — what is expressed in the words of 
another: "It has saved to the State thousands of dollars annuall)^, it 
has induced investments of large amounts in the mines, forests and 
agricultural lands of the State, and has developed the phosphate beds, 
the oj^ster grounds, and the mineral deposits and coal fields of the 
State; it has gathered statistics and published valuable books descrip- 
tive of the whole State, and distributed them so wisely that this is 
among the best advertised States; and has, as its last and greatest 
effort, the organization of the successful College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts." In its relation to the former it has been, and con- 
tinues to be, of inestimable value to the farmer. For as in the 
advancement of agriculture into the ranks of a science, so was there 
enormous application of the presumably scientifically compounded 

Agricultural Department. 233 

artificial fertilizers. Here was opened a wide and gaping door to 
fraud, which tbe Department was empowered to step forward and 
close. This has been done so vigorouslj^, watchfully and eflfectively 
that fraudulent fertilizers are banished from the market, trust- 
worthy brands have replaced them, and at the same time a great 
reduction in the cost has been made. 

The Board of Agriculture has been the most potent factor in 
bringing the advantages of soil and climate and the natural resources 
of the State to the notice of the world. It has been faithful and true 
to the trust imposed by law and it has led in every move looking to 
the development of the State and the prosperity of its people. 

Mr. S. L. Patterson is the Commissioner of Agriculture and 
Immigration, and Mr. T. K. Bruner is the Secretary and Auditor. 

The Department is in a sense, a "bureau of information" for the 
State, and all inquiries addressed to the Commissioner touching agri- 
culture, lands, immigration, natural resources, or upon any subject 
inviting to investment in the State, will be promptly answered with 
the best information at hand. 


The State Board of Agriculture has enlarged and perfected the 
State Museum. This was made possible by the wise provision of the 
Act of the Assembly in 1891 which provided that all nonperishable 
material used by the State in its presentation of resources at the great 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893, should revert to the Board 
for the purpose of adding to its then small collection. Thus has the 
Board had the first substantial aid from the State in this work, and 
very wiselj^ has it been administered. The Board also has the hearty 
co-operation of the State Geological Survey in the museum work, 
especially in those divisions devoted to metalliferous ores, minerals 
and building stones. 

Prof. J. A. Holmes, State Geologist, and T. K. Bruner, Secre- 
tary of the Board of Agriculture, are the Custodians, and Mr. H. H. 
Brimley, Naturalist, is the Curator in charge of the rooms. 

The entire second floor of the Agricultural Building is now 
devoted exclusively to this purpose — there is a Geological room, a 
Forestry room, an Agricultural room, a Natural History room and 
a room devoted to photographic representation of some of the State's 
notable features of scenery, fisheries, forests, farms, trucking, naval 
stores and other objects and industries. 

234 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The rooms are handsomely furnished with oak cases; the floors 
comfortably carpeted and the whole steam-heated. In material and 
arrangement, there is no collection south of Washington to compare 
with it. The contents of these several rooms are classified and 
arranged with reference to giving the greatest facility to the student, 
sight-seer, or investor. 


The functions of the Station are two-fold. First, as a fertilizer 
control station, and second, as an agricultural experiment station in 
the broadest sense of the word. 

It is under the control of the Board of Agriculture. It was 
established in 1877, ^^'^ was the first Experiment Station in the 
Southern States, and the second in America. Its first work was in 
the control of the fertilizer trade by a chemical analysis of the ferti- 
lizing ingredients offered for sale, thus preventing fraud and causing 
the manufacturers to furnish the materials they claimed to sell . It 
continues to occupy this position for the protection of all classes of 
farmers, and it is safe to say that in twenty years of its existence it 
has saved the farmers of the State many millions of dollars by prevent- 
ing the sale of such adulterated and worthless fertilizers. In the 
early years of its life, chemical investigations were its main work. 
Besides analyzing fertilizers, it also examined thousands of samples 
of marls, mucks, soils, cotton seed products, phosphates, waters, 
home-made composts, miscellaneous fertilizing ingredients and chemi- 
cals. It has spread broadcast hundreds of thousands of its publica- 
tions, giving information on almost every subject connected with 
agriculture. It thoroughly examined the natural phosphate deposits 
of the State, thepyrite deposits, the by-products of the rice industry, 
of cotton and tobacco products, also the jute and sugar beet industry, 
and others of importance. 

Later on an experimental farm was added to the agencies at work. 
Then a State Weather Service was organized as a part of the Station, 
and various benefits were secured such as the foreknowledge of frosts 
and cold waves, and miscellaneous weather conditions. 

There are various divisions of the Station, in which are trained 
experts. Some of the principal subjects studied in these divisions are 
here mentioned: 

The Chemical Division includes all chemical workof the Station, 
such as are embraced in the fertilizer control, also the analysis of milk, 



Agricultural Experiment Station. 235 

butter, food and fodders, marls, phosphates, mucks, soils, chemicals, 
waters, etc. The Agricultural Divisions embraces work done in the 
field, stable, and dairy, and tests varieties of wheat, oats, cotton and 
corn, grasses, clovers and other forage plants. The value of fodders and 
grasses, ensilage, cotton-seed products for fattening and maintenance, 
and the digestibility of different food stuffs are determined by actual 
feeding trials. In dairy work, various implements are tested, improved 
methods tried, with the view of extending the dairy industry through- 
out the State, recognizing that the judicial keeping of stock is the 
salvation of our people. The Botanical Division tests the purity and 
vitality of field and garden seeds, grasses and clovers, identifies plants 
and ascertains their value, examines diseases of plants and investi- 
gates the best remedies; disseminates practical information upon the 
best agricultural grasses, and upon the most troublesome weeds and 
how to eradicate them. The Entomological Division studies the 
various insect pests which infest the field, orchard and garden crops, 
and suggests remedies and methods of extermination. The Horticul- 
tural Division investigates the different varieties of fruits and vege- 
tables, and their adaptability to our soil and climates, together with 
the best methods of cultivation, gathering and shipment to markets. 
It originates and improves new and promising varieties which may 
become valuable to the State. A most important work now being con- 
ducted is in connection with the North Carolina State Horticultural 
Society at Southern Pines, where extensive field tests with fertilizers 
are conducted upon various fruit and vegetable crops. The Poultry 
Division seeks to aid the poultry interests of the State, testing different 
breeds and crosses and otherwise to cause it to become a more paying 
industry than at present. The Meteorological Division is organized 
as the State Weather Service, operating in conjunction with the U. S. 
Weather Bureau. It collects meteorological data, and thus determines 
the essential features of the State's unexcelled climatic conditions. 
Telegrams giving forcasts of weather for the following day are distri- 
buted; also cold wave and frost warnings for the protection of fruit, 
tobacco and trucking interests. A weekly bulletin, showing the 
effect of the weather on the crops, is also issued during the growing 

The Station issues numerous publications. The following are 
some of the subjects treated: The best agricultural grasses; plant 
diseases and how to combat them; silos and ensilage; some enemies 
of truck and garden crops; tobacco curing; some experiments in 
wheat culture; the culture of orchard and garden fruits; some legu- 
minous crops and their economic value; the chestnut and its weevil^ 

236 North Carolina and its Re^sourceis. 

rational stock feeding; propagation of flowering bulbs; seed testing, 
its uses and methods; marls and phosphates; trucking in the South; 
tests of dairy implements and practices; tuberculosis and its preven- 
tion; cotton-seed meal and hulls for the production of beef; cultivation 
of the peach tree; hill-side terraces or ditches; types of tobacco and 
their analyses; forage grasses and hay -making. 

The chemical laboratories and the city ofl&ces of the Station, 
occupy the first floor of the right wing of the Agricultural Building, 
in Raleigh. In this building also are located the botanical and ento- 
mological laboratory, and the rooms of the meteorological division. 
Upon the roof are the meteorological instruments, and the signal 
flags to disseminate the weather forecasts. The experimental farm, 
upon which are the barn, stable, dairy house, plant house, is located 
one and one-half miles west of Raleigh, adjoining the State Fair 

The Director of the Station is Dr. H. B. Battle, who is aided by 
a corps of fourteen, comprising the Station staff. 


By an act of the General Assembly of North Carolina, ratified 
March 5, 1891, a Railroad Commission was created, consisting of three 
members to be elected by the lyCgislature, charged with the general 
supervision of railroads, steamboat and canal companies, and express 
and telegraph companies doing business in North Carolina; restraining 
on the part of railroad and other public transportation companies 
the exaction of more than a reasonable compensation for the carriage 
of freight or passengers, under penalty of fine, to be adjudged suffi- 
cient under conviction for extortion; and also empowering the Com- 
mission with authority to forbid such companies to give undue prefer- 
ence to patrons of their lines, and authorizing it to make rates for freight 
and passenger tariffs, forbidding unjust discriminations, the giving of 
rebates and the charging of more for a shorter than a longer distance. 
Empowering it to approve special excursion rates, empowering it to fix 
the charges for the transportation of passengers and freight, to make 
schedules that shall meet the general public convenience, and take 
such other steps and do such other acts as shall conduce to the pro- 
tection of the business and traveling public from oppression and 
injustice, allegations of which induced the creation of the Commis- 

Bureau of IvAbor Statistics. 237 

sion. The Commission is invested with judicial powers; authorized 
to hear and decide complaints, to hear and adjust the differences 
between railroads. The same principles that govern railroad and 
other transportation management are made to apply also to telegraph 
and express companies. 

The Commission consists at present of J. W. Wilson, Chairman; 
S. O. Wilson and E. C. Beddingfield, associate Commissioners and 
H. C Brown, Secretary. Its sittings are held in Raleigh. 


The Bureau of Labor Statistics was established by the I^egisla- 
ture of 1887, and its first Commissioner was Hon. W. N. Jones, who 
was succeeded two years later by Hon. J. C. Scarborough, who held 
the office until 1892, when he was elected State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. Govenor Carr, who has ever proved himself the 
friend of the laboring classes, appointed as Commissioner Mr. B. R. 
lyacy, a representative labor man who, as Chairman of the Locomotive 
Engineers of the S. A. L. system between Portsmouth, Va., and 
Atlanta Ga., had, by his wise and conservative course, succeeded in 
doing what was considered almost an impossibility, that was, gained 
the respect and confidence of both the railroad officials and the men 
whom he represented. His nearness to, and his intimate knowl- 
edge of the wants of the people for whom the office was created gave 
new life to the work. 

The purpose for which the Bureau was established is to collect 
information upon the subject of labor, its relation to capital, the 
hours of labor, the earnings of laboring men and women, and their 
educational, moral and financial condition. This class of investiga- 
tion has received a great deal of attention during the last three 
years, and the importance of accurate statistics on this subject is 
beginning to be felt as never before. This is shown by the fact that 
thirty-four of the forty-eight States of the Union have established 
labor bureaus. 

The Bureau is fast making friends among the employers as well 
as the employees of the State, for they are beginning to realize the 
importance of the work. Information is furnished more promptly 
and each succeeding report is more accurate and complete. The 
Bureau, which was long an experiment, is now an established fact. 

238 North Carolina and its Resources. 

It is not only valued by the wage-earners, who feel that it is pecu- 
liarly their property, but the ministers and educators are studying 
the reports and are virtually sustaining it with their moral support. 
It is doing great good in creating a healthy sentiment between 
employers and employees, and as its objects, workings and what it is 
accomplishing become better known it is winning friends of all 
patriotic citizens. 

As the State is rapidly becoming a manufacturing center and 
factories are being built every day, the work of the Bureau is 
increasing and the statistics gathered and compiled in its reports are 
eagerly sought after, not only in the United States but in foreign 
countries. To such an extent has the demand for the reports of the 
Bureau increased, that it has been necessary to publish a larger 
number each year, and even then one or two numbers have been 

It is gratifying as it is just, to say that in no State in the Union 
are there more cordial relations existing between capital and labor 
than in North Carolina. The more serious labor troubles such as 
strikes and boycots, do not exist. There is a condition of general 
contentment among the masses of the people, including both races. 


The Constitution prescribes that the charitable and penal institu- 
tions of North Carolina, including all State institutions for benevolent 
or correctional purposes, and all county and municipal jails, work- 
houses and "homes" shall be under the supervision of the Board of 
Public Charities, elected by the General Assembly, or appointed by 
the Executive in case of failure to elect, for the term of five years. 
The present Board consists of Dr. Charles Duffy, Chairman, Craven 
county; Lawrence J. Haughton, Chatham; Wesley N. Jones, Wake; 
Wm. A. Blair, Forsyth; S. W. Reid, Mecklenburg; with C. B. 
Denson, Wake, Secretary. The members of the Board receive no 
salary, and their labors have been effectual in systematizing the work 
of the State, and elevating the standard of the care and treatment of 
the prisoners and the poor in the several county institutions. In this 
work the leading authorities on such subjects in this country have 
esteemed North Carolina as a "pioneer" in the south. Complete 
information in reference to these subjects maybe found in the reports 
of the Board, published annually. In these the needs of the institu- 

Public Charities. 239 

tions are presented to the General Assembly, and neglect on the part 
of officials is reported to the Judge and Solicitor on service in the 
county of its occurrence. 


was one of the institutions that honored the labors of the lamented 
Miss D. ly. Dix. It was opened for patients in February, 1856, 
having been seven years in construction. The original design was 
that of a cross, with main building one hundred and sixteen feet 
long, eighty feet eight inches wide and eighty-six feet two inches 
from first floor to top of dome, an arcade eighty feet eight inches long, 
and twenty-six feet four inches wide. The wings are each three 
hundred and twenty-five feet long, forty feet eight inches wide and 
fifty feet high, at right angles. 

This was intended for two hundred and twenty-four patients, 
but by the use of an associated dormitory and the placing of two 
patients in a certain number of rooms, three hundred patients were 
cared for. 

On the 29th of August, 1894, an infirmary building for female 
patients, with associate dining room attached, was opened, furnishing 
accommodations at present for three hundred and eighty-two. This 
is connected by a covered corridor thirty-one and a half feet long with 
the south wing, and has a front section three stories high, sixty feet 
by forty, with spacious verandas. There are one hundred and eighty 
acres in cultivation; value of farm products $9,145; appropriation for 
support for 1896 was $65,245. The daily average of patients for 
1895 was three hundred and thirty-six, and the percentage of cures 
upon admissions was forty -six. The standard of this institution has 
always been high and notable for success. At one period under Dr. 
Eugene Grissom, the percentage of cures reached sixty-eight. It is 
now under the skillfull care of Dr. George L. Kirb3\ During the 
past year a reservoir of four hundred thousand gallons of water has 
been added. 


This is the model institution for the insane south of the Potomac 
river, and was authorized by the I^egislature in 1875, and built by 
Nereus Mendenhall, M. D., Eugene Grissom, M. D., M. Whitehead, 
M. D., Col. T. G. Walton, and Capt. C. B. Denson, Commissioners. 
It was not finally completed until 1886, and is on the linear plan, 
having a greater frontage than the Capitol at Washington. About 
600 acres belong to the institution. During 1895 there were under 

240 North Carolina and its Resources. 

treatment 733; admissions 191, and recoveries 77, 40 per cent, of 
admissions. All modern improvements are to be found here, in every 
department of its operation, and the farm management is a feature 
unexcelled in the Union. It is situated on a commanding eminence 
southeast of Morgantou. The late Samuel Sloan, Architect of the 
Philadelphia Centennial buildings, was its designer, and Dr. Kirk- 
bride, the greatest authority of his day, pronounced it the most per- 
fect institution of its kind that human ingenuity could construct 
within the limits of its cost. It has been under the charge of Dr. P. 
L. Murphy as Superintendent from the beginning, and he has brought 
it to the present stage of efficiency. Its farm products reach nearly 
$20,000, with 30,000 pounds of pork in addition. An excellent fire 
department is maintained by the employees. There has been added 
recently a training school for nurses, which bids fair to satisfy a great 
need in the State. 


This asylum, for the colored insane, is the first ever designed and 
built for that class in the world, and was opened August ist, 1880. 
The plan includes a center building for administration and officers' 
quarters, and wings for patients. It is supplied with water by an 
artesian well 570 feet deep, and from lyittle river; is heated, ventilated 
sewered, &c., by approved modern apparatus, and supplied with elec- 
tric lights. The rooms are 10x7, with 13 feet pitch. On account of 
the rapidly increasing number of the insane of the colored population, 
the hospital has been enlarged twice by the addition of three story 
wings at each end. Its original capacity was for 233 patients. In 
1895 there were treated 427, of which number 40 were cured, being 
33 per cent, of 120 admitted during the year. About 125 acres are in 
cultivation. Dr. J. F, Miller adds to his medical accomplishments 
such practical ability as an architect, that he has made many improve- 
ments at small expenditure. A very large proportion of the inmates 
are happily employed at work, and the modern congregate dining 
rooms are used with perfect satisfaction. The institution is a short 
distance west of Goldsboro . 


There are certain patients that have been returned from the 
institutions to the counties, as not needing hospital treatment as 
much as acute or violent cases, because they are harmless and incur- 
able. These, in the larger counties especially, have been provided 
for in county asylums connected with the county "Homes" for the 

Public Charities. 241 

aged and infirm. Aided by the steady and sympathetic inspection of 
the county board of visitors, consisting of citizens volunteering, upon 
request, for this duty, and reporting regularly to the Board of Public 
Charities, and under the medical charge of the County Superintendent 
of Health, these institutions have been much improved. 


The act for its establishment was passed January 12, 1845; school 
opened May ist of the same year, but the building nov/ occupied was 
not completed until January, 1849. Main building of four stories, 
with two wings at right angles, three stories each. Scholastic course 
in full with library of 16,500 volumes, trades are also taught, and music 
and other accomplishments for the girls. Enlarged at several periods 
and finally had accommodations for 250 pupils. But it was deemed 
best to separate the deaf and dumb from the blind, and on October ist, 
1894, the former class was transferred to the North Carolina School 
for the Deaf and Dumb, at Morganton. The old institution in Raleigh 
was thoroughly repaired and improved, and devoted altogether to the 
blind, having a capacity of 155 of that class. It is doing good work, 
and has at this time a remarkable orchestra of thirty musicians, string 
and brass, among its pupils. W. J. Young, Esq., is principal. It is 
located on one of the squares reserved by the State when the Capital 
City was laid out. A kindergarten department has been a recent and 
valuable addition. 


Is situated in the southeastern part of Raleigh, and erected in 
1875, being the first in the world for the colored race. Has three 
stories, with parlor, chapel, music room, infirmary, recitation rooms, 
dormitories, &c. Heated by steam, lighted by gas. Has good water 
supply. In the summer of 1895 a new three story wing with hand- 
some cupola was built on the south side. Built originally for fort}.' 
inmates, it now accommodates 65 boys and 55 girls. Proposals have 
been advertised for the building of a similar addition on the north 
side. Shoemaking, chair and mattress making, cane seating and 
dressmaking are taught, in addition to the regular scholastic work. A 
new workshop is in contemplation. 


This admirable new institution under the charge of Superintend- 
ent E. McK. Goodwin, has already been alluded to. The act for its 


242 North Carolina and its Resources. 

creation was passed in 1891, and its Board organized April 23rd, 
1892. The building is located upon a tract of 213 acres near Morgan- 
ton. It is of three stories above the basement in the form of a capital 
Roman T, and is 256 feet long with 162 feet from front through center 
building and dining room. Heated by steam and lighted by elec- 
tricity, with an artesian water system and sewerage, the sanitary con- 
di Lions are perfect. Accommodations for 250; there are 150 rooms. 
This is known to be one of the best buildings in America for the deaf 
and dumb. Carpentry, cabinet-making, shoemaking, printing, free- 
hand and industrial art, mattress making, sewing, practical farming, 
gardening, &c., are the divisions of the industrial department. There 
were at the last report 161 pupils. The deaf mutes at this institution 
print the "Kelly Messenger," which is a creditable specimen of the 
printer's art. 


In October, 1889, the Confederate Veteran Association of North 
Carolina adopted a resolution that a home for helpless and disabled 
veterans was a necessity, and instructed the secretary (at that time 
Mr. W. C. Stronach) to open a book for subscriptions. By August 
29th, 1890, the amount of $3,000 was thus secured. The executive 
committee then authorized the secretary to rent a building, which 
was soon filled. The I^egislature, February i6th, 1891, appropriated 
$3,000 per annum, and gave the Camp Russell property of five acres. 
The appropriation is now about $8, 500, with which about one hundred 
veterans are maintained with the strictest economy. This would be 
impracticable but for the benevolence of private parties, and the gen- 
erosity of the railroads in transporting the veterans to their homes, 
there being an average per cent, daily of about sixt3''-five. The State 
owes a debt of gratitude to Mr. W. C. Stronach, chairman of the 
executive committee of the Board of Managers, v/ho is always adding 
to the comfort and welfare of the disabled heroes. 


This orphanage was opened in 1872 by the Grand I^odge of 
Masons of North Carolina, at the annual communication, by resolu- 
tion to change St. John's College, to Oxford Orphan Asylum. In 
1873 the State made an annual appropriation of $5,000, increased in 
1885 to $r 0,000, which is the present amount. The children are in 
school two-thirds of their time, and work one-third. The Grand 
Lodge contributes $3,500 annually, other contributions about $1,800 
and asylum earnings, $3,250, making a total of about $18,500. It has 

Public Charities. 243 

220 inmates, equally divided as to sex. Children received from 6 to 
14 years of age. There are 253 acres of land, one-half in cultivation. 
Mr. N. W. lyawrence. Superintendent, is steadily improving the insti- 
tution. Homes are procured for the children as they become fitted 
for self-support. 


This is also in Oxford, and was opened in the year 1886. The 
buildings can accommodate one hundred and fifty. The average 
daily number in 1895, was seventy-five. Of these sixty-three are 
without father and mother. Receipts, chiefly from the State, were a 
little over $4,000. The Legislature of 1895, doubled the former 
appropriation. Rev. Robt. Shepard, (colored), is the Superintendent, 
and is receiving increased contributions, through the confidence of 
the people in his management. 


The main building is six hundred and twenty-five feet long, by 
fifty-eight and one-half in width, with administrative buildings in 
front eighty-four by seventy feet and domestic thirty-six by one hun- 
dred and sixty-eight feet. The wings are two and one-half stories, 
administrative four. Will contain eight hundred cells, five by eight 
feet, each cell having independent ventilating flues running entire 
height, and ending in large air chamber, with globe ventilator, in 
which is a coil of steam pipe to insure constant ventilation. Stone 
foundation up to four feet above ground line; heavy brick wall; 
covered with slate. Has a reservoir of 3,000,000 gallons capacity, 
with two steam pumps. Females in separate building. The discipline 
is mild but firm. Has an excellent infirmary and maintains a Sunday 
School taught by eminent citizens of Raleigh; religious services five 
times a month. 

Confinement in the penitentiary proper is only enforced upon 
those sentenced for the highest crimes; it contains, however, chronic 
invalids sent to the central hospital. Of the total number under 
control, 1,237, there are two hundred and seventy-one at Raleigh. 
The others are distributed upon five farms, embracing 15,000 acres, in 
different sections of the State, under guard and controlled by State 
oflScers (not the lease system). The great majority, eighty per cent. 
being colored, are at work in the employment they have been accus- 
tomed to. The value of their products amounts to about $200,000 
annually, and renders the institution nearly absolutely self-support- 

244 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

ing. Indeed, it is probable that a surplus may be made for the State 
Treasury, with a return to normal prices for agricultural products. 
While the main operations are in the raising of all kinds of agricultural 
products and live stock, and the digging of phosphate rock, the mechan- 
ical work supplies all the shoes and the clothing, but not the cloth; also 
harness and wagons, wheelbarrows, and wood and iron work used by 
the convicts, and laundry work for the institution and others. Each 
farm has a superior and a physician. The health of the convicts is 
better than under any former system. The immense stone wall, at 
one place sixty feet high from the valley below, is of solid granite, 
built by the convicts, as was the entire structure. 
Hon. A. I/cazar, is General Manager. 


There are many institutions of this character supported by 
churches, societies and private citizens, and not under the immediate 
charge of the State authorities. Among these are the 

Thomasvii,i,E Orphanage. 

Rev. J. B. Boon, Superintendent. Opened November nth, 1885, 
at Thomasville, has three hundred and six acres of land, and twenty 
buildings provides for one hundred and fifty to two hundred orphans, 
supported chiefly by the Baptist Church. 

The Thompson Orphanage. 

Rev. B. A. Osborne, Superintendent, organized about 1883. 
Situated at Charlotte. Has eighty acres of land, and cares for about 
sixty children. Is supported by voluntary contributions mainly by 

The Orphans' Home. 

Situated at Barium Springs, Iredell county, and under the charge 
of Rev. R. W. Boyd, Superintendent, who is the representative of a 
Board, chosen by the Synod of North Carolina (Presbyterian). Has 
property worth $15,000. The institution began operations only a 
few years ago, and in 1895 had seventy-two children. 

Orphanages and Hospitals. 245 

Odd Fellows' Orphan Home. 

Is located at Goldsboro, and liberally supported by that benevo- 
lent order. It began operations in May, 1892. Had twenty-eight in 
1895 with the number gradually increasing; Mr. J. T. Beams, 
Superintendent. In addition to the original structures, a fine 
modern building has just been added, to more completely fulfill its 

The Friends' Orphanage. 

Is near High Point, and was organized in 1895. While this 
latest of the family of orphanages in North Carolina is only in its 
infancy, it is doing most effective work. Dr. J. M. Tomlinson of 
Archdale, is the Chairman of the Friends' Committee having its 
interest in charge. There can be no doubt that this good work will 
grow and multiply. 

The Childrens' Home, 

located at Asheville, was established in March, 1890. This was 
organized to meet the needs of the county of Buncombe, and its 
history renders it a model for the State. At last report (October 
1895) it was caring for thirty-one children, and had had charge of one- 
hundred and fifty-seven children since its organization, many of 
whom had been placed in good homes. 

The Mission Hospital, 

founded in 1885 and managed by a committee of ladies from the 
Episcopal, Baptist, Methodist and Presbyterian ladies of Asheville. 
Supported by voluntary contributions and a small sum from the 
county. Cares for about one hundred patients during the year. 

Wilmington City Hospital. 

Organized in 1881, and its support is given, three-fifths from the 
county and two-fifths from the city. Dr. W. W. Love, is Superinten- 
dent. In 1894, it had two hundred and two charity patients, sixty- 
eight pay; total two hundred and seventy. Is admirably situated 
near the city of Wilmington. 

St. Peter's Hospital, 

opened January ist, 1876, in the city of Charlotte. Managers are 
nine female communicants of St. Peter's (Episcopal) Church. Mrs. 
Jane Wilkes, Secretary. Cares for eighty patients annually. Main- 
tained by voluntary subscriptions. 

246 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

The Good Samaritan Hospitai, 
is in the same city. This has a handsome brick building erected by 
the efforts of the same noble women, and is devoted to colored 
patients, being a part of the mission work of St. Peter's Church. 

The Watts' Hospitai.. 
This is the gift of Mr. George W. Watts, of Durham, to the town 
of his residence. It was built and equipped at a cost of $30,000, and 
he endows it with $20,000 more, to insure its successful working. 
The administration building is 38x36 feet; two stories and basement; 
male and female pavilions, 31x62 feet and surgical building 17x27 
feet. It is fitted with all modern conveniences, has twenty-two beds 
and is surrounded by five acres of grounds. The physicians give their 
services without charge, and the citizens will increase the endow- 
ment fund. 

Rex Hospital. 

This institution is located in Raleigh, and was established by a 
fund left by a long deceased citizen. The hospital maintained for a 
number of years by St. John's Guild, and located at the south end of 
Salisbury street, was purchased in 1893, and after improving the same 
by several thousand dollars worth of repairs and additions, and the 
erection of a building for colored patients, the whole was opened as 
Rex Hospital May 15th, 1894. In the first two years it has admitted 
three hundred and fifty-six patients, including one hundred and six 
white males, 102 white females; seventy -five colored males and 
seventy -five colored females. To this has been recently added by 
private benevolence, a well arranged ward for sick children. The 
city contributes annually $2,000 to the support of the hospital. Col. 
Benehan Cameron has recently given a fund as an endowment for the 
"P. C. Cameron Memorial Cot," R. H. Battle, Esq., is chairman 
of the board of Trustees. 

It may justly be said no department of the State Government is 
more liberally supported than her charities, which have become the 
pride of the State. And private efforts are freely given whenever a 
necessity is shown to exist, for the relief of suffering or misfortune. 


The State Capitol is a massive granite structure, in plain but 
classic style, and for many years was regarded as the finest of the 
State Capitols. It is situated in a square of four acres, laid off in broad 

PUBI.IC Buildings. 247 

and convenient walks, shaded in part by native oaks, sr^rvivors of the 
original forests, and it is adorned with flowers and shrubbery. In the 
grounds are a handsome bronze statute of Washington and a monu- 
ment to the Confederate dead, about 75 feet high, adorned with bronze 
figures. The building contains the Legislative halls, the Executive 
offices, the Treasury Department, the Auditor's office, those of the 
Secretary of State, the rooms of the keeper of the Capitol, Legislative 
Committee rooms and other needed apartments, is lighted both by 
gas and electricity, is well ventilated, and in winter is heated by 
steam. The whole is surrounded by an iron fence based upon a 
granite foundation. 

The Governor's Mansion is situated in the northeastern part of 
Raleigh, on one of the public squares — Burke. It is a three story 
brick structure, elegant in design, and complete in all its details, 
pleasing in exterior, elegant, convenient and comfortable in the 
interior. It is trimmed with native brownstone and marble, and is 
surrounded by a beautiful lawn, which is adorned with small 

The Supreme Court Building is situated on the north side of 
Edenton street, adjoinining the Agricultural Building and fronting 
Capitol square. It has a plain exterior, but is well built and arranged 
for its various uses. It is three stories high and contains the Supreme 
Court room, consulting rooms, the Attorney General's office, the office 
of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the office of the Com- 
missioner of Labor, the Supreme Court Library, which contains, 
besides a large and valuable collection of law volumes, portraits of 
many of the members of the Court from its organization to the present 
time; and also the State Library of 46,000 volumes, and portaits of 
eminent North Carolinians, prominent in the State annals, in civil, 
professional, military and naval life. 

The other public buildings have been sufficiently alluded to under 
their appropriate heads. 


"The good name, as well as the substantial prosperity of a 
State, is indissolubly associated with, and dependent upon, the initial 
direction given to the minds of the young. Care on the one hand, 
neglect on the other, bring forth responsive fruit, to tell in after years 
in the grateful form of public virtue and enlightment, or in the 
melancholy spectacle of public vice or popular ignorance and abase- 

248 North Carolina and its Resources. 

ment. The wisdom of statesmanship is never so wisely directed as 
when it aims to establish the one and guard against the other. And 
such statesmanship knows that it must act always by anticipation; 
knows that it is dealing with functions in a state of constant change 
and progression; that it is moulding and shaping that which, though 
incorporeal and intangible, bears direct analogy to that which is cor- 
poreal and material, in that it is impressible to good or to evil, retains 
the shape and form to which it is moulded, and, in its matured powers, 
presents the perfection of the wise directing hand, or the distortion of 
neglect or of wicked design. 

The solicitude of our Revolutionary fathers was never allayed, 
even amid the clash of arms and the uncertainties of a pending des- 
perate strife, until they have given expression in their tentative 
efforts in the formation of a new government to the purpose which 
was uppermost in their minds. Never in human history did a solemn 
determination to discharge a duty, apparently altogether irrelevant to 
the cause they then had in hand — the conduct of war and the achieve- 
ment of liberty — have expression so noble, so wise, so disinterested. 
I/iberty might be won, but at ruinous cost, but whatever befell, 
posterity must be educated. That was a sacred charge not to be 
neglected or evaded. It was the education of the leaders in the 
cause of liberty that had taught the value of liberty; it was essential 
that that liberty when assured should be preserved by the same means 
that had demonstrated its value. Therefore, posterity must be edu- 
cated; and while the enemy was still thundering at the gates, and 
while the roar of the battle was still deafening the startled ear, 
calmly, unmoved by the awful commotion, brave as to their present, 
confident as to their future, they decreed in their first Constitution 
" that a school or schools should be established by the lyCgislature for 
the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the masters, 
paid by the public, as may enable them to instruct at low prices; and 
all useful learning shall be encouraged in one or more universities." 

Such was the beginning of our school system; such was the 
mandatory obligation and formation of the State University. 

Public financial confusion, general private pecuniary distress, 
materially delayed action upon the wise determination of the founders 
of our State government. Yet under all untoward circumstances, 
the University was chartered in 1786, and entered upon its work in 
1795. It lit the torch of public education, if at the time it could do 
no more. Its own career grandly illustrated its own usefulness Its 
example and influence kept alive that broader ultimate plan and pur- 
pose of an education to be brought to every child in the land." 

Education. 249 


The first step toward free public schools was taken by Judge 
Murpliey, in the session of the lyCgislature of 1816, in a report urging 
the establishun^ut of a judicious system of public education. But no 
further legislative action on the subject was taken until the session of 
1825, in which year a fund for the establishment of common schools 
was created by the General Assembly, "consisting of the dividends 
arising from the stocks then held or afterwards acquired by the State 
in the banks of New Bern and Cape Fear, the dividends arising from 
the stocks owned by the State in the Cape Fear Navigation Company, 
the Roanoke Navigation Company, and the Club Foot and Harlowe 
Creek Canal Company, the tax imposed by law on license to retailers 
of spirituous liquors and auctioneers, the unexpended balance of the 
agricultural fund, all moneys paid to the State for the entries of 
vacant land, and all the vacant and unappropriated swamp lands of 
the State, together with such sums of money as the State may find it 
convenient to appropriate from time to time." 

In 1789, the Legislature in session in Fayetteville, by anticipa- 
tion, had cut off by far the largest resources applicable to the school 
fund. The largest body of vacant land then owned by the State, 
included all the territory of the present State of Tennesssee. But as 
a heavy debt rested upon the National Government for the costs of 
the Revolutionary War, Congress had frequentl}^ urged upon the 
States owning western territory, the policy of ceding the whole or 
part of such territory to aid in the extinguishment of such debt. 
North Carolina, with responsive generosity, gave up the territory of 
Tennessee, with all her prospective school lands, and fell back upon 
her other resources and the relief or aids of future legislation. 

Such legislation was had, and by the transfer to the Literary 
Fund by the State Government in 1837 of the State's share of the 
surplus deposit fund, in the United States Treasury distributed to the 
States by the Act of Congress of June 23, 1836, the Literary Fund for 
the "Common Schools" was increased by $1,133,757.39. ^^^ total 
"Surplus revenue" fund turned over by the Treasurer of the United 
States to the State comptroller was $1,433,757.39. C)f this the State 
Treasury used $100,000, and $200,000 was applied to draining swamp 

The common school system, as it was designated, was adopted 
in 1839, ^^^ continued in force until superceded by the results of the 
war. Under that system in 1850 the number of schools was 2,657; o^ 
teachers, 2,730; of pupils, 104,095. The income being in that year 
$158,564, increased in i860 to $268,719. 

250 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

As a result of the war, the whole I^iterary Fund was lost, and 
new provision had to be made. 

Without going into details involving the legislation of several 
years, it is enough to say here that in 1894-5, from the general poll- 
tax, general property tax (18 cents on the $100), special poll-tax, 
special property tax under local acts, special poll-tax under local 
acts, fines, forfeitures and penalties, liquor licenses, auctioneers^ 
estrays and other sources, all of which are specially applied to the 
school fund, and from the State Board of Education, there was 
realized the sum of $777,079.29, as against the receipts of 1884 of 
$580,311.06; and for 1894-5 the expenditures were $783,405.09. 

The school census of 1894-5 shows the number of persons between 
six and twenty-one years of age to have been — white, 389,709; 
colored, 212,191; total, 601,900; of which there was an enrollment of 
— white, 235,486; and of colored, 123,899; total, 359,385. The 
average attendance during the same time was, for whites, 149,046 for 
colored, 71,246. Average length for school terms — for whites 12.85. 
for colored, 12.12. Average salary of teachers — white males, $25.53; 
white females, $23.08; colored males, $23.08; colored females, $19.27, 

The value of public school property in 1894-5 for whites was 
$817,148.08; for colored, $301,149.80. The number of public school 
houses in the same year was — for whites, 4,556; for colored, 2,010. 
Number of schools taught in same period, for whites, 4,811; colored 
2,296. Number of school districts, for whites 5,123; for colored, 
2,424; and the statistics of the Normal Schools for 1894-5 for the 
colored race, show an attendance at Fayetteville of 236; at Salisbury, 
of 236; at Franklinton, 215; at Plymouth, 301; and at Goldsboro, 277. 

For the fiscal year ending November 30th, 1895, there had been 
levied for school purposes on white polls, $250,458.85; and on colored 
polls, $94,436.58. On general property there had been levied on the 
whites $363,258,68, and on colored $12,861.92. Total from all 
sources for 1895, $765,510.27. 

The population of North Carolina by the census of 1890 is — white, 
1,049,191; colored, 567,170; all others, 1,586; a total of 1,617,947, the 
colored population being a little more than one-third of the whole. 
In the contribution to the support of schools, the whites contribute 
nearly five-sixths of the whole, and the colored little more than one- 
sixth. Nevertheless, the appropriation is made ridgidly pro rata, as 
if the contribution had been on the same basis. 

Besides the levy, which is now 18 cents on the $100 worth of 
property, and the other subjects upon which taxation is laid for the 
benefit of the public schools, the State has received large benefactions 

o ^ 
en — 
< ^ 

Education. 251 

from the Peabody Fund, appropriated in aid of public, normal and 
graded schools, and to holders of scholarships in the Nashville Nor- 
mal School. There are twenty of these scholarships, each worth $100 
per annum, and railrod fare to and from Nashville, Tenn., each ses- 
sion for two years. The average annual appropriation to the State 
from this fund is about $8,500. 

The present public school system exists under that feature of the 
State Constitution providing for a State Board of Education, consist- 
ing of the Governor, lyieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Treas- 
urer, Auditor, Attorney-General and Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. The latter is the head of the system of public schools. 
Each county has its Board of Education and County Examiners. The 
County Board consists of the commissioners. The normal system 
was adopted in 1877 for the whites as well as the colored people, and 
eight normal schools have been established for the former and seven 
for the latter. The Normal and Industrial School for white 
women has superceded the eight white normal schools. A normal 
department is provided at the University for young men with a 
summer school for both sexes of white teachers. The seven colored 
normal schools are still continued, for which the State pays annually 

It need scarcely be added that while the provision for the schools 
for both races is made with strictly impartial appropriation of the 
public funds, the schools themselves are separate; and a still further 
separation is made in the schools of the Croatan Indians of Robeson 
county, which are detached from both the white and colored schools;, 
and the State appropriates $500 annually for training teachers for 
Croatan schools. 


The University was chartered in 1789, and opened in 1795. It is 
the oldest university in the south ; up to 1 860 it had a very large 
patronage from all the southern States. Its roll of alumni includes 
many names of national repute, and it may be doubted whether so 
large a percentage of the alumni of any other American college have 
achieved eminence in public life. Among them may be named 
President, Jas. K. Polk; Vice-President, Wm. R. King; Senator, 
Thomas H. Benton; Wm. A. Graham, Secretary of the Navy, Whig 
candidate for the Vice-Presidency; Major General Francis P. Blair, 
U. S. A., Democratic candidate for the Vice Presidency; John Y. 
Mason, Leonidas Polk, John Branch, Willie P. Mangum, Jacob 
Thompson, Aaron V. Brown, James C. Dobbin, John H. Eaton,, 

252 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

Francis L. Hawks, Cyrus ly. Hawks, Wm. M. Green, Archibald M. 
DeBow, Zebulon B. Vance and James Johnston Pettigrew. 

The University embraces the College, the Law School, the 
Medical School, and the Summer School for teachers. The College 
contains fourteen departments offering one hundred and one courses 
of instruction, arranged both for graduate and undergraduate in- 
struction. The Law School and the Medical School each offers two 
years instruction. The Summer School for Teachers is held during 
the month of July, and offers about forty courses of instruction. 
There is also a Summer Session of the Law School (July-September). 

The University includes thirty-five teachers (who represent the 
training of twenty-one American and European Universities;) the 
student-roll numbers five hundred and thirty-four. It possesses 
property worth about $600,000, being $500,000 worth of land, build- 
ings and apparatus and $100,000 in endowment funds. The campus 
contains fifty acres of land, with five hundred acres of forest land 
adjoining. There are eleven large brick buildings, containing lecture 
rooms, museums, laboratories and student rooms. The library con- 
tains forty thousand volumes. The gymnasium is the largest in the 
south. The University is administered with great economy. The 
total expense of an education there for four years need not exceed 
$1,000. Tuition is $60.00 a year. About the fourth of the students 
are self-supporting. Eighty scholarships are given annually to needy 
boys, and loans are made to the very needy. 

The seat of the University is Chapel Hill, about twenty-eight 
miles northwest of Raleigh. It is a beautiful, healthful village, free 
from vice and extravagant life. 

Mr. Edward A. Alderman is President. 


Some years ago a small but able and earnest set of men became 
convinced that the industrial growth of North Carolina was being 
retarded by the lack of technically trained men to assist and to guide 
this development. To supply this need these men began to advocate 
the establishment of an industrial school. The times were ripe for the 
success of such a movement; all over the State the movement was 
taken up, and the North Carolina College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts was the result of their endeavors. 

The college opened its doors for students in October of 1889, and 
has had a healthy and steady growth ever since. Like all new enter- 
prises it had to encounter some hostility, and a great deal of indiffer- 
ence and incredulity as to power to do the work that was wanted. 



Education. 253 

These, its friends think, the College has now entirely overcome. The 
success of its graduates is the best guarantee that the institution was 
needed and that it is supplying that need. 

When the college opened in 1889, it had only one building, very 
little equipment, and only five professors present for duty. In the six 
years that have passed since then, nine other large and comfortable 
buildings have been added, equipment and apparatus have been 
bought for all departments, and the faculty has increased from five to 

In equipping the institution, the trustees wisely decided that a 
technical college to be at all successful, must be completely furnished; 
hence the shops, the drawing-rooms, the chemical, the physical, the 
horticultural, the electrical laboratories, the barn, the dairy, and all 
the class rooms have been provided with the best modern apparatus 
and machinery. Every department of the College is now equipped 
to do thorough and practical work. 

"What is the specific object of the Agricultural and Mechanical 
College?" is a question often asked. The object is to give young 
men, while they are getting a general education, also a technical 
training that will make them self-sustaining in life and also make 
them intelligent directors of agricultural and mechanical enterprises. 
It does not, however, aim to make them mere machines, for its stu- 
dents have a regular college course minus the classical languages but 
plus scientific studies in particular lines. While its purpose is to give 
its graduates definite callings in life, its idea of education is no more 
narrow, no more "Brodwissenschaften," than is the special college or 
seminary for the doctor or the minister. The object of these colleges 
or seminaries is to train a man for what he is to do; the object of any 
technical college is the same. It assumes as a fundimental postulate 
that a man who wants to farm, to run a grapery, to direct a dairy, to 
make his living by mechanical engineering, to support himself as a 
civil engineer is entitled to as good and as special training as a man 
who expects to preach or to practice medicine. It also holds that 
there is time and opportunity for a man, while he is getting a general 
education, to get also, and at the same time, special training for the 
work in which he expects to engage. 

The institution is supported by grants from the general govern- 
ment and by an appropriation from the state. Tuition is made low in 
order that as many as possible of the sons of North Carolina may be 
gathered together to be trained for work in their own State and for 
their own people. 

The faculty consists of the following members: President and 

254 North Carolina and its Resources. 

Professor of History, A. Q. Holladay, lyly. D.; Professor of Horticul- 
ture, W. F. Massey, C. E.; Professor of Chemistry, W. A. Withers, 

A. M.; Professor of English, D. H. Hill, A. M.; Professor of Agricul- 
ture, B. Irby, M. S.; Professor of Civil Engineering and Mathematics, 
W. C. Riddick, A. B., C. E.; Professor of Mechanical Engineering, N. 
R. Craighill, S. B.; Professor of Physics, Electrical Engineering and 
Military Science, lyt.Col. N. H. Barnes, A. M. , Ph. D. ; Adjunct-Profes- 
sor of Mathematics, R. E. L. Yates, A. M.; Assistant Professor of Agri- 
culture, F. E. Emery, M. S.; Instructor in Drawing and Shop Work, C. 
M. Pritchett, M. E.; Superintendent of Shops, C. B. Park; Assistant in 
Farm Practice and Superintendent of Farm, B. S. Skinner; Instructor in 
Veterinary Science, F. P. Williamson, D. V. S.; Assistant in Chemis- 
try, J. A. Bizzell, B. S.; Assistant in Physics, W. K. Davis, Jr., B.S.; 
Assistant in Drawing and Shop, David Clark, M. E.; Assistant in 
Chemistry, G. S. Fraps, B. S.; Assistant in Dairying, A. H. Prince, 

B. S.; Tutor of Sub-Freshman Class, A. A. Wilson. 


The State Normal and Industrial School for women, located at 
Greensboro, was established by act of the General Assembly of 1891, 
and began its work in October, 1892. It is supported mainly by the 
State, but receives liberal aid from the Peabody Fund, and has con- 
siderable revenue from tuition fees. 

$30,000 and ten acres of land were given to secure its location at 
Greensboro. The management of the institution is in the hands of a 
Board of Directors, consisting of one member from each congressional 
district. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction is, ex-officio, 
president of the Board. 

The purpose for which the institution was created is stated in 
section 5 of the Act establishing it, which reads as follows: 

"The objects of this institution shall be (i) to give to young women such 
education as shall fit them for teaching; (2) to give instruction to young women 
in drawing, telegraphy, typewriting, stenography and such other industrial arts 
as may be suitable to their sex, and conducive to their support and usefulness. 
Tuition shall be free to those who signify their intention to teach, upon such 
conditions as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors." 

That the Normal and Industrial School fills a long felt need in 
North Carolina, its liberal patronage alone is sufl&cient proof. Its 
enrollment of students this year is 444, besides 97 pupils in its Prac- 
tice School. During the four years of its existence, it has matricu- 
lated 931 students, representing all the ninety-six counties of the 
State except three. 

Education. 255 

The Normal and Industrial School has an able faculty, consisting 
of twenty-seven officers and instructors, who have been prepared for 
their work in the best institutions in the country. It has good labo- 
ratories, libraries, and other equipment. Prof. Chas. D. Mclver, is 



This College is the Presbyterian institution of higher learning 
and may be regarded as the legitimate, if somewhat remote, successor 
to Queen's College, or Liberty Hall, as it was called after Royal 
recognition of the former had been denied. After many efforts at 
revival, and against strong opposition to the creation of a distinctly 
denominational college, Concord Presbytery, in the spring of 1835, 
adopted resolutions looking to the establishment of a Presbyterian 
College in their Presbytery; and in the fall of the same year a site 
"was selected in the northern part of Mecklenburg County, at which 
has been called the literary and geographical centre of the State. 
The institution was named in honor of General William Davidson, 
the revolutionary hero. 

The College was opened in March, 1837, with 66 students. A 
charter was granted by the Legislature in 1838. The manual labor 
system was at first adopted, but as at Wake Forest, it proved a failure 
and was abandoned. In 1855, Maxwell Chambers, Esq., of Salisbury, 
made the munificent bequest of $258,000 to the College, and this 
relieved it of all existing financial trouble and assured its future 
freedom from embarrassment. The terms of the charter limited the 
endownment to $200,000, and only that amount could be realized 
from the bequest. About $100,000 of this endownment was lost by 
reason of the war. In addition to the proceeds arising from the 
interest of this endownment, the College has endowed scholarships, 
such as the Maxwell Chambers scholarship of $3,000, endowed by 
the Presbyterian Church of Salisbury; the D. A. Davis scholarship of 
$1,500, endowed by the same church; the George Bower scholarship 
of $1,000, endowed by Mrs. A. C. Davis, of Salisbury, and the 
Thomas Brown scholarship of $1,000, endowed by Brown Bros., of 
Winston, and one of $500, endowed by Gen. Rufus Barringer and 
Mr. George E. Wilson, of Charlotte, one of $1,500, the Kate 
Williams scholarship, endowed by G. W. Williams, Esq., of Wil- 
mington; one of $1,000, J. S. Carr, Esq., Durham; one of $1,000, by 
S. H, Wiley, Esq., Salisbury; the Gates scholarship of $500, by R. 
M. Gates and Gates Bros., Charlotte; the P. T. Penick scholarship of 
$500, by the Presbyterian Church at Mooresville, and the Willie J. 
Brown scholarship of $500, endowed by Col. Jno. E. Brown of Charlotte. 

256 North Carolina and its Resources. 

Two regular courses of study, leading to the degrees of Bachelor 
of Arts and Bachelor of Science, each requiring four years, are pro- 
vided. The requirements for admission are much the same as at the 
State University. A post-graduate course, leading to the degree of 
Master of Arts, is available. The course of instruction is thorough, 
and many distinguished men of the State are alumni of the institu- 

The Faculty numbers eight professors. The Rev. John Bunyan 
Shearer, D.D., lyl^.D., is President. There is a regular and full 
attendance, made up largely from this and the States adjoining. 


The leading Methodist College of North Carolina, is the out- 
growth of the Grammar School, established by the Rev. Brantly York, 
in 1838, in the north-west corner of Randolph county, five miles south 
of the town of High Point, on the North Carolina Railroad, and 
about one hundred miles west of Raleigh. In 1842, Dr. York, 
resigned the charge of the school, and the Rev. B. Craven, then only 
nineteen years old, was elected as successor. In 1851, the school was 
re-chartered and the name changed to " Normal College." By this 
charter, the school was brought under the State supervision, and the 
Governor of the State became ex officio President of the Board of 
Trustees, and the Superintendent of Common Schools, Secretary. The 
object of this connection was to secure a higher grade of teachers for 
the common schools, and, by a provision of the charter, a certificate 
from the Normal College was made ample lawful evidence of qualifi- 
cation to teach in such schools. At the annual session of the North 
Carolina Conference of the Methodist Church, held in Salisbury, in 
1 851, the connection between the school and the Conference was 
adopted, and the Trustees of the College agreed that young men pre- 
paring for the ministry should be educated without charge. In 1853, 
the charter was amended, and the College was authorized to confer 
degrees. In i858-'9, the management of the institution was trans- 
ferred to the North Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South and by act of the Legislature, the College was vested 
in the Conference with all the the rights and privileges usually 
granted in such cases, and the name was changed from Normal to 
Trinity College. The College suffered from the effects of the 
war, and in 1865, for a short time, exercises were suspended. 
Dr. Craven, in that year, was re-elected President, and the next year 
exercises were resumed. In 1882, Dr. Craven died, with disastrous 
influence on the fortunes of the institution, which fell so low as to 

Education. 257 

threaten its existence. Prominent laj^men came to the rescue, and 
its strength was renewed, its curriculum broadened, its scholastic 
standard raised, and it took rank with the other colleges of the South. 

In 1890, in accordance with the order of the Board of Trustees of 
the College, of the North Carolina and of the Western North Carolina 
Conferences Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and of the General 
Assembly, amending the charter, the institution was ordered to be 
removed to Durham, where Blackwell's Park, consisting of sixty-two 
and a half acres of eligibly situated land, was secured as a site for the 
buildings and grounds. Liberal donations made by citizens of Dur- 
ham, and other munificent aid enabled the management to proceed 
so rapidly with the construction of the necessary buildings that 
the session of i892-'3 was opened at Durham. These buildings 
consist of the main College, the Technological building, the College 
Inn, the Gymnasium buildings and seven residences for the Faculty 
and officers, altogether constituting a mass of well constructed and 
archite<^turally imposing edifices. The grounds are well laid off, and 
the whole is an independent municipal corporation, with its ov/n 
mayor, commissioners and peace officer. 

At present, the institution has eleven chairs of instruction and 
six assistant instructors, distributed among the several departments 
of instruction in which the work of the College is divided. The work 
of instruction is organized under the following departments, viz.: The 
Department of Philosophy and Letters; the Scientific Department; 
the Technological Department; the Department of History, Political 
and Social Science; the Theological Department; the Law Depart- 
ment; and the Commercial Department. 

The College fees for the session are $60; board and incidentals, 
$95 to $140; commencement tax, $2.50; total, f 157.50 to $202.50. 

John C. Kilgo, D. D., is now President. 


This college was chartered at the session of the General Assembl}- 
of 1833. A tract of land containing 615 acres sixteen miles north of 
Raleigh, at the point now known as Wake Forest, was purchased, and 
the erection of buildings begun. The institution was opened in 
February, 1834. 

The system first adopted, which was that of manual labor, asso- 
ciated with the ordinary college curriculum, was soon abandoned as 
impracticable and unproductive of satisfactory results, and the colle- 
giate system only retained. Laboring under the embarrassments of 
debt in the early years of its existence, it was at length relieved in 


258 North Carolina and its Resources. 

1849. Since that period, by the earnest and liberal zeal of prominent 
members of the Baptist Church, an endowment fund has been 
accumulated, now amounting to more than $220,000. In the 
number, excellence and elegance of the college buildings. Wake For- 
est is the equal of any like institution in the country. Among these 
may be mentioned the "Lea Laboratory," the "Wingate Memorial 
Hall," the "Old Dormitory" and the "Heck- Williams Library 

The standard of scholarship is high, and among the graduates 
are very many prominent men, not only in the pulpit, but in all the 
learned professions and in business and industrial avocations. These 
are now living in thirty-one states of the union. 

The faculty now consists of C. K. Taylor, president, professor of 
Moral Philosophy; W. B. Royall, professor of Greek; L. R. Mills, 
professor of Pure Mathematics; B. F. Sledd, professor of English; W. 
L- Poteat, professor of Natural History; C. E. Brewer, professor of 
Chemistry; J. B. Carlyle, professor of Latin; J. F. Lanneau, professor 
of Physics and Applied Mathematics; W. J.Ferrell, assistant professor 
of Mathematics; R. W. Haywood, assistant professor of Languages; 
T. H. Briggs, Jr., director of Physical Culture. The number of stu- 
dents in 1895-96 was 261. 

Ministers receive free tuition. Those who have been licensed to 
preach and are unable to command the means necessary to defray the 
cost of board, msLy receive aid for this purpose from the Board of 
Education of the Baptist State Convention, so far as the means may 
be at its disposal. Among the other aids to indigent young men, is 
the "Bostwick Loan Fund," created by the late J. A. Bostwick, of 
New York City, who has given to the college $12,000, to be held in 
perpetuity, the annual interest to be used in making loans to students 
to pay their tuition bills, and nothing else, to be loaned at 4 per cent, 
payable semi-annually, on terms agreed upon. 

"The North Carolina Baptist Students' Loan Fund," incorporated 
March, 1877, lends money arising from the interest of its invested 
fund to indigent young men wishing to study in the college, the loan 
to be re-paid with interest after the completion of the course. 

The Law School, inaugurated in 1894, ^^s proved a signal suc- 
cess and is largely patronized. 

The preparatory school in medicine has steadily grown in value 
and in popular estimation. 

Education. 259 


This institution is situated at a station of the same name, in a 
beautiful oak grove on the North Carolina division of the Southern 
railroad, in Alamance county. It is under the control of the General 
Convention of the Christian Church South, and is non-sectarian in 
spirit. It is co-educational, the sexes being admitted on equal 
terms, which after years of trial, has proven to be a benefit to both. 
It has a Faculty of progressive specialists, a healthy climate, library, 
and three lyiterary Societies with elegant halls. It has Literary, 
Music, Art and Commercial Departments, and gives degrees in the 
following courses: A. B., Ph. B. and A. M. Rev. W. W. Staley, 
D. D., is President, Rev. J. O. Atkinson, Chairman of the Faculty, 
and S. A. Holeman, Bursar. 


This institution was founded by North Carolina yearly meeting 
of Friends, and was opened in the year 1837, under the name of " New 
Garden Boarding School," being chartered by the Legislature in 1834. 
From 1837, it has been in continuous operation, and has been open 
alike to both sexes. 

In 1888, the Institution was chartered under the name of Guilford 
College. New buildings having been erected, the course of study 
extended, and the Faculty increased to ten members; and authority 
was given to confer degrees. 

The buildings are located on a well cultivated farm of two hun- 
dred and sixty acres, six miles west of Greensboro, in Guilford county, 
near the "Winston and Salem railroad; and consist of the original 
building. Founders Hall, erected in i835-'7; ^^'^S Hall and Archdele 
Hall, both built in 1885; Y. M. C. A. Hall, erected in 1891; and a 
gymnasium, seventy-five by fifty feet, constructed in 1896, which is 
under the directorship of a graduate of the Boston Normal School of 

There are three extended courses of study provided, the Classi- 
cal, Scientific and Latin Scientific. Bryn Mawr College, annually 
grants to a lady graduate of Guilford, a graduate scholarship at 
Bryn Mawr, of the value of four hundred dollars, and young men 
receive a like recognition at Haverford College. 

Besides the large, substantial, well furnished buildings, the 
Museum of Natural History, College and Society libraries, the col- 
lege possesses a cash endowment of $60,000. 

There is also a dairy of fifty jersey cows owned by the college 
and a large silo barn. 

26o North Carolina and its Rksourcks. 

The equipment of the college has come largely from friends in 
Maryland, and some northern and western states, and in England. 


The Bingham School was established in 1793, by the Rev. Wil- 
liam Bingham, a native of Ireland, at Pittsboro. The School, in its 
succession through three generations of the same name and family, 
has long been pre-eminent in the South, and noted throughout the 
whole Union. Mr. Bingham, for five years, from 1801 to 1805, was 
Professor of Latin in the State University, and then resigned to re- 
open his School at Hillsboro. At his death, 1826, he was succeeded 
by his eldest son, William J. Bingham, who continued it for twenty 
years at Hillsboro, with a reputation that brought him pupils from 
all parts of North Carolina and from all the Southern States. Subse- 
quently the School was removed to Oaks, in Orange County, where 
the Principal was assisted by his sons William and Robert Bingham, 
both graduates of the University. On the death of the elder Bing- 
ham, the School was removed to a point near Mebanesville, in the 
same county. William Bingham soon after died, and was succeeded 
by his brother Robert, by whom the institution was still conducted. 
In addition to thorough classical and English and business education, 
the military feature has been added, an officer of the United States 
Army having been detailed as commandant of the cadets. Owing to 
the destruction of a portion of the School buildings by two successive 
fires, Major Robert Bingham was induced to remove the School to 
Asheville, where it now is, without abatement of its usefullness or 

Gov. Elias Carr, in speaking of this school says: 
"After a careful personal inspection of the present location and 
the sanitary arrangements, made recently, I am impressed with the 
great improvement over the old plan of buildings used in my school 
days; and I have no hesitancy in pronouncing the location most desir- 
able, the buildings excellent, the sanitary arrangements unequaled." 


This excellent school was established in Oxford in 1851 by 
James H. Horner, the course of instruction is thorough, embracing 
the classical, mathematical, scientific and military features. Each 
course is arranged for four years. The classical course embraces the 
studies in the schools of Latin, Greek, Mathematics, English Gram- 
mar and Rhetoric, Geography and History. The scientific and 
English course embraces Mathematics, Natural Science, Metaphysics, 
English Grammar and Rhetoric, Geography, History. 

Education. 261 

French, German and Bookkeeping are elective studies. The 
School is strictly military in its organization and discipline. 


The Davis Military School is situated just outside the city of 
Winston. The buildings are handsome and commodious, the grounds 
contain thirty-five acres. For many years the school has commanded 
extensive patronage from nearly every section of the United States, 
and some foreign countries. This school was founded by Col. A. C. 
Davis, and for a number of years did work preparatory for college. 
Afterward it became an incorporated institution wdth full power to 
grant diplomas and confer degrees. Boys and young men complete 
their education there, or receive preparation for any college. In 
addition to military tactics there is a complete Business College 


This grand old institution was founded by the Moravians in 1802. 
There have been private schools in the State so excellent as to have 
drawn to them patronage from distant parts of the State, but the honor 
must be ascribed to the Moravians of having located the first institu- 
tion of a public nature, and which now, after the lapse of ninety-four 
years, grows rather than loses, in usefulness and reputation, for it 
draws to it annual recruits from all and the most distant southern, 
northern and western States, and from foreign countries to fill the 
places of those sent forth to illustrate the solidity and splendor of 
their mental and social equipment. 

The school is regularly graded with a four-years classical course, 
also a post graduate course, and is entitled by law to confer all degrees 
usually given by institutions of learning, with most thorough cultiva- 
tion in music, painting, drawing and needle-work, commercial and 
industrial branches. The corps of instructors is from thirty to thirty- 
five. The whole number of alumnae is more than ten thousand. 

For many years it was the only institution of wide repute in the 
South for female education. Its pupils, therefore, have been well 
represented in the leading families in the South. A large number of 
these alumnae became teachers and heads of seminaries and acade- 
mies, with the best and most useful influences upon the subjects of 
their training. 

The buildings and accommodations of this school are elegent and 

262 North Carowna and its Resources. 


Peace Institute is located in an eight acre grove of native oaks 
just outside the northern limits of Raleigh. The main building, 
which contains nearly one hundred rooms, is probably one of the 
largest and one of the best school buildings in the State. There are 
parlors, dining-room, music and recitation rooms, fifty-seven cham- 
bers and a large auditorium which will seat eight hundred people. 

This institute is the outgrowth of prominent men in the North 
Carolina Synod of the Presbyterian Church to establish at the State 
Capital a school of high grade for young ladies. At the inception of 
the project William Peace, of Raleigh, headed the list with a gift of 
$10,000, and in recognition of his generosity the institute was honored 
with his name. 

Peace Institute has had only two principals. It began its career 
under Rev. Robert Burwell, D. D., in 1872, and is the continuation of 
a school conducted by him commencing in 1837. The present princi- 
pal, James Dinwiddle, A. M., took charge in 1890. The institute 
does not aim at large numbers, but at thorough scholarship and a high 
standard of attainments of character. 

Instruction is given in the following departments: Mental and 
Moral Philosophy and Evidences of Christianity, Mathematics and 
Sciences, Chemistry and Physics, English I^iterature and Criticism, 
I/atin and Greek, French and German. Music — Instrumental, Piano, 
Organ, Violin, Guitar and Vocal. Fine Arts — Drawing, Painting in 
Oil and Water Color and China, Modeling. Physical Culture and 
Elocution, Bookkeeping, Stenography and Typewriting, Cutting and 
Fitting, &c., employing twenty-three officers and teachers. 

Diplomas are given in Art, in Music, in lyiterature and Science, 
and in Literature and Language, and also the full graduate A. B. 
diploma. Certificates of proficiency are given upon the completion 
of the full course of study in any department. 


St. Mary's is a college for girls and young ladies at Raleigh. 
The grounds are very ample; a great park indeed, which is much 
admired for its natural beauty. They were applied to their present 
uses in May, 1842, when Rev. Dr. Albert Smedes founded the present 
St. Mary's School, under the auspices of the Episcopal Church in 
North Carolina. The exercises have been maintained continuously 
ever since, the son of the founder, the Rev. Dr. Bennett Smedes suc- 
ceeding to the control on the death of his father. The patronage is 

Education. 263 

from this State and many of the other southern States. The course 
of education is ample, embracing all the substantial branches, as well 
as the ornamental, to the extremest point of culture. The course is 
arranged for five years. 


This institution was chartered in 1891, and is to be the leading 
school of the Baptist denomination in North Carolina. The main 
building for the University is now in course of construction at Raleigh, 
on a very eligible location near the center of the city. This building 
when completed will cost over ^40,000. It is expected that the Uni- 
versity will be opened in September, 1897, and as it is to be the head 
of female education for this denomination, a large patronage is expected 


This prosperous institute is located at Murfreesboro, Hertford 
county. It has very fine buildings, situated on highly ornamented 
grounds, containing twenty-eight acres. This institution originated 
in the purpose of the Bertie Union Meeting (Baptist,) embracing the 
counties of Northampton, Bertie and Hertford, to establish in their 
midst a high school for girls, and a school building was provided at 
Murfreesboro and opened October 11, 1848, with the Rev. A. 
McDowell, of South Carolina and a graduate of Wake Forest College, 
as President. The prosperity of the institution was so rapid and so 
marked as to demand the erection of large buildings, and in 185 1, a 
joint stock company took charge of the school, selected a new site 
and completed a large and handsome brick building. The value of 
the property is now estimated at $50,000. The funds were chiefly 
contributed by the Chowan Association. With its greater facilities, 
the institution was soon filled with young ladies from most of the 
southern States and some from the north. It has had successively 
as its presidents. Dr. McDowell, Rev. William Hooper, D. D., 
LI*. D., Rev. Mr. Forney, and again Mr. McDov^^ell, who returned to 
the presidency in 1862, and died in 188 1, to be succeeded b^^ Prof. 
John B. Brewer, who resigned this year and is succeeded by Rev. W. 
O. Petty. In the college there are two departments, the preparatory, 
requiring two years for completion, and the collegiate, four years. In 
the latter the course is as full and satisfactory as in the other female 
colleges in the State. 

264 North Carolina and its Resources. 


In 1850 there was established by the Baptists an institution in 
the town of Oxford for the higher education of girls, known as the 
Oxford Female College. Under various administrations this school 
was continued until the year 1880, when it passed under the control 
of Prof. F. P. Hobgood, who for ten years had been President of the 
Raleigh Female Seminary. Under his control it is still flourishing. 
It has ample buildings, large grounds and a teaching force represent- 
ing in their acquirements the most noted American colleges and some 
European institutions. It is doing work of a very thorough character. 

This college occupies a fine brick building in a fine natural park 
of forty acres in a pleasant part of Greensboro. It is a Methodist 
institution, the original suggestion of the Trustees of the Greensboro 
Female School, to the Virginia Conference of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, asking that a female college under their auspices, be 
established at Greensboro. This was in 1837, when the North Caro- 
lina Conference had no separate existence. It acquired such the 
same year; and in 1838 the North Carolina Conference obtained a 
charter from the State L,egislature. This was the first female college 
chartered in North Carolina, and the first south of the Potomac, 
except Wesley an Female College at Macon, Ga. The institution 
was opened for students under the presidency of the Rev. Solomon 
Lea, succeeded as the result of successive resignations, by the Rev. 
A. M. Shipp, D. D., the Rev. Chas. F. Deems, and the Rev. T. M. 
Jones. The school building was destroyed by fire in 1863, and not 
rebuilt until 1871. It was opened in 1873 under the presidency of 
the Rev. T. M. Jones, and continued under him with great success 
until the period of his death which occurred in 1889, when he was 
succeeded by the Rev. B. F. Dixon. 

The faculty is a full one, and the attendance of pupils is from 
150 to 200, representing several southern and western States. 


The Asheville Female College has been for more than half a cen- 
tury the leading institution of learning in the western part of the 
State. It possesses one of the best collegiate buildings in the State, 
located in a grove of seven acres almost in the heart of the City of 
Asheville. It maintains always a first-class faculty in all the depart- 
ments. Languages, Mathematics, Sciences, Literature, Music, Art, 
Physical Culture and Elocution. 

Rev. James Atkins, A. M., D. D., is the president of the college. 




The Lutheran College for the higher education of women has just 
been organized under the auspices of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod 
of North Carolina, and will be located at Charlotte. This institution 
is now in process of construction, and the plans provide for a f 50,000 
structure to be ready for the fall term, beginning in September, 1897, 
Rev. C. B. King is the President, and Professor C. L. T. Fisher, Vice- 


Many institutions in North Carolina, some private and some 
ranked in the reports of the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
under the above title, have merit sufficient to advance them into the 
class of colleges, but some of them being placed under the supervision 
of the public school authorities, can be considered only as they are 
above entitled. There are so many of them that they can only here 
be referred to briefly. 

Among them are : 


Soutiiern Business College. 

Hoyl's Academy 

Taylorsville High School.. 

Anson Institute 

Graded Institute 

Southerland Seminary... . 

Trinity School 

High School 

Horner's Academy, 

Ashe's Academy 

Ivipsie's Academy 

Young Men's Institute 

Female College 

Mt. St. Joseph Academy 

Normal School 

Ravenscroft School 

College , 

Davenport College 

Finley High School 

High School 

High School 

Catawba College 

Concordia College 

Claramont College 

St. Paul Seminary 


Academy . . . . 

M. F. College 

Agusta Seminary 

High School 


M. M. Ivcmmond. 
T. C. Hoyle 

D. A. McGregor 

J. A. McLauchlin 

J. W. Jones 

iSr. C. Hughes 

J. B. Newton 

W. D. Horner 

S. A. Ashe, Jr 

T. E. Lipsie 

Misses Dole and Miller. 
Rev. B, E. Atkins 

President Lawrence. 

Prof. M. A. Yost. 
J. D. Minick 

H. \V. Reinhart 

Rev. W. Q, A. Graham , 

Rev. J. cTciapp , 

Rev. R. A. Yoder 

S. P. Hatton 

A. B. Stalvey. 
CD. Graves. 
H. P. Bailey. . 
J. D. Hodges. 
C. G. Wells. . 

POST office; 




















Morehead Cit 












North Carolina and its Resources. 


High School 

Boys School 

Female College 

Mars Hill College 


Military School 

High School 


Military School 


Female College 


Fairview Institute 

Music School 


High School 


Lucknow Institute 


Female College 

High School 


High School 

High School 

M. and F. Academy 

M. and F. Academy 

Carolina Institute <. . 

Male Academy 

Female College 

Cape Fear Academy 

Seaboard and Roanoke Institute. 

Male Academy 

Male Academy 

Presbyterian High School 

High School 



Institute .^ 


Trinity High School 

High School 

High School 

High School 

Neave Music School 

Female Seminary 

Military School 

High School 

Male Academy 

Male Academy 

Wake Forest Academy 

Cary High School 


Military School 


Kinsey Seminary 

Vine Hill Female Academy 

Francis Hilliard School 


Bouie's Creek Academy 


W. B. Scarborough. . 

J. F. Brower 

J. A. Green . . 

Rev. A. E. Booth 

R. B. White 

J. H. Horner 

R. Iv. Madison 

P. Dalrvmple 

Ira T. Turlington 

J. R. Williams 

Dred Peacock 

J. H. and M. H. Holt. 

W. T. Whitsett 

J. C. Brockman 

J. M. AVeatherly 

C. B. Williams 

A. B. Justice 

Prof. J. C. Clifford. . . 

Miss ly. W. Long 

H. A. Grey 

W. S. Snipes 

J. H. Sledd. 

C. F. Siler 

A. A. Pippin 

M. A. Griffin 

Prof. Eure 

F. S. Wilkinson 

D. G. Gillespie 

Washington Catlett. 

W. C. Parker 


J. W. Fleetwood 

Herbert Bingham. . . 

Rev. Tilley 

S. I/. Sheep 

W. L. Foushee 

Rev. J. A. Beam 

W. H. Ragsdale 

D. M. Weatherly 

M. Hill 

Prof. &]Mrs. W. H. Neave. 

Miss Annie Hughes 

Capt. W. T. R. Bell 

Stockard & Phillips 

J. A. Gilmer 

Morson and Denson 

H. A. Chnppell 

Rev. C. W. Blanchard 

Hugh Long 

Col. T. J. Brewery 

Capt. J. Duckett 

John Graham 

Rev. J. A. Campbell. 





Mars Hill. 








Oak Ridge. 



High Point. 









San ford. 












Elizabeth City, 


Bethel Hill. 












Wake Forest 






Scotland Neck. 







Skyland Institute 

Cronly High School 

Paw Creek Academy 

Amherst Academy 

Gaston College 

Judson College 

Kinston College 

Littleton Female College. 
Mt. Amoena Seminary... 
North Carolina College. . 

St. Mary's College 

Shelby Female College.. . 

St. Paul Seminary 

Trenton High School 



Blowing Rock. 
Paw Creek 





Mt. Pleasant. 

Mt. Pleasant. 






Normal and Industrial 

State Normal 

State Normal 

State Normal 

State Normal , 

State Normal 

Bennett Seminary 

Waters Institute Rev. J. C. Brown. 

Christain Institute 


Elizabeth City. 









Recognizing the need of practical training for the young men of 
the colored race, and with a view to aid them in maintaining them- 
selves in the higher grades of industrial life, the I^egislature of North 
Carolina, at the session of 1891, enacted '* that a College of Agricul- 
ture and Mechanic Arts, be established for the colored race, to be 
located at some eligible place within the State, to be selected by the 
Board of Trustees " charged with the management of the institution. 
The corporate name is "The Agricultural and Mechanical College 
for the colored Race. " 

The selections of the location was open to the offers of the 
various communities desirous of the presence of the institution, and 
Greensboro became the successful bidder. 

In addition to the annual appropriation of $2,500, the State 
appropriates $5,000 a year for improvements. The United States, 
under the "Morrill Act" appropriates $7,500 to this institution. 
This money cannot be used for the construction of buildings or pur- 
chase of land. 

The main building contains offices and class rooms on first and 
second floors, and a large chapel on second floor. In the basement 

268 North Carolina and its Rksourcks. 

are kitchen and large dining room, also a fully equipped kitchen for 
instruction in cooking. This is a very handsome brick building with 
slate roof costing $16,000. It is heated by steam. There is a good 
library in this building which contains a fine selection of books 
which is being added to each year. 

The Mechanical building, which cost $7,000 was constructed 
during the summer and fall of 1895. It is the finest building of the 
kind in the southern states. The equipment is of the highest stand- 
ard. The blacksmith shop and the wood working department are 
complete. The chemical laboratory is temporarily located in this 
building and is complete in all its appointments. In this building are 
taught all the trades, and every branch of Mechanics. The building 
is heated by steam and lighted by gas. 

The Agricultural Department is fully equipped, with the excep- 
tion of barn for instruction, which will be built soon. There is a 
complete green-house connected with Botanical Department. 

A building in which is a steam laundry for instruction, as well as 
use, is in the rear of the main building. 

A large dormitory with rooms to accommodate one hundred 
students completes the number of buildings. This building is heated 
by hot water. Cost $8,000. 

The course of instruction in the college embraces English and 
Mathematics, and everything relating to the science of agriculture 
and the mechanic arts. 

Board of Trustees 1896— First Congressional District, Hugh 
Cole; Second Congressional District, W. W. Long; Third Con- 
gressional District, H. R. Tyson; Fourth Congressional District, T. 
F. Debnam; Fifth Congressional District, T. B. Keogh; Sixth Con- 
gressional District, J. B. Dudley; Seventh Congressional District, J. 
B. Holman; Eighth Congressional District, E. W. Gray; Ninth Con- 
gressional District, W. H. McClure; President, T. B. Keogh, Greens- 
boro, N. C; Secretary, J. B. Dudley, Wilmington, N. C; Treasurer, 
R. W. Murrey, Greensboro, N. C. 


This institution had its origin in the interest of the Rev. H. M. 
Tupper, D. D., of Manson, Mass., who was a private during the war, 
and, after the cessation of hostilities, was sent to Raleigh, N. C, as 
a missonary to the colored people, founding a church and opening 
the school which gradually expanded into the now extensive and 
well endowed Shaw University. The University owes its name to 

Education. 269 

the benefaction of Hon. Elijah Shaw, of Wales, Mass., who pledged 
to the aid of Dr. Tapper's movement the sum of $5,000. 

The property of the late General Daniel M. Barringer was soon 
afterwards purchased for $13,000. 

The University is now well established, with grounds, handsome 
and capacious buildings, all brick, with collegiate and missionary 
training buildings, boarding-houses, chapel, medical, pharmaceutical 
and law-school buildings and all the appliances for a University 

There is the Theological department, in which young men are 
trained for the ministry; the missionary training school in which 
christian women are trained for missionary service; the Leonard 
Medical school, with a fine building and a corps of competent 
teachers; the Law department, and the female department, pro- 
vided with a capacious four-story brick building; the whole with 
ample and shaded and ornamented grounds, giving token of a very 
remarkable change in the condition of the colored race. The value 
of the whole property is estimated at $175,000, free from encumbrance. 
Chas. F. Meserve, A. M., is successor of Rev. H. M. Tupper, who 
died in 1893. 

Among the students are representatives from most of the 
southern States, some from the northern States, two from the West 
Indies, four from South America, one from the gold coast of Africa 
and three from the Congo. 

The total attendance for the last term was 362. 


This is a normal school and collegiate institute for colored students 
of both sexes. It is under the control of the Episcopal Church of 
North Carolina, and was established out of the proceeds of a bequest 
of $40,000 made by a citizen of Pennsylvania. It is situated in the 
suburbs of Raleigh, and is provided with large four-story buildings for 
the accommodation of young men and girls. It also has a beautiful 
stone chapel, a stone library and a large industrial building. The 
school was established in 1 867 and has trained several hundred teachers. 
About twenty of the colored clergy of the Episcopal church received 
here their entire training. In 1894 the theological department was 
given up in order that greater attention might be paid to the collegiate 
studies of young men preparing for the ministry. 

There are now twelve teachers and 225 students. $7.00 per 
month will pay board and tuition, and all the students pay part of 
this by their own work. 

270 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The girls are carefully trained in cooking and sewing, and some 
of the young men in carpentering and brick-laying. The Rev. A. B. 
Hunter is Principal. 



This institution, named for John F. Slater, who bequeathed a 
million dollars for the industrial training of the negroes of the South, 
was established in 1892, through the interests and liberality of citizens 
of Winston and Salem, and was adopted by the State as a Normal 
school in 1895, the General Assembly appropriating $1,000 per annum 
towards its support. 

Its mission is for the industrial and higher training of the colored 
youth of both sexes, and has four departments of instruction, viz: — 
Normal, Grammar School, Primary and Industrial. Under the latter, 
are included Sewing, Cooking, Shoe-making, Agriculture, Wood- 
working, &c. 

A large number of pupils are in attendance, and many actual 
teachers are attending the Normal department. 

The site of the institution is Columbian Heights, a suburb of 
Winston-Salem. Its high and rolling elevation places it within easy 
reach of the mountain breezes, thus affording a climate pure and 
wholesome. Professor S. G. Atkins, Winston, is President. 

Of this institution, Col. A. K. McClure, of Philadelphia, said re- 
cently: "It promises most for the South of any institution I know 
anything about." 


This institution, originating in the North Carolina Conference of 
the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, is located at Salisbury. 

The institution was originally chartered under the name of Zion 
Wesley College — subsequently changed to Livingstone College. 
Beginning with three teachers and three pupils, there are now twelve 
instructors and two hundred and fifty students. The institution 
is conducted in four large buildings, with fifty acres attached, the 
whole property being valued at $100,000. Besides the main build- 
ing, there are seven or eight cottages for the use of the instructors. 
The school is owned, taught and controlled by negroes. The entire 
teaching force is paid by the colored people themselves. 

This institution is supported by the African Methodist Episcopal 
Zion Church. They appropriate $6,000 for its maintenance every 
year. In addition to this amount, the churches give $2,000 every 

Education. 271 

year as "Children's Day' ' money. The students pay towards their own 
support about $4,000 every year. 

The late president, Rev. J. C. Price, D. D., a full-blooded negro, 
a man of fine ability and with remarkable gifts of oratory, made the 
following statement: 

* ' As range of instruction we have three regular departments — 
preparatory, normal and classical. The last course is also termed 
college course, and the person completing the studies of this course, 
receives the degree of A. B. The special work of the normal, of 
course, is the preparation of teachers and for others who cannot or do 
not take the college course. Number of faculty twelve, including 

Our buildings are large and commodious. One building is 100x40 
and four stories high, brick; another is 60 x 40, four stories, brick; 
another is 91 x 38, three stories, frame; another is 66 x 36, two 
stories, brick. Students not admitted under twelve. Of 250 students, 
200 are from other towns and States. Last year we had seventeen 
States and seventy-five towns and cities represented in the institution. 
The sexes are about equally divided. The buildings have been donated 
the institution by such men as the late Hon. Wm. E. Dodge, Senator 
Eeland Stanford, Hon. C. P. Huntington and Mr. Stephen Ballard. 
We have more than a score of friends north and south, who give 
scholarships to the institution for the purpose of aiding (not support- 
ing) students." 

Dr. W. H. Goler succeeded Dr. Price as president, and has suc- 
cessfully conducted the affairs of the institution. Improvements have 
been made upon the grounds and buildings, and the College continues 
to improve in every respect. In addition to the Literary, there is a 
Theological course, which prepares young men for the Christian 
ministry, thus improving the manner of worship among the colored 



Biddle University, located at Charlotte, is a collegiate institu- 
tion, under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church, or, more specifi- 
cally, under the care of the Board of Missions for Freedmen of the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States, Pittsburg, Pa. The uni- 
versity occupies large and fine buildings in Charlotte, and is named 
in honor of Major Henry J. Biddle, of Philadelphia, whose widow is 
now one of its most liberal supporters. The objects of the institution 
are the education of colored preachers and teachers, and fitting pupils 
for the useful avocations of life. It has a Theological department, 
with a corps of five professors, with a course of three years; a College 

272 North Carolina and its REr.ouRCKS. 

course, with a corps of six professors and a course of four years, with 
the usual college designation of classes. The College course embraces 
two courses of study — the classical and the scientific — the students of 
the former receiving the degree of Bachelor of Arts on graduation; 
the other that of Bachelor of Science. There is also a Preparatory 
and Normal department, with its appropriate faculty; and Industrial 
department, in which the mechanical trades are taught, and the 
Home department, which embraces chiefly the domestic and internal 
order of the college buildings and grounds. The whole number of 
students for 1895-6 is 249, in all the departments, viz.: Theological, 
22; Collegiate, 62; Preparatory and Normal, 162. The president of 
University is the Rev. D. J. Sanders, D. D. 


Scotia Seminary, located at Concord, Cabarrus County, is 
an institution for colored girls, under the auspices of the Northern 
Presbyterian Church. The buildings are large and handsome. he 
object of the institution is to give an education to colored girls of a 
useful and practical kind, as well as a due share of the ornamental 
branches, and with special regard to religious and moral training. 
The Rev. D. J. Satterfield, D. D., is President. The patronage is 
good, as shown by the following general summary: 

Normal and Scientific Departments 12 

Grammar School " 141 

Preparatory " 132 

Total 285 

Boarding Pupils 281 

Day Scholars 4 

Total 285 


This institution, located at Franklinton, in Franklin county, 
furnishes free tuition for all colored youth residing in North Carolina 
and Virginia. It was founded in 1880 and was chartered in 1891. 
It has three courses of study — Scientific, Normal and Theological. 
It is supported by the Christain denomination, and is managed by a 
board of control elected by the American Christain Convention. 
There are three buildings situated in a beautiful oak grove — College 
building, Boarding hall and the President's residence. Its special 
work is fitting teachers and ministers for their work. 

The enrollment of students for 1895-96 was one hundred and 
fifty one. 

Education. 273 


North Carolina teachers are progressive, and to promote the 
best educational interests of the State an organization known as the 
North Carolina Teachers' Assembly was effected some j^ears ago. 
This has grown to such proportions both in interest and numbers, as 
to be really a great educational convention. It brings together 
annually the teachers from every section, and from every grade of 
school and college work. Questions relating to the methods of 
teaching or affecting the educational sj^stem of the State are dis- 
cussed with the view, alwaj's, of bettering the opportunities of the 
people for education. The State Normal and Industrial School 
for women was established largely through its efforts, and its 
influence has been recognized by legislative bodies in other educa- 
tional matters. The leading teachers of the State are its supporters. 
Formerly its meetings were regularlj^ held at Morehead, but a plan 
of alternation now adopted takes it to the mountains or seashore at 
the pleasure of the Association. Its officers have always been men 
of ability and leaders in educational thought. J. Y. Jo^^ner, Greens- 
boro, is President, W. L. Poteat, Wake Forest, Vice-President, and 
Charles J. Parker, Raleigh, Secretary. 


The geographical location and the geological formation of the State 
are peculiarly adapted to the production of those conditions which make 
for health in general. As to climate, we occupy the vantage-ground 
of the golden mean, inclining somewhat to the warmer side. It is 
neither too hot nor too cold. While we have a generous summer, 
long enough to mature two crops of many kinds, the thermometer 
does not rise as high as it often does far to the northward of us, and 
the summer temperature is not usually oppressive. We also have a 
sufficiency of winter, with occasional light snows, and once in every 
few j^ears, ice thick enough to skate on in safety, and wdth rain and 
dark days, but on the whole it is bright and sunshiny. The late 
Bishop lyyman, who lived many years in Ital}'-, said that the climate 
of Raleigh was superior to that of Florence — more sunshine in it. Our 
winters are just long enough and severe enough to restore the snap and 
vigor and elasticity that ma}^ have been weakened by the summer — 
we are enabled to fully recoup any physical w' astes attributable to long 


274 North Carolina and its Resources. 

continued heat. The conditions, so far as they relate to the proportion 
of heat and cold, are just those which, while permitting easy and 
comfortable living from the opportunites afforded for work throughout 
the entire year — the special advantage of the South — do not enervate 
and weaken the desire and power of work. In a word, the conditions 
are exactly suited to the healthful and pleasant existence of the 
average man. 

Although it is not as dry as it is in some sections of our country, 
still in our long-leaf pine, sand-hill region, where the porus soil takes 
up the water so rapidly that one can walk dry-shod in a half-hour 
after the heaviest rain, it is dry enough for the consumptive, and yet 
he can enjoy the sight and smell of the " blessed rain from heaven," 
and be lulled to sleep by its patter on the roof. Neither can we boast 
so great elevation as some other localities, but in the matter of alti- 
tude we have sufl&cient variety, from the sea-level to Mitchell's Peak 
of nearly 7,000 feet, to suit any constitution. Roan mountain, which 
it is interesting to know has a greater variety of flora between its 
summit and half-way to its base than the whole continent of Europe, is 
noted for the relief its rare pure air affords to the sufferer from hay- 
fever. For consumptive, the high mountain plateau of Asheville and 
vicinity, including particularly, the country about Highlands and 
Blowing Rock, affords very favorable conditions. To those of this 
class who do not bear high altitudes well, the pure dry air of 
the pine-clad sand-hills, of Moore and adjoining counties, of which 
Southern Pines is the centre, often proves a healing balm. It is said 
by many who have tried the pine-country further south and that of our 
State, both, that they prefer the latter because the climate is not so 

Although it must, in candor, be said that malarial diseases occur 
in certain sections of the State — as they do in many favored sections 
of higher latitude — they are of a milder type, less malignant than in 
warmer regions. This class of diseases has, however, been robbed of 
its terrors since the recent demonstration of the fact that they are 
chiefly, if not entirely, attributable to the drinking of surface water 
and not to bad air. (For evidence on this point apply to the Secre- 
tary of the State Board of Health, at Raleigh, for a copy of the 
health pamphlet on ' ' Drinking Water in its Relation to Malarial dis- 
eases.") It is now practically in the power of every person to 
protect himself from malaria, if he desires to do so by confining him- 
self to the water of cisterns and deep bored wells. And it is to be 
noted as an interesting fact that some of the more serious and fatal 
diseases common to every section of the globe, as typhoid fever, for 





WW % 

I'm, .--.vy,/,''^ ^u — ^ 


HeaIvTh. 275 

example, are of a milder type and less deadly than in other localities 
notfequented by \hQ Plasmodium malariae. 

In this day of scientific accuracy, an appeal to carefully collated 
facts is desirable. Upon turning to the mortuary tables of the Fifth 
Biennial Report of the State Board of Health, we find that the aver- 
age total death-rate in the larger cities and towns where the records 
are carefully kept is 15.5 per thousand — for the whites 12.5, and for 
the colored 20. It is interesting to note that in those located in the 
so-called malarious section the death-rate is actually less than the 
average for the whole number. 

The machinery provided by the State for protecting the 
health of its citizens, consists of a State Board and of County 
Superintendents of Health — to say nothing of municipal organi- 
zations for that purpose. The former has general supervision of 
the sanitary interests of the people, and the latter are charged 
with the particular care of those in their respective counties. Any 
special information that may be desired can be obtained by addressing 
the Secretary of the State Board at Raleigh. 


Perhaps this state, with all its advantages of health, climate, soil 
and natural resource, stands as little in need of the health-giving 
waters so widely distributed by nature's munificent hand, as any on 
the continent. But it seems that the scriptural assertion that "unto 
every one that hath shall be given," holds good with North Caro- 
lina. Certainly most all parts of the State boast of some mineral 
spring whose waters bring health by assisting nature in restoring the 
afflicted. True, these are mostly of local fame, but there are some, 
which, without disparagement to the others, may be briefly alluded 
to because of accessibility and that indispensible desideratum — good 

Hot Springs. 

Some thirty-seven miles west of Asheville, on the French Broad 
river, is located the Hot Springs, known for nearly a century as 
Warm Springs, and famed for the virtue of its thermal waters. The 
waters bubble in bold volume near the river at a temperature varying 
from 98° to 104°, and it is claimed are very effective in baths and for 
drinking, for rheumatism, gout, nervous prostration, dyspepsia and in 
some forms of malarial trouble. 

The location on the Western North Carolina railroad, a branch of 
the Southern, is most desirable; the springs are in a beautiful valley 
nearly a mile in width by three or four miles in length, surrounded 

276 North Caroi^ina and its Resource;s. 

by towering mountains, save where ttie river cuts its v/ay. All the 
conveniences of modern fashionable hotels are provided. The bathing 
facilities are ample and lavish. It is the resort of fashion and wealth 
as well as the afflicted. 

Haywood Whitb Sulphur Springs. 

Within a fraction of a mile from the town of Waynesville on 
the Murphy branch of the Western North Carolina railroad, is the 
charmingly located White Sulphur Springs. The water is distinctly 
sulphur, is cool and not unpleasant to the taste, and is claimed to be 
ef&cient when taken fresh from the spring, in troubles requiring either 
diuretic or diaphoretic treatment. It is not a portable water. One of the 
chief (aside from the beneficent water) pleasures of a visit to this 
resort is the fine climate and unsurpassed scenery. The beauties of 
Richland creek alone would fill a volume on art, while the Balsams, 
more than 6,000 feet in height, rise in majestic grandeur on all sides. 
The hotel is well equipped to entertain the guests who flock to its 
hospitable board each season. And in this respect the town of 
Waynesville divides the honors, as it is a much frequented resort. 

Glkn Ai,pine; Springs. 

Beautifully situated among the South mountains in Burke county 
and some eleven miles from Morgan ton, and which may also be 
reached from Glen Alpine station on the Western North Carolina 
railroad, is the Glen Alpine Springs. The water contains quite a 
variety of beneficial mineral, such as potassium and sodium sulphate, 
calcium and magnesium carbonate, carbonate of iron, &c. There a 
small but comfortable hotel awaits the guests. 

Connelly Springs. 

This favorite resort is ten miles west of Hickory, at Connelly sta- 
tion, on the Western North Carolina railroad. It has been 
growing in popularity for a number of years, and to its chalybeate 
waters are attributed many virtues, being diuretic in effect, as well as 
efi&cacious in dyspepsia and like troubles. The hotel is large and 
affords many comforts and conveniences. It is within a few yards of 
the railroad track, and far enough west to afford a pleasant summer 
climate for its large patronage. 

Health. 277 

Sparkling Catawba Springs. 

Bigtit miles north from Hickory, on the Western North Carolina, 
and Chester and Lenoir railroads, situate in a vast grove of forest 
trees, may be found the ever popular Sparkling Catawba Springs, 
The country surrounding the springs is beautiful, partly wooded and 
partly in field and orchard, affording luscious fruits in season. 

"The hotel accommodations are very full, and the Springs have 
maintained good repute for excellence of fare. The waters of the 
Springs embrace blue and white sulphur, and chalybeate, and, from 
the known benefit derived by well-attested cures in their use as an 
alterative and tonic influence over the lymphatic and secretive glands 
they are unsurpassed, and never fail to strengthen the gastric juices 
of the stomach, and increase the appetite, assist the digestion and 
promote the assimilation of food, thereby imparting tone and health 
to the person. By the use of these mineral waters, diseases of the 
liver, dyspepsia, vertigo, neuralgia, ophthalmia or sore eyes, paraly- 
sis, spinal affection, rheumatism, scrofula, gravel, diabetes, kidney 
and urinary diseases, are greatly relieved." 

Barium Springs. 

A few miles from Statesville, in Iredell county, is situated, 
as formerly known, the "Poison Spring." It is now called the Barium 
Spring. Analyses show that it contains, in varying proportions, 
barium, chloride and sulphate, iron, soda, sulphur, magnesia and 
phosphoric acid, in such combinations as to render it a curative and 
tonic agent, the equal of any mineral water known. It has no visible 
outflow, and the water remains at a constant level, never freezes, 
never stagnates, and it will keep pure and retain its curative effi- 
ciency indefinitely. These remarkable springs were well known to the 
Indians and their waters were so highly esteemed by them for their 
potent curative properties that they made the locality a regular ren- 
dezvous, as is proven by tradition and by numerous evidences of their 
former occupation. 

There is no developement of the locality as a resort, but the 
Presbyterian Orphanage is located near the spring. It is a remark- 
ably healthy locality. 

Moore Spring. 

Not far from Danbury, in Stokes county, is situate the Moore 
Spring, which is said to be remarkable for its efficacy in the treat- 
ment of cutaneous affections and blood impurities. It is not a resort, 
but is remarkable from the mineral contents of its waters. Chemists 

278 North CaroivIna and its Resources. 

report potassium and sodium sulphates, sodium chloride and phos- 
phate, calcium and magnesium carbonates in rather astonishing 

Piedmont Springs. 
Also in Stokes county, near Danbury, are to be found the Pied- 
mont Springs, which are in high repute, as a tonic and alterative 
water. There is a good hotel large enough to accommodate the 
visitors annually seeking the elevated climate and curative waters. 

Bromine- Arsenic Springs. 
This mineral spring is located at Grumpier Post Office, in Ashe 
county, on north fork of New river, and in a picturesque, healthy 
climate. The water, as shown by analysis, contains beside the usual 
ingredients sodium arseniate and sodium bromide — hence the name. 
It is a portable water and is recommended for eczema, nausea, 
debility, dyspepsia, rheumatism and all blood, skin, stomach, kidney 
and nervous complaints. A hotel which will accommodate an hun- 
dred guests, royal porcelain baths and a good table await the guests. 
The water is sold in many parts of the United States. The springs 
are reached only by hacks or private conveyance over good mountain 
roads from the Virginia side and from points on the Western North 
Carolina branch of the Southern railroad in North Carolina. 

Cleveland Springs. 
These are about two miles from Shelby, which place is reached 
both by the Carolina Central and the Three C's roads, and are 
situated in a region of grandly rolling hills. The hotel accommoda- 
tions are ample and agreeable in all particulars, and the resort to these 
springs is large. The springs are many and of varied character, the 
waters flowing in large volume. In the midst of its verdant hills and 
shady groves flow waters from a dozen springs, each one containing 
mineral qualities varying in their combinations and effects to such a 
degree that for the treatment of certain diseases the White Sulphur is 
the panacea; for some others the Red Sulphur and Iodine are required; 
for others the Chalybeate is best suited, whilst for others the best 
results are obtained by drinking the waters of several alternately- 
The ailments which seem to be mostly under the control of these 
waters are dyspepsia, rheumatism, malarial troubles, insomnia, etc. 

Lincoln Lithia Springs. 
These springs are located one mile from the town of lyincolnton 
on the Seaboard Air Line railroad, and in the Piedmont Plateau 
region of the State, and surrounded by a beautiful undulating farm 

Health. 279 

country noted for its salubrious climate. The spring is bold, and the 
waters contain, as shown by analyses, in each gallon of 277 cubic 
inches, 2.81 grains bicarbonate of lithia, besides sulphate of potash 
and lime, and bicarbonates of iron, lime, magnesia and soda. It is 
noted among the better lithia waters of the country, and is highly 
recommended in the treatment of Bright's disease, bladder and kidney 
troubles, gout, rheumatism, dyspepsia and nervous diseases. It is 
a portable water and has a wide distribution, and it is highly praised 
by those who have tested its virtues. The L,incoln L^ithia Inn is a 
new hotel with modern appointments ; is well kept and guests find in 
it a pleasant environment. In the autumn and winter months guests 
may find abundant quail shooting in vicinage. 

EivIwErbee; Springs. 
These springs are situated about twelve miles north of Rocking- 
ham in Richmond county, and are locally much valued. The waters 
have an abundant flow and consist largely of iron and sulphur in their 
mineral contents. Remarkable as it may seem, the waters of this 
resort are reported as an effective remedy for hay fever. While the 
patients suffering from this malady have been few, there is no failure 
to cure recorded against the springs. 

Jackson Springs. 
This health resort is situated in Moore county, four miles from 
West End, on the Aberdeen and West End railroad, and some fif- 
teen miles west of Southern Pines. The flow of the springs form a 
rivulet of clear, cool water. The value of the springs "as a remedy 
for and cure of indigestion in all its forms, particularly dyspepsia 
and diarrhoeal diseases, kidney and bladder troubles, dropsy, cystitis 
and all debilitating causes is well-known." The location of the 
hotel, which is entirely comfortable, near the springs, is in the heart 
of the long-leaf pine and the deep sand section of the State, the 
natural sanitarium for those afflicted with lung diseases, makes the 
springs all the more valuable. The healing influence of inhaling the 
odors of the long-leaf pine and living in and breathing the pure atmos- 
phere of this deep sand drainage is not to be underestimated. 

Red Springs. 
In Robeson county, on the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley 
railroad, at a station bearing its name, are located the Red Springs 
the medicinal virtue of whose waters has been known for an 
hundred years. There are two springs, both are strongly chalybeate, 
showing respectively 1.35 and 1.90 per cent, of bicarbonate of iron, 

28o North Carolina and it.'s Resources. 

■ . ^ 

while their other mineral contents are desirable in a health water. 
The Hotel Townsent is open all the year, is new and modern in its 
appointments, and is beautifully located in a grove of trees. The 
surrounding country and streams afford sport during winter and 
summer with gun and rod to guests who are able or inclined to take 
the exercise. 

Panacea Springs. 

These celebrated springs are situated near I^ittleton, on the 
Raleigh and Gaston branch of the Seaboard Air I^ine railroad. 
There is a good hotel on the premises, but as the water is portable, 
its patronage is very nearly local. 

The waters have only become widely. known during the past few 
years, but have already acquired fame at home and abroad. The 
claims for efl&cacy in many maladies are very extensive, but appear 
to be well sustained. For dyspepsia they are said to be very bene- 
ficial; also for chronic diarrhoea, scrofula, kidney troubles and other 
deseases. The waters lose none of their virtues by transportation, 
and are sold by the drug stores throughout this and the adjoining 

The Seven Springs. 

They are as remarkable for their locality and the nature of their 
surroundings as for their genuine virtues. They are in the south- 
east corner of Wayne county, eighteen miles from both Kinston and 
Goldsboro, but most readily and quickly reached from lyaGrange, on 
the Atlantic and North Carolina railroad, seven miles north of the 
springs. The springs lie almost immediately on the banks of the 
Neuse river. 

"The springs, as their title implies, are seven in number, all bubb- 
ling up in clear, strong volume, in close contiguity and enclosed and 
encased in a spring-house of remarkably limited though absolutely 
convenient dimensions. The waters are as different in their qualities 
as they are in their numbers, and prove effective in malarial diseases, 
indigestion, insomnia, kidney troubles, including Bright's disease, 
weakness and inflammation of the eyes, loss of appetite, etc. These 
springs have been known for many years, and have been the 
resort of the surrounding country, but only recently have they 
become known to the more distant public. A good and capacious 
hotel now makes it practicable to distribute their benefits among a 
much larger circle of health-seekers. " 


Seaside Resorts. 


Nag's Head. 

This noted seaside resort is in Dare county, just opposite Manteo, 
on Roanoke Island. It is annually frequented by large numbers of 
visitors who lave in the blue waters of mother ocean and feast upon 
its gastronomic rarities. Mr. Frank Vaughn says of this resort: " It 
is in the midst of a cluster of high sand hills, with ocean on one side 
and sound on the other, the two but half a mile apart, is one of the 
most delightful places for summer residence in the State. From the 
tops of the bald, 5'ellow hills, the scenes on a clear summer evening, 
at the sunsetting are glorious in the extreme. Away in the east, 
reaches the rolling, moaning sea; in the west, the red sun sinking 
down into the waters of Albemarle, and on the south, Roanoke Sound 
and historic Roanoke Island, green and beautiful in the midst." 

New Bern. 

New Bern has held its enviable place as a social center ever since 
the early colonial days. It is now becoming a winter resort. Mr. 
Charles Hallock, at present chief editor of the new " Western Field 
& Stream," published at St. Paul, says: 

"During my six consecutive winters at New Bern, I have 
observed that when the winter was at all stormy in that locality, it 
was sure to be reported very much worse in the regions adjacent, 
by the Signal Service. For instance, if we had a slight flurry of 
snow in New Bern, there would be a severe blizzard northwards, 
extending over a wide area of country, or, if a hurricane came up 
from the tropical seas, wrecking and inundating the Georgia and 
South Carolina coasts, its force would be spent before it reached here, 
and we would get only the feather edge of it. If the weather is at all 
foul in this section, at any season, it is a short duration. The rain- 
fall is light in winter and cloudiness the exception. Quiescence is 
the normal condition, and there is seldom a meteorological disturbance. 

"From these observations, I make the unavoidable deduction that 
New Bern has the most equable winter climate on the coast; and is 
therefore a desirable place for invalids as well as those merely in quest 
of warm and sunny weather. Visitors, who come each year in 
increasing numbers, express themselves surprised and delighted. Win- 
ter is the most favorable season for j^achting. There is a profusion 
of ivy, magnolia and other glossy leaved evergreens, and some kinds 
of flowers persist in blooming all the winter long. Violets are always 

282 North Carolina and its Resources. 

in evidence. Sportsmen find shooting and fishing in variety. Mac- 
admized roads afford pleasant ways for carriages and bicycles. The 
people are sociable and hospitable, and the colored people as civil as 
those whom they like to Imitate. 

"I do not see what it is to prevent New Bern from becoming 
first choice of all who go south for the winter; and it is claimed by 
residents to be equally delightful in summer." 

Beaufort and Morehead. 

The proximity of Beaufort and Morehead City together with the 
near resemblance of their topographical conditions renders a separate 
description of these two healthful watering places unnecessary. In 
distance apart they are about two miles, and about the same distance 
from the Atlantic Ocean, and about twelve miles northwest from Cape 
Lookout; in latitude 34.75 north and longitude 0.50 east from 
Washington. They are situated in Carteret county, on the extreme 
eastern border of the mainland, the shores of which are washed by 
the waters of Bogue sound. 

Morehead is built upon a point of land reaching out into the 
sound, which gives it a delightful exposure to the summer breezes 
from almost every direction. It is immediately on the line of the 
Atlantic and North Carolina railway near its eastern terminus, and 
on this account is the more accessible to visitors. 

Beaufort is separated from the terminus of the railroad in a direct 
line, by an arm of the sound and is reached from this direction by 
ferryboats, which make close connection with all the trains. Beau- 
fort is preferred by some on account of the ocean view, and more 
direct breeze. 

The soil upon which these places stand is a white sand free from 
mud or dust. The water supplied from cisterns and bored wells is 
good, and the air, coming as it does during the summer months, 
almost constantly from the Atlantic charged with ozone is as fine as 
can be found on the face of the globe. 

Fish and game abound in the neighboring waters and forests 
which are easily accessible to sportsmen. 

The boating and bathing facilities are rarely excelled in any 
other watering place, the beach for surf bathing being exceptionally 

These places are rapidly growing in popularity and are frequented 
by large numbers of most agreeable visitors every year. The hotel 
accommodations are ample. 




Seaside Resorts. 283. 


No place in North Carolina, or the South, possesses so many- 
natural advantages as an all-the-j-ear watering place, as Southport. 
Its summers have no extreme heats, its winters have no snows, and 
its occasional low temperatures are of short duration, dry and of a 
bracing character. The mean temperature is 77 degrees for summer 
and 47 degrees for winter. 

The attractions in and near Southport are of a kind to interest 
every class of tourists, from the sportsman to the antiquary. Fish- 
ing is good in everj' month, and deer and wild fowl are plentiful in 
the winter season. For the invalid, the climate is unsurpassed, and 
outdoor recreation can be indulged in almost uninterruptedly, as the 
ground is alwa3's dry, the drainage being sufficient to carry off and 
prevent any standing water; the town lying twent}^ to thirty feet 
above sea level. 

The tourist at Southport has many points of interest to visit 
within a short distance. Fort Caswell, less than two miles away 
across the harbor is one of the best preserved, interesting and histori- 
cal ruins in the South. Smith's Island less than four miles across 
the harbor, is a wonderful sub-tropical island, with palmettoes upon 
it thirty and fort}^ feet in height. The upper portion of it is covered 
with a dense growth of plants and trees, and the waters around it 
abound in terrapin and fish. Fort Fisher, five miles up the Cape Fear 
river is a historical spot; it may easily be reached from Southport. 
These are a few of the most noted places, there being a number more 
well worth visiting. 

The town of Southport has pleasant walks; its live oaks give a 
fine shade during the summer months and preserve their green ap- 
pearance during the winter. Good bathing may be had along the 
town front, and by a short sail to the ocean beaches. 

Carolina Beach. 
Carolina Beach is a summer seaside resort reached by boat and 
rail from Wilmington, about an hour's ride from that city, and is 
situated on a fine stretch of sandy beach directly facing the Atlantic 
Ocean. It is the favorite resort during the summer months for 
families who own or rent cottages. Its bathing is very fine, and the 
celebrated "Pig fish" is caught in countless numbers along the shore. 
In the season a hotel is open for the accommodation of guests. 

Wrightsville, or Wrightsville sound, is eight miles east from 
Wilmington, and in full view of the Atlantic Ocean one mile distant 

284 North Caroi^ina and its Rejsources. 

across the sound. Between the sound and the Ocean is Wrightsville 
beach, a narrow strip of sand two hundred yards wide. The Sea- 
coast railroad runs from Wilmington to Wrightsville, thence across 
the sound and along the beach for two miles. In winter there are 
four trains a day from Wilmington, and during the summer there are 
from ten to twenty trains daily. There is a free delivery of mail 
twice a day, and telephone and telegraph communication with 

The surf at Wrightsville is within a few feet of where the cars 
stop, and is nearer by rail to persons in Goldsboro, Raleigh, Durham, 
Greensboro, Charlotte and all points in the interior of the State west 
of the W. & W. Railroad, than that of any other watering place in 
the State. The still water bathing in this sound is within two hun- 
dred yards of the surf. 

The climate at Wrightsville and the Beach is exceptionally fine 
for summer or winter residence. The fishing, too, is fine, and there 
is always at the disposal of sportsmen and pleasure parties, a number 
of "sharpies" manned by experienced sailors ready to take them 
upon the waters of the sound, or outside upon the Ocean. 

The sound may be safely entered from the Ocean through 
Wrightsville Inlet. Many pleasure yachts passing to and from 
northern and southern ports enter here and find safe anchorage 
during stormy weather - 

At Wrightsville and at the Beach there are fully 150 cottages, 
hotels and boarding houses. At least 100 families spend the summer 
here, and during the months of June, July and August, it has a large 
number of visitors. 

Many of the cottages are not only costly and commodious, but 
they are striking models of beauty and convenience. 

On the beach the water supply comes from an artesian well of 
pure cool water. 


"Our Pines are trees of healing." 

North Carolina has a large region of piny-woods noted as a resort 
for those suffering from throat, lung and kindred diseases. The heal- 
ing touch of nature, though seeming slow, is yet more cunning than 
science. Once disease takes hold in the harsher northern climates, the 
suff'erer must find a milder and more benignant sky, and find in its 
genial, dry and invigorating air a balm to heal. There are healing 

Piny-Woods Resorts. 285 

virtues in the balsamic breath of the long leaf pine. Professor 
Schrieber of Vienna, states: "that turpentine exhaled from the pine 
is the most effective agent known for converting the oxygen of the 
air into ozone," and Mr. Tufts in his booklet, says: "Ozonized 
oxygen is a powerful antiseptic and disinfectant. Its presence in the 
atmosphere gives the latter a remarkably healing quality for diseased 
throat and lungs." Thus we have the secret which brings health and 
hope to the pilgrims to our Mecca of Pines. 

Southern Pines. 

Among the piny-resorts of North Carolina, Southern Pines justly 
ranks first, not only because it was the first established, but because 
of the excellent location and the salubrious, invigorating and health 
giving air, laden with the healing fragrance of the "bled" pines. 
This favorite resort is located in Moore county, near the central part 
of the State, and on the Seaboard Air lyine railroad. It is on the cul- 
mination of an immense sandy ridge, running in a northeast and south- 
west direction through the State, and traceable in its gradually 
diminished elevations and characteristics in several of the states to 
the southward. lyocally, this is known as "Shaw's Ridge," the name 
coming from a prominent family long resident here. The waters fall- 
ing upon the roof of the old Shaw homestead divide and find their 
ways to the Little and Pee Dee rivers, each some twelve or fifteen 
miles distant. This ridge and all the adjacent country for many miles 
is practically covered with the long leaf pine — Pinus palustris, Mill — 
which constitutes the chief forest growth of the region. The selection 
of this dry, elevated ridge, pointed out by the late Professor Kerr, 
State Geologist, as a health resort met the happy medium, in climate 
being located exactly in the center of the temperate zone. Those in 
search of health or pleasure are here exempt from the rigors of the 
north and west, and are also free from the enervating influences of 
locations in the more southern and warmer latitudes. 

Dr. G. H. Sadelson, the first to adopt the region as a home, says: 
"A little more than fifteen years ago, in quest of health, I was direct- 
ed to this section by the late State Geologist, Professor W. C. Kerr, 
as the highest, dryest section in the whole long leaf pine belt. I came, 
and getting off the train at Manly, the then nearest point to "Shaw's 
Ridge," I found myself half shoe deep in clean sand and surrounded 
by a dense pine forest, and breathed an air saturated and made grate- 
fully fragrant by the balsamic odor of the turpentine pine. Having 
made remarkable improvement in a short time, I examined the sur- 
rounding country including "Shaw's Ridge;" making almost daily 

286 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

journeys, mostly on foot, and was so favorably impressed with its 
natural sanitary advantages that I expressed my views through the 
press, at the same time giving my views to Professor Kerr, with whom 
I corresponded." At that time the State Geologist was employed by 
the State Board of Agriculture, and reported to it at its regular meet- 
ing. The Board was impressed with the facts presented by the State 
Geologist, supplemented and amplified by the correspondence of Dr. 
Sadelson, and placed the matter in the hands of its then Immigration 
Agent, Mr. J. T. Patrick, Continuing, Dr. Sadelson, speaking of the 
further effort of the Board's Agent, says: "Mr. Patrick, whose busi- 
ness it was to induce immigration and capital into the State, after 
some correspondence and many interviews developed the plan of 
Southern Pines, and securing an appropriation from the State Board 
of Agriculture, which was afterwards supplemented by citizens of this 
section, enough was secured to survey a tract of about 800 acres exactly 
on the top of 'Shaw's Ridge.' This was the starting point, the found- 
ation of the Southern Pines of to-day. It is now fully established 
among the health resorts of the United States, and is well and favor- 
ably known to the medical profession of this great country. People 
from all parts of the United States visit the place, on the advice of 
physicians, and year by year sees its expansion; the boarding houses 
giving way to hotels, and the hotels to the more pretentious 'Inns.' 
There are churches, stores, bakeries, shops and dwellings — in fact a 
town, and a handsome one at that — whose door yards are neatly kept, 
nearly all making good displays of flowers, shrubs and decorative 
plants. Two good church buildings are completed and two more are 
to be built soon; there are five good hotels and half a dozen boarding 
houses, besides a goodly number of furnished cottages for rent to those 
preferring light house-keeping. Two private schools are well patron- 
ized." The Seaboard Air I^ine railroad has encouraged, fostered and 
promoted the growth and development of Southern Pines and should 
not be omitted even in so brief a sketch as this must be of this resort. 
Southern Pines is within twenty-two hours of New York city. 


" Rest " the pines say to the pale health seeker, " the 
noises and the cares that have infested thy life else- 
where come not here. Rest, and be healed by day. 
Sleep, and be healed by night. Night and day we will 
not fail to encompass thee with life giving influences." 

The magic wand of wealth and philanthropy, in the hands of 
Mr. J. W. Tufts, of Boston, Mass., has caused to spring from the 
virgin forest of Moore county, a beautifully built city, as a resort for 

Piny- Woods Resorts. 287 

the afflicted. Five thousand acres are included in the holding, and 
on it has been laid out picturesque Pinehurst. The celebrated land- 
scape artist, Frederick Law Olmstead, was employed, and his taste 
and skill are amply displayed in the work at this resort. The Board 
of Agriculture also rendered assistance in locating this enterprise. 
As its field is rather unique in that its philanthropic originator has 
built with a view of relieving the afflicted with small means, as well 
as the more fortunate, financiallj', it will be worth while to reproduce 
a paragraph from his little book: " Pinehurst is not intended to be a 
sanitarium for hopeless invalids. It has no hospital features. It is a 
bright cheery village, artisticalh- laid out, possessed of all modem 
comforts and conveniences, carefull}- controlled so as to make its 
sanitary and other attractive conditions permanent . It invites those 
in whom disease has not progressed so far as to render recover}' im- 
possible. To such, whether of large or small means, it offers 
advantages absolutely unequalled." 

Pinehurst is located six miles from Southern Pines, on the Sea- 
board Air Line railroad, and four miles from Aberdeen, on the Aberdeen 
and West End railroad. An electric car line connects Southern 
Pines with Pinehurst. The Holly Inn, new, modern in all appoint- 
ments, is the chief hostelry at Pinehurst. The water is exceptionally 
fine, being supplied from a system of deep bored walls. 


"I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, 
from -vrhence cometh my help." 

How many of us, when beset with cares, and wearied by the 
trifles which pull us down as if they fain would bury us in the Valley 
where we live, have thought of these words and turned to look away 
to where the mountains couchant and strong seem from afar to an- 
swer our imspoken wish with profflsr of welcome and peace. 

How mighty and helpful they are, these circling hills, there is 
no fitful show of power about them such as wind and plain and sea 
afflord; day and night, sunshine and storm find them and leave them 
just as they were thousands of 3'ears ago. Calm and aloft thej' call us 
from their solemn heights, they bid us trust ourselves to their great 
embrace, to breathe their serene and unvexed air, to dwell amid the 
silences of deep-bosomed clefts, and, along their vast reaches, more and 
more lordly as we look, over many degrees of latitude and longitude, 
to forget the slighter measures of the lands and life below. 

288 North Carolina and its Resources. 

De Quincey fiercely attacked the use of the word "magnificent," 
common in his day, with names of ordinary things, "great-making" 
is the meaning he said, and to speak of jewels, dinners, horses, men 
or women in that way, is absurd. Nothing is worthy of this great 
epithet that does not ennoble or uplift the beholder or the hearer; a 
drama of Shakespear's, the book of Job, the Iliad, a sight of the sea 
in its mood or a splendid sunset, may deserve the adjective. We 
who have lived among them do not need the hint of David to know 
that of all material works of God none better deserve to be called 
magnificent, none so easily bring strength, so take to themselves the 
half-dead man and re-create him, as the mountains of our West. But 
they do not welcome an abrupt approach, nor unveil their secrets to 
the rude adventurer; one should essay them with reverent tread and 
let their first study be as they show cloud-like against the distant 
sky. Little by little let the contrast grown between their billowy 
ranges, shutting in half the horizon, and the tame level of the cham- 
paign whence we gaze. Then as we trace their grand contour north 
and west, noting how with each mile and hour of our advance they 
tower yet higher before us, as peak detaches itself from range and 
ranges, taking distance, separate themselves one from another, stretch- 
ing over State after State only to fade away, yet dominant on the 
furtherst verge, we may begin to claim the freedom of the hills, enroll 
ourselves among the clients of these mighty patrons and seek to make 
their mysteries our own. 

The tourist from the north or east gets his first view of the 
mountains from Hickory, Catawba county, at the junction of the 
Western North Carolina with the Narrow-gauge railroad leading from 
Chester, S. C, to Lenoir. 


a vigorous town, is hardly a mountain resort, but is the gate-way to 
one of the most attractive, borrowing from the hills above and the 
plains below qualities of scenery, climate and people which make it, 
its denizens and surroundings typical of both. 

Unsurpassed for dryness, for it lies between the wet belts of 
summit and lowlands, sunshine and salubrity, its air supplied from 
the great cataract falling down from the hills to be met and tempered 
by the warmer currents from the south; its population combining the 
strength of the sterner with the polish of the milder sections, it is a 
place where one may well spend some days before going higher to 
accustom himself to the sight of the mountains, and the effect of 
the mild yet bracing atmosphere. 


Mountain Resorts. 289 

Fifteen hundred feet above sea level it has a country about it 
that yearly attracts many sportsmen for quail shooting. It also 
boasts of one of the most charming hostelries in the land, Hickory Inn, 
accommodating 150 guests and with all the modern conveniences. The 
piazzas are broad and sheltered, and the lofty tower at the top of the 
building looks out upon the great mountain system. One hour by 
rail brings the tourist to 


This prettj^ town marks the western terminus of the Chester and 
Lenoir railroad, and here the tourist forsaking the cinders and dust 
of the railroad takes private conveyance for the resorts on the 
mountain taps, now visably piled in great blue heaps against the 
western sky. This little town, filled with cultured, hospitable 
people, and nestling close to the mountains, is a charming half way 
place. It is not so cool as the mountains; has good markets, good 
hotels and boarding houses, good livery and a hearty welcome to the 
traveller. A few weeks of rest and recreation can be spent here. 
Indeed, its climate is preferred by those who find the mountain 
resorts too cold. But those bent on the glorious scenes from the 
crest of the Blue Ridge, take carriage, and in a few hours over a fine 
turn-pike of twenty miles reach the goal. 

Blowing Rock. 

is the name generally applied to designate the mountain resort. But 
there are two ends to the resort, and each having a post-office, they 
are separated in name; thus the Green Park and Blowing Rock 
contingents of the same straggling village, more than two miles in 
length, and along this distance are scattered hotels, churches, cotta- 
ges, stores, livery stables, &c. 

From Blowing Rock one of those enormous spurs, branching off 
from the Ridge like ribs from a back-bone, reaches to the sea below 
Georgetown, S. C. Its whole route can be travelled without crossing 
any natural water course, from the highest point at Blowing Rock 
between the tributaries of the Catawba or San tee system on the west 
and the Yadkin and Pee Dee system on the east. Up along this spur, 
crossing and recrossing, now on its narrow ridge, now on one of its 
sloping sides, the turnpike runs giving frequent glimpses of the 
famous Jonas Ridge peaks, Hawksbill and Table Rock to the left, 
and as far as Pilot mountain in Surry county to the right. Cool and 
refreshing springs are abundant. 

These places are about 4,200 to 4,300 feet above the sea; 2,300 
feet higher than Lookout mountain or the Catskill Mountain House. 

290 North CaroIvIna and its Resources. 

There, summer reigns with moderate sway, during the season 85° is 
the highest temperature recorded; for two successive Augusts the 
daily maximum ranged from 67° to 84°. The days are pleasant, the 
nights more pleasant if possible; a seat by an open fire and a sleep 
under blankets make the dark hours delightful, nerves regain tone, 
muscles grow strong, blood reddens, dyspepsia and headaches flee 
away in the life giving atmosphere above the clouds of the valleys. 

Points of vantage for views abound. No two give the scores of 
mountain sides or tops from the same direction or at the same angle, 
the sights are almost kaleidoscopic in variety. 

At one place and hour there spreads below you a white and 
silent sea of mist, in a moment the vast still surface begins to heave, 
to toss, to break, green peaks emerge from snowy billows, hillsides 
next appear, and then the gathered waves float upward to be clouds, 
disclosing in all its bravery of field and forest, winding streams and 
rocky cliffs the great valley which drains the waters from the southern 
slope of the Appalachian range. From another point and as the 
evening sun tips the crests with flame you see, as if they grew loftier 
while you look — the giant tops of Roan and Grandfather, Bald, Yellow 
and Black, scores with no name at all, clean cut against a clear blue 
sk}', so calm and still, so mighty and reposeful, lifting the soul as they 
seem to lift themselves. 

Where the great spur already mentioned joins the Blue Ridge an 
overhanging shelf of rock projects from the top so far over the 
"Globe" or valley of John's river, as to catch and for a time confine 
the currents of air sent up from the depths, as the northerly winds, 
finding no outlet, strike against the face of the cliff. The air presently 
finds egress over the top, and the force with which it boils up gives 
the name of Blowing Rock to the beetling crag. When the winds 
are right any light article, handkerchief, scarf, hat or bush thrown 
from the apex, instead of reaching the bottom thousands of feet below, 
is born upward and back again to the spot whence it was dismissed. 
The name of the cliff has become that of the village near by where 
the road to Boon intersects with the old turnpike. 

Green Park Hotel. 

Within five minutes walk of the Rock, near the crest of the 
Ridge, just between the springs of New river and Yadkin, is Green 
Park hotel so exactly placed as to turn the rainfall from the roof 
partly toward the Ohio and partly toward the Pee Dee rivers. 

The hotel, a handsome thoroughly modern structure, has all the 
"improvements," warmed by fire-places, with hot and cold baths, 


Mountain Resorts. 291 

&c., and is supplied from the springs alluded to with purest cold 
water. It is fully carpeted, it has a fine billiard room, shooting 
gallery, bowling alley, tennis court and other modes of amusement. 
Telegraph and post-office in the building. 

Blowing Rock Hotel. 

Also on the crest of the ridge, about one and a half miles north 
of Green Park, on a bold cliff-like projection afibrding from its piazzas 
charming views of the valley below and of the distant peaks beyond. 
Its commanding location, good table and home-like associations make 
it one of the most charming hostelries on the mountain. 

It has nine hundred feet of piazzas, telegraph, livery stable, ball 
room, «&c., for the convenience of patrons. 

Watauga Hotel. 

This is the pioneer hotel and is at the extreme north end of the 
village, about two miles from Green Park. It has undergone several 
remodelings and is now a comfortable place, with ample grounds and 
the finest spring of water on the mountain. 

Besides, there are the Brady House, the Stewart House, and 
numerous boarding houses, all open for the accommodation of the 
five thousand visitors annually flocking to this favored region for rest 
and recuperation. 


Eight miles northward lies Boon, the county seat of Watauga, 
named for the famous hunter and pioneer, whose lodge fires blackened 
the heap of stones yet remaining and to be seen in a meadow there 
and cherished as Boon's chimney. 

Here, several hotels, with good cookery and cheerful attendance, 
make the place a resort. It is a quiet, restful town, suited for study 
and retirement, albeit now connected with the world by a new and 
admirable turnpike. A score of years ago, whoso ventured to fare 
thither felt dismay, now the drive from the Rock done in an hour is a 
pleasurable event. Then too, whoever wished to travel from the 
Rock to Linville started, trembled and went back; now a road, the 
most beautiful and of easiest grade in all the hill-country woos the 
traveler over its broad ribbon-like track. He may ride, drive or walk, 
at any pace he will, nothing obstructs his path; no thoroughfare in 
the county, unless it may be the military pike at the National Chick- 
amauga Park can compare with it. So perfect a mountain road, its 
unlikeness to what is looked for in its surroundings, there is some- 
thing humorous almost whimsical in such a drive-way on such a 

292 North Carolina and its Resources. 

mountain side, and it affords quite a new sensation. To whirl along" 
at the horses' best speed, as smoothly as if bowling along a drive in 
Central Park, is to enjoy the utmost luxury of locomotion through an 
exhilarating atmosphere scented with pine and balsam on the most 
stony mountain of the Appalachain chain, among rocks gray with 
lichens, bare crags, bush and tree yet in their primitive savagery, to 
sweep by and amid the silence of the wildest forest, to see on either 
hand the pathless tangle of the steeps, brings the world in so sudden 
nearness to the jungle that the contrast startles. 

By this road from Blowing Rock or by a shorter one from Cran- 
berry, a station on the K. T. & W. N. C. R. R., can and should be 
reached the renowned lyinville, with its great scope of well governed 
land, its matchless scenery, its range of flora and fauna, temperature 
and climate, hill and valley, from the crown of Grandfather mountain 
to the smooth green meads bordering fair lyinville river and among 
other good things its home-like 

EsEKoi^A Inn. 

This is a mountain resort which begun at the other end from most 
of them. Usually the public builds them from a spring and cabin to 
a fountain and a town. In this instance, capitalists bought a duke- 
dom so far as territory goes, laid it out for country and city, farms and 
gardens, with a picturesque town plot on the river, at the junction of 
Grandmother creek, cleared undergrowth, opened forest glades, views 
and groves, cut paths, built bridges and best of all " Yonahlossee " 
pike from Blowing Rock along the southern slope of Grandfather. 
Built an inn, cottages and then called the Nation's attention the fact 
that at lyinville, with ten miles of trout stream and thirty miles of 
graded driveways, was a town ready made, a watering and breathing 
place without mark of wear and use, which by the magic of money, 
taste and foresight, had sprung up as yet untenanted, all fresh, sweet 
and new, ready for guests. 

From points here, one hundred and fifty miles of mountains can 
be traced, more than a score of peaks rivalling its own monarch, Roan 
and Yellow, Otter and the giant brood of Blacks, all in a country 
where reigns summer almost like spring or fall and where winter is 
not much more than a joke and an excuse for roaring fires in great 
generous fire places in a cosy inn. 

Ci<oudi.and HOTEIv. 

Roan mountain, cloudland and empire of the sky, the highest of 
resorts, loftiest of hotels, most picturesque of summits, can be readily 


Mountain Resorts. 293 

reached from Linville, or from Johnson City, K. T. & V. R. R., via 
Cranberry; 6342 feet above sea level. Commanding views, as inde- 
scribable as they are numerous, attract and keep the beholder; the top 
of this most beautiful mountain is seven miles long, a natural prairie, 
interspersed v/ith groves, dotted with flowers and shrubbery; it no 
longer serves merely as a pasture for the flocks and herds of the farmers 
below, a nobler destiny has been found for it, and travelers swarm 
over its broad expanse. It does not boast of hunting or fishing, such 
sports are not to be looked for above the clouds, but scenery, the 
world spread out below, wholesome wine-like air, pure water, zest for 
food amply provided, comfortable lodging, it challenges the best of 
cur hill country resorts. 


At Highlands, in Macon county, a colony of health seekers from 
the North, blended with southern settlers, have made this spot, near 
the southern verge of the Blue Ridge, at an elevation of nearly 4000 
feet above the sea level, a very desirable location. It has well kept 
hotels and many visitors. 


Buncombe county and its superb capital, Asheville, have for 
years been the best advertised places in the State. Asheville holds 
peculiar prominence as a resort, by reason of its location, its railroad 
facilities, its many fine hotels, and its easily accessible views — splen- 
dors of scenery. Then the location of the vast Vanderbilt domain 
has given it additional importance. It is thronged with visitors win- 
ter and summer. In winter by those who seek a milder residence for 
the extreme cold of the north, and especially by those who sufl'er 
with pulmonary troubles; while in the summer the majority of its 
guests come from the warm slopes of the South Atlantic States, seek- 
ing a cooler and more salubrious climate for the heated term. 

Battery Park. 

Asheville' s hotels are famous all over the nation. Battery Park 
on a hill in the centre of the city of Asheville, commanding pros- 
pects of the whole country around "rus in urbe," also withdrawn 
enough for quiet but not selfishly excluded, its drives, its electric cat 
line, its whole environment make the guest feel at home, the master 
of his time; his views, his comings and his goings. An hour's con- 
templation of Mount Pisgah majestic against the sky would furnish an 
army of exhausted preachers with new metaphors. 

294 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The hotel, a Queen Ann edifice, is three stories high 300 x 175 
feet in dimension, with broad verandahs which in winter are closed in 
by glass. 


The Swannanoa in the centre of the business part of town, a four 
storied brick building, keeps up its old and well-deserved reputation. 

Hotel Berkly. 

Hotel Berkly is close to the Court House, Postoffice, Banks and 
other business places, is well kept and furnished, open the year round. 

Oakland Heights; 

Something more than a mile from the Court House, on a gently slop- 
ing hill, large, capacious and of beautiful design, overlooking a beau- 
tiful landscape and in all respects a first-class hotel. 

Kenilworth Inn, 

At Biltmore, adjoining the Vanderbilt domain and two miles from 
Asheville, claims the best air, as it certainly has one of the best build- 
ings for the seeker after rest, health or pleasure in the State. It is a 
vast, many gabled, many porched and most picturesque pile, on the 
crest of a knoll, commanding splendid views of mountain and valley. 
It is but five minutes from a station and can be reached by through 
sleepers from New York and Cincinnati. 

It goes without saying that the house is perfect in all modern 
improvements and appointments, admirably kept, and provided with 
golf and tennis grounds. It has twenty acres of lawn and a superb 
woodland park of 140 acres in extent, with miles on miles of accessible 


Arden Park, 

Between Asheville and Hendersonville, nine miles from the former on 
the Asheville and Spartanburg R. R., has an excellent hotel largely 
patronized by exclusive guests from the cotton and cane States, as well 
as by the same class from the North. 

Hendersonville . 

Hendersonville, long a favorite resoit for the aristocracy of the 
south, is warmer and dryer than other towns along the Ridge, well 
laid out and shaded streets, good water and charming scenery. Its 
hotels are comfortable, well kept, at moderate prices, and attract a 
Steady custom year after year. 


Mountain Resorts. 295 

Flat Rock. 

Also on the Asheville & Spartanburg railroad is a collection of 
exquisite stone villas surrounded by beautiful grounds, built by the 
wealthiest class of South Carolinians. It has to some extent lost the 
exclusive character of its former years, and is one of the most delight- 
ful and interesting villages in the south. As a resort it is unsurpassed 
for healthfulness, beauty and romantic associations. "St. John's-in- 
the-Wilderness," a sanctuary erected by the people from the low 
country is attractive to all who have read "The Land of the Sky." 
Count and Countess du Choiseul sleep quietly in their tombs near the 
entrance, and a finely graded road leads to their lonely Chateau. 

Hot Springs. 

This resort is treated elsewhere under the head of Mineral 
Springs. Until its recent development by the Southern Improvement 
Company it had not the facilities for entertaining guests all the year 
round. The Company owns 4,000 acres at this point and has made 
it a most successful rival of the resorts hitherto more widely advertised. 

This place is on the picturesque French Broad river, near the 
Tennessee line in a region of attractions in the way of scenery has 
especially to boast of its climate and healthfulness. Its altitude of 
1700 feet, freedom from fog, and pure dry air make it most desirable 
for the debilitated. 

Mountain Park Hotel is new, with the best modern appliances, 
elevators, toilets on all floors, steam heat and fire places, a quarter of 
a mile of broad verandahs, excellent cuisine and service make it a 
most desirable home. An orchestra, music hall and ball room, good 
livery, billiards, bowling, golf links and tennis courts, and even a dark 
room for the photographer to await the patrons. 

Other towns. Old Fort, Marion, Black Mountain and Morganton 
are all, more or less summer resorts. Morganton has occupied an 
enviable reputation as a resort for more than half a century, and is 
still much frequented; in fact all the towns in the mountain region 
may be classed as resorts, since each has an increasing number of sum- 
mer visitors. 

Roaring Gap. 

Within the last few years Roaring Gap, Alleghany county, has 
attained the importance of a resort. A large and well arranged hotel 
has been built on a site commanding charming views and vistas. It 
is on the Blue Ridge at an elevation of 2914 feet, and is reached over 
the Northwestern and North Carolina railroad, a branch of the South. 

296 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

ern system. Leaving the train at Elkin, a drive of sixteen miles 
brings you to the hotel. 

This whole region is easily accessible — Pullman cars leave New 
York at 4:30 P. M., and Cincinnati at 8 P. M., arriving at most any 
of these resorts next afternoon. 

Taken all together this mountain region is a wonderful section; 
the late Col. J. B. Wheeler, United States Army, who had served all 
over the Union, used to remark that in no region with which he 
was familiar could be counted in a year so many days when 
the sun shone. Bishop L,yman, who had lived for years in Rome and 
California was fond of sayiny all manner of gracious things of this 

No part of the South offers greater attractions to the investor and 
the seeker for health or pleasure, or is more interesting to the student 
than this. Incalcubly rich in minerals and timber, perfectly suited 
for growing grasses, cereals and fruits; with a climate bland, strong, 
stimulating and restful, it also has the purest strain of Anglo-Saxon 
blood in the country, and with the possible exception of Kent and 
Devon the purest in the world. Descendants of great houses famous 
under Plantaganet and Tudor, children of ancestors who flew from the 
tyranny of Stuart and Hanoverian, occupy slopes of the Appalachian 
chain. No latin or Celtic admixture has dimmed the bright 
current which flows in the veins of the heirs of the gentry and yeo- 
manry of the mother isle, and the scholar will observe the frequency 
with which, in the houses of men whose ancestors fought Charles at 
home and Ferguson here, he may listen to the unmatched English of 

Indeed it is not too much to say that more individuals in such a 
gathering as is normally found at church or court in Western North 
Carolina will understand and relish an Elizabethian drama than can 
be brought together under the same conditions elsewhere in the land. 


Among all the States, North Carolina stands near the head as a 
resort for the hunter and fisherman, but among those within easy 
access of the centers of population and wealth, it undoubtedly pos- 
sesses advantages equalled by few other States, which are fully appre- 
ciated by the local sportsmen as well as those residing in other States 

With Gun and Rod. 297 

cognizant of the facts. The fact that so ardent a hunter and fisher- 
man as President Cleveland selects the shores and sounds of North 
Carolina as his hunting ground (which, by the way, was sometimes 
practiced of his illustrious predecessors), and that the wealthy Eastern 
Field Club holds its annual trials on the stubble covered fields of the 
Piedmont region of the State, are significant proofs of the fact that 
" good hunting " may be had here. The scope of this chapter will be 
to point out briefly some particulars of interest to the lover of gun 
and rod. 

Virginia Deer, (cariacus virginianus) and Black Bear, (ursus 
americanus,) are the representative big game animals found in North 
Carolina, and they are both sufi&ciently abundant to be an object of 
sport in the localities in which they abound, in fact, in some sections 
of the State, the bears often become a nuisance to the farmer on 
account of their depredations on the hog-pen and sheep-fold. And 
then the hunt begins, although it is not sport, but revenge and self 
preservation that urges the farmer forward on bruin's trail. 

The Coastal Plain region, the land of the big swamps and poco- 
sons, is the natural home of the bear, and almost any one of the 
extreme eastern tier of counties can still show good sport in bringing 
him to bay. The mountains of the west, too, produce some enormous 
specimens, and a good many of them, and many deer still gladden the 
hunters among the peaks and valleys of the Blue Ridge and Great 
Smoky ranges. Deer are also plentiful in the Coastal Plain region 
of the State, as well as in the west, and are found in varying numbers 
all over, except perhaps, in a few of the older and more thickly set- 
tled counties. Many men who hunt regularly, still use the smooth- 
bore, with its load of twelve or fifteen buckshot, but the later t3^pe of 
hunters are rapidly replacing it with the rifle, a smaller percentage of 
lost cripples being the natural result of the change. Wildcats are 
common in about the same sections that produce the bear and deer, 
and some wolves yet rouse the wrath of the sheep farmers in the 
mountain counties. 

To anyone wishing to indulge in a taste of a genuine, old fashioned 
before the war "possum hunt" it may be stated that no other State 
can produce more, or larger, or better Opossums in any way. 

The stately wild turkey is yet a common bird nearly the whole 
length of the State, and fine specimens are killed frequently within a 
few miles of the State Capital at Raleigh, While not as common, of 
course, as formerly, yet it will be many years before this noble bird 
becomes even rare in North Carolina. They are abundant in many 

298 North Caroi^ina and its Rksourcks. 

But it is, perliaps, as a wild fowl resort that we stand without a 
rival on the whole Atlantic seaboard. The enormous extent of the 
great sounds, estuaries, rivers, marshes and beaches of the Coastal 
Plain region makes it the home almost the whole year round of a 
greater number of more diflferent kinds of waterfowl and shorebirds 
than perhaps can be found in any other like area on the American 
Continent. In fall and winter it is the vast hordes of waterfowl on 
the sounds and open reaches that attract the hunter from afar and, 
not infrequently, large bags of Canvass back are the reward of his 
pleasant toil. Redhead, Mallard and Black Duck, Teal, Widgeon and 
Pintail all abound, while Wild Geese and Brant are to be killed in 
numbers unheard of in less favored localities. The Snow Goose 
occurs here during winter in larger numbers than in any other locality 
on the Atlantic seaboard. The great white Whistling Swan is a com- 
mon bird on the northern sounds and, with the exception of a few 
arctic and sub-arctic species, about all the members of the duck family 
known along the western shores of the Atlantic ocean occur, usually 
abundantly, on the North Carolina sounds. In spring and fall too, 
the beaches and marshes are the resort of innumerable shore and marsh 
birds. The different species of Rails or Marsh Hens, including the 
toothsome Sora, the gamey English Snipe, Yellowlegs — both kinds — 
Willets, Curlews, Plovers; the marshes resound to their shrill cries, 
while on the sand beaches run great crowds of Robin Snipe, Sander- 
ling, Redbreasted or Grayback Snipe, Turnstone, Oyster Catchers and 
simply clouds of the smaller members of the snipe family. 

I^arge bags of Woodcock can be made in suitable localities almost 
anywhere in the Coastal region, and it is a tolerably common bird all 
over the State, in situations suited to its habits. All through the 
Mountain region the silent woods echo to the drumming of the Ruffed 
Grouse, this fine game bird being well distributed through that part 
of the State, although not as abundantly as a few years ago. We, in 
the South, call this bird "Pheasant," an erroneous name, while in the 
northern States, the equally erroneous name of "Partridge" is in 
common use. 

Bob White, the Quail of the North and the Partridge of the South, 
is found nearly everywhere except on the mountain peaks, but is per- 
haps most plentiful in the Piedmont Plateau region. But anywhere 
in the State, from the tide water region of the Bast to the foot hills of 
the West, Bob White is thoroughly at home, and lots of him too. Of 
all land game birds of the State, in his ability to take care of himself, 
to exist through extremes of both summer and winter temperatures, 
to thrive and grow fat on what he can pick up and to furnish the best 


With GuxN^ and Rod. 299 

of sport to the most exacting gunner, Bob White stands pre-eminently 
first. To rise with whirring wing while j'ou are off guard, to dash 
down from a pine top until he skims the ground, to swerve behind 
the nearest tree or bush that will stop your load — all with the rapidity 
of lightning — seems to be as easy to him as a straight-away flight. 
May his cheery whistle long echo over the land ! Bags of twenty-five 
to fifty are not uncommon with our best gunners, and occasionally a 
round hundred will be the count when the game bag is emptied at the 
close of a day's sport. 

In the upper waters of the cold and sparkling streams that have 
their source all through the Mountain region of the State, the Brook 
Trout abounds and is here, as elsewhere, the same dashing, gamey 
sprite of the waters whose rise to the fly will always cause the nerves of 
even the veteran angler to tingle. Black Bass of fair size and large 
fighting capacity are also caught in these streams a little lower down> 
while the Piedmont Plateau region yields some excellent still water 
fishing for Bass, Sunfishes of several kinds. Pike and Perch. 

In some of the coast localities can be had that rather rare atid 
very exciting experience that comes with surf-fishing for the Red drum 
or Channel Bass. Huge specimens of fifty pounds or over are often 
taken and any one who has ever fought a fifty pound bass while wad- 
ing waist deep in the roaring surf has had an experience that he will 
not soon forget. 

Trolling for Bluefish and Spanish Mackerel may be indulged in 
to a surfeit, and some of the finest sail boats for this sport, fully 
equipped with lines and bait can be found for hire at many 
points along our coast. An occasional King fish or Sero (scombero- 
morus cavalla) of from fifteen to twenty-five pounds weight will vary 
the monotony of hauling in the beautiful mackerel; but the lucky 
fisherman to whose line such a prize comes does not get him to the 
boat without some hard work and skill, too. 

Still fishing for Gray and Speckled Trout (cynoscion regalis and 
c. nebulosus) known further north as Weakfish, is a fascinating sport 
and is very productive almost anywhere along the whole line of our 
coast, and along with the trout are caught Sea Bream, Croakers, Sea 
Cats, Spots and many others, in large numbers. Several hundred is 
no uncommon total for a day's catch off one rod, and when once a 
biting school is struck the fun can hardly be equalled if qauntity of 
fish and quality of sport in catching them be taken into consideration. 
The toothsome and gamy Black Sea Bass (centropristis striatus) is 
often the commonest fish caught in still fishing, and under favorable 
circumstances they may olten be hauled in as fast as the line can be 

300 North Caroi^ina and Its Rksources. 

rebaited and thrown out. Now and again a heavy old Flasher (lo- 
botes surinamensis) comes to hand in the more southern waters, and 
his pull on the line is so constant and powerful that the fishermen of 
Bald Head (Smith's Island) have named him the "Steamboat." 
Flounders are often caught on the hand line, but au additional inter- 
esting method of taking them is with the gig or spear at night. Our 
shallow sounds are particularly good grounds for flounder spearing 
and it is a novel and exciting experience to many an angler almost 
tired of other forms of his favorite recreation. Sheepshead of large 
size are caught in the neighborhood of old wrecks and around 
wharves and old piles where they resort to feed on the flinty shelled 
barnacles growing thereon, and it may be remarked, in passing, that 
it takes a Sheepshead's mouth, with its broad incisors and millstone 
grinders, to properly crush the stony envelope that encloses the juicy 
barnacle. Considerable skill may be shown in this branch of angling, 
as the Sheepshead is an expert and experienced hook robber. 
Fiddler crabs are the bait used, and it is no mean test of an old 
fisherman's skill for him to be able to bait his hook so attractively 
and securely as to cover the bottom of his skiff with fine old Sheaps- 
head at the close of a daj^'s fishing. Of course, many other kinds of 
salt water fishes than those enumerated may be and are taken, often 
in some numbers, by the angler, but the space alloted to this article 
forbids further details. 

In the large bodies of fresh and brackish water and their tribu- 
taries, near the eastern seaboard, including some of the larger sounds 
and lakes, may be had some of the best fresh water fishing in the 
country. Striped Bass of enormous size occur in numbers and afford 
excellent sport. Pike, two species. Pike Perch, Speckled Perch or 
Strawberry Bass, White Perch, several species of the Sun Perches, &c., 
are all caught in quantities by the local fisherman on the rudest kind 
of tackle; what might then be done with the improved tackle of the 
up to date angler? But beyond all of the foregoing, the noble Black 
Bass swims to the front. Both species — the large mouthed and small 
mouthed — occur, and it is no exaggeration to call the Black 
Bass really plentiful throughout this region. It runs to a large size, 
too, six and seven pound specimen being by no means uncommon, 
while ten to fourteen pounders oecassionally occur. To give some idea 
of the abundance of these species, it may be noted that in 1890 — the 
latest available statistics — the catch for market in one county alone 
was upwards of 335,000 pounds, a catch that could hardly be equalled 
by other like area in the country. The Bass are caught locally with 
a rude outfit, but they are the same tough old fighters as ever, and 

Description of Counties. 301 

fish that give sport with a reed pole cut in the nearest swamp and 
the line tied to the end of it, will certainly give so much additional 
with a modern split bamboo or lancewood and line and other tackle to 
match. As Dr. J. A. Henshall, the greatest living authority on the 
subject, says: " I consider him inch for inch and pound for pound, 
the gamest fish that swims." Our Black Bass is known locally as 
' ' Chub ' ' and ' ' Welshman ' ' and in the extreme southern part of the 
State he is even called a '"Trout." 


There are ninety-six counties in North Carolina, and each has an 
interest peculiarly its own. The space allotted is necessarily small, 
but this volume would be incomplete without special reference to the 
features of soil, climate, natural resource, or other condition peculiar 
to any county. It is the purpose of the Board of Agriculture to pre- 
sent impartially the characteristics and advantages of the several 
counties, and to that end sought the aid of prominent and well 
informed residents of each, to whom public acknowledgment is due 
for the careful and valuable assistance rendered. The substance of 
all revisions has been incorporated, and forms part of the presentation 
of the counties, which follow in their alphabetical order. The statis- 
tics are from the report of the Auditor, for 1895. 


Historically, this county possesses great interest. It was the 
focus of the troubles of the Regulators, and on its soil was fought the 
decisive battle between the Roj^al forces and those of the rebellious 
colonists, a preliminary to the struggle between the Crown and the 
colonies, to be continued until American Independence was secured 
by the success of the latter. The county was formed in 1848, from 
parts of Guilford and Orange. 

This county is drained by the upper waters of the Cape Fear 
river, and one of its principal tributaries, the Haw river, crosses it 
from the northwestern to the southeastern corner. The soils of this 
county are largely fertile red clay loams, with oak and hickory forests. 
Slate hills, which rise to the elevation of low mountain chains, occupy 
the southern end of the county, and have oak and pine forests and 
thin, sandy loam soils. The northern portion consists of alternating 
tracts of gray sandy loams and red clays. The cotton belt barely 
touches the southern edge of the county. The upper end is devoted 
to the production of tobacco, and the whole of it to grain crops, of 
which the yield is large. 

The manufacturing facilities of the county are very great, and, 
in number of cotton-looms and spindles, Alamance stands first of all 

302 North CaroIvIna and its Resources- 

the counties in the State. There are also gold deposits, both vein and 
placer, in the middle and southern sections. 

The North Carolina railroad runs through the center of the 
county, and has been an important stimulus to its industries and 
general prosperity. Graham is the county seat and has a population 
in excess of looo. It contains the Saxapahaw, Oneida (Nos. i, 2 and 
3,) and Belmont cotton mills. Haw River (town,) is the seat of the 
Granite, the Thos. M. Holt, and the Cora cotton mills, and has a 
population of 1750. Burlington, with a population of more than 
2,000, has nine cotton factories, as follows: Glencoe, I^akeside, 
Juanita, Carolina, Alamance, Aurora, Elmira, B. M. Holt and Wind- 
sor. There are twenty-three cotton factories in the county. 

The leading product is tobacco; annual production reaches from 
800,000 to 1,000,000 pounds. Some cotton is produced in the south- 
eastern part of the county. The production of wheat, oats and corn 
is large, while the fruits are abundant and of excellent flavor. Clover 
and the better grasses flourish and much attention is given to stock 

Alamance contains 265,776 acres of land, valued at $2,306,910; 
and 948 town lots, valued at $679,499. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses, 3,113; mules, 1,039; 
cattle, 6,781; hogs, 10,574; sheep, 3,946. 

The receipts from taxation give the general State tax — $10,143.02; 
pensions, $1,885.92; schools, $13,986.34; county, $16,810.23. 

The population; whites, 12,688; colored, 5,583; all others 3; 
total, 18,271. 


Alexander, one of the smallest counties in the State, lies south 
of Wilkes, from which it is separated by the Brushy mountains, and 
north of the Catawba river. The county, especially in the northern 
and western sections, is traversed by spurs and high ridges, many of 
which rise to an elevation of 2000 feet. The drainage is southward 
into the Catawba and eastward into the Yadkin. The tributaries 
descending from the mountains afford ample water power easily 
accessible. A greater part of this is yet undeveloped, though there 
are numerous grain mills and two cotton factories are now in course 
of erection. 

The southeastern and middle sections are characterized by oak 
forests and red clay soil, the higher divides and ridges showing a large 
admixture of pine and chestnut, and a more open light colored soil. 

The mineral resources of the county, supposed to be extensive, 
are as yet undeveloped. It is noted chiefly for the hiddenite gem, 
fine emeralds and beautiful specimens of quartz crystals; but gold, 
monazite and other minerals are found. There are numerous mineral 
springs in the county, and in many instances the waters have been 
tested and found to contain valuable curative properties. 

The cultivation of cotton is confined almost exclusively to the 
southern and eastern sections. The middle section is well adapted to 
the growth of tobacco, where some fine grades are produced, and more 

Description of Counties. 303 

attention is paid to this crop every year. The principal crops of the 
county are corn, wheat, rye and oats. Many sections produce fine 
varieties of fruits. The sides and coves of the Brushy mountains are 
especially noted for their apple orchards, yielding fruit of delicious 
flavor, large size and a never failing crop, being protected by the exist- 
ence of a thermal belt on the sides of the mountains. There is a great 
future for fruit in this county. 

The tax returns for 1895 show 156,835 acres of land, valued at 
$632,239, and 181 town lots, valued at $52,363. 

Domestic animals in the county: 1,015 horses; 1,356 mules; 4,229 
cattle; 4,420 hogs; 2,554 sheep. 

The receipts for taxation are: For general State purposes, $2, 169.44; 
pensions, $482.46; schools, $1,787.81; county, $4,805.12. 

The population is — whites, 8,558; colored, 842; all others, 3; total 



Alleghany county is situated on the Virginia border, and is 
bounded southward in part by the curves of the Blue Ridge. In its 
middle section is a parallel and higher chain. Almost its entire sur- 
face is drained northward into the New and Kanawha rivers, this, 
with the two following counties, constituting the New river plateau 
or basin, the only part of the State drained by the Ohio. It lies on 
the northeastern end of the long, narrow, elevated transmontane 
plateau, and has an average elevation of not less than 2,800 feet. Its 
forests are of oak, walnut, poplar, chestnut and pine, with an admix- 
ture of white pine in the coves of the Blue Ridge and between that 
and the Peach Bottom range. Its soils are the common gray and yel- 
low upland loams. Along the banks of the New river, and its prin- 
cipal tributaries, especially lyittle river, are considerable tracts of 
bottom lands. Its agriculture is divided between the production of 
grains and grasses and cattle-raising. The most improved herds of 
beef cattle to be found in the State, are in this county. Its products 
of buckwheat and rye are next to the largest in the State. 

It has some mineral of importance — iron and copper of good 
quality are found in inviting conditions. 

It is a region well suited to the grasses, and the industry of dairy 
farming, its elevation assuring a temperate but not a cold climate in 
winter, and exemption from the heats of summer. 

This county contains 144,919 acres of land, valued at $374,511, 
and 66 town lots, valued at $8,775. 

The number of domestic animals is — horses, 1,851; mules, 142; 
6,899 cattle; 5,743 hogs; 8,045 sheep. 

Receips for taxation are: For State use, $1,345.99; pensions, 
$303.38; schools, $2,636.09; county, $1,801.06. 

Population: white, 4,967; colored, 519; total, 5,4.86. 


Anson county lies on the southern border of the State in the 
Piedmont Plateau, and is bounded on the east by the Pee Dee river. 
About one-third of its territory, in the southern portion, belongs to 

304 North Carolina and its Resources. 

the long-leaf pine belt, with its characteristic soils and forests. The 
northwestern and northern sections of the county consist of slate soils 
(gray, gravelly clays), occupied by forests of white oak, short-leaf 
pine, hickory, dogwood, etc. The river hills near the Pee Dee have 
a sandy and gravelly loam, becoming more red and clayey on the 
lower slopes. There lies across the middle of the county, in a north- 
east and southwest direction, a low, nearly level tract, five or six 
miles wide, of brown, yellow and gray sandy and clay loam soils, 
derived from the clays and sandstones of the Trias. These lands are 
naturally quite productive, and have been devoted mainly to the 
culture of cotton, which is the most important industry of the county, 
although the corn crops are quite large. For many years cotton was 
the chief agricultural product of the county, it being the largest 
producer in the State, and the quality of the staple ranking higher 
than that of any upland staple produced anywhere in the cotton area 
of the United States, north of Mobile. The annual average for the 
cotton crop is about 12,000 bales. The county is traversed from east 
to west by the Carolina Central railroad, and is connected with 
Cheraw, S. C. , on the south, by anothei railroad of a length of twenty- 
two miles. On the Carolina Central lie valuable and exhaustless 
quarries of brown sandstone of superior quality, and largely used 
throughout the State for building purposes. There are also granites, 
gray and blueish, which are attracting attention. 

Wadesboro is the county seat, on the Carolina Central railroad, 
and at the northern terminus of the Wadesboro and Cheraw railroad. 
It has a population, by the last national census, of 1,198. It is a 
large interior cotton market, the annual receipts varying from 15,000 
to 20,000 bales. It has a cotton factory and a silk-mill, the only one 
in the State, where silk yarns are converted into thread for northern 
silk-weaving establishments. Near the tov^^'n are noted quarries of 
much valued sandstone. Polkton has a population of 247, L^ilesville 
of 222, and Morven a smaller one. 

There has been a great advance move along the southern 
half of the county, upon the sandy soils, in the quantity and 
quality of the crops there produced. By a judicious system of crop 
rotation in this part of the county and by the free use of the cow pea 
as a fertilizer, it has been shown that good paying crops of wheat 
may be produced on the sandy lands, and the output of cotton quite 
doubled per acre. Intelligent farmers by actual experiment on these 
sandy lands have shown that grapes may be grown thereon of many 
different varieties. 

It is, however, with the clay and cow pea that the most pronounced 
changes and improvements have been wrought, not only in the sandy, 
but also in the entire lands of the county. The ash element fertil- 
izers have proven an excellent manure for peas in the sandy lands. 
They have disappointed those who have used them under peas on the 
red clay soils of the county. 

Every variety of clover can be grown with success in this county. 
"Water meadows prove very valuable to our people. It may be said 
that the husbandry of the county is decidedly improved; the estab- 

DESCRiPTioisi OF Counties. 305 

lishment of a State farm in the county, whereon convicts are worked, 
is an object lesson to our labor and people. 

The county contains 330,625 acres of land, valued at $920,587, 
and 743 town lots, valued at $227,613. Of domestic animals there are 
i,ii7horses; i,9i2mules; 8, 130 hogs; 1,588 sheep. Product of taxation 
— for State use, $3,822.53; pensions, $854.38; schools, $7,815.73; 
county, $11,385.64. Population — white, 10,237; colored, 9,790; all 
others, 3; total, 15,628. 


Ashe county lies in the northwest corner of the State, adjoining 
the States of Virginia and Tennessee, its southeastern edge resting 
upon the summits of the Blue Ridge mountains. It is a valley of 
hills, with an elevation of more than 3,000 feet, and with an occasional 
mountain of more or less prominence. It is drained by the north and 
south forks of New river, which meet in the northeast corner. In the 
main, its soil is fertile, and superior in quality to that of contiguous 
counties. Wheat, as well as the other cereals, are grown to per- 
fection, especially in the northeast part of the county. Ashe produces 
more rye than any other county in the State, and stands among the 
first in the production of buckv/heat. Grass and cattle count for 
much in this region, the raising and shipping of live stock forming 
an important industry. It is the finest grass county in the Mountain 
region. In no part of western North Carolina do fruits and vegetables 
attain a higher degree of perfection. White pine and all the oaks, as 
w^ell as poplar, sugar maple, locust and wild cherry become important 
constituents of the forests in many places. Ashe county is rich in 
mineral deposits such as native copper, ores of gold and silver, 
together with large bodies of magnetic iron ore are found. The 
mineral resources are comparatively undeveloped. 

Jefferson is the county seat, with a population of 473. 

Ashe county contains 254,652 acres of land, valued at $773,782, 
and sixty-eight town lots valued at $18,220. 

The number of domestic animals is 3,757 horses; 620 mules; 
14,576 cattle; 11,505 hogs; 17,708 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State purposes, $2,866.90; pensions, 

.15; schools, $6,205.29; county, $5,680.27. 

Population — white, 15,033; colored, 595; total 15,628. 


Beaufort was erected into a separate county prior to 1775, and 
named in honor of the Duke of Beaufort, one of the original L,ords 
Proprietors of Carolina. 

Beaufort county lies south of Washington county, on both sides 
of the Pamlico River, which in this part of its course, is an arm of 
the sound of the same name, from two to six miles wide, and throws 
off several wide projections or baj^s into the county on both sides. It 
is bounded on the east by Pungo river, another broad arm of Pamlico 
sound, whose waters also penetrate the county in numerous wide 
navigable bayous. In the northern section, and across its whole 

3o6 North Carolina and its Resources. 

breadth, lies the western extremity of the great intersound swamp, 
which attains its greatest elevation here of forty feet above tide. In 
this culminating swell, between the Roanoke and Pamlico rivers, rise 
numerous tributaries of these rivers and of the sounds. Along the 
courses of the streams, as they flow out from this swell, are consid- 
erable marginal tracts of semi-swamp and oak flats, which are very 
productive. There are also belts of cypress swamp near Pamlico 
river and the other streams on both sides, and south of the swamp, in 
the middle as well as along the western edge of the county, the land 
is mostl}^ a level piny woods, with a light sandy soil. 

In the last tvv'o or three years it has been discovered that a large 
part of these lands will produce the fine bright tobacco so much sought 
for by manufacturers, and already a considerable number of farmers 
from the old tobacco counties of Granville, Vance and others in that 
section, have come to this county and engaged in tobacco growing. 

The lands near Pamlico river, on both sides are also well adapted 
to the production of early vegetables, and the trucking interest is 
already quite extensive and growing — as many as 50,000 barrels of 
early potatoes have been shipped from the county to northern markets 
in a single season. 

In the eastern portion of the county, and on both sides of the 
Pamlico river are large tracts of oak flats and semi-swamp, which 
are among the most productive soils of the region. Near the mouth 
of the Pungo river occurs one of the largest prairies or natural 
meadows, {Savajinas ,') in the State, embracing an area of 1,200 or 1,500 
acres. It is treeless and fringed by short-leaf pine and oak forests, 
and has a fine, close, gray sandy soil, as impervious as clay. Its sub- 
soil is of the same character, but is more clayey, and is of a slightly 
yellowish color. Marl is found in various parts of the county, but is 
little used. 

Fishing is an industry of considerable importance. The catch of 
herrings and shad is second only in importance to the catch in the 
Albemarle section. Great quantities of these fish are shipped fresh, 
packed in ice, to the northern markets, and are also sent into the inter- 
ior of the State. The same conditions exist in this county as are 
found in other counties for the raising of cattle. The Scuppernong 
grape and all of its varieties are indigenous. The celebrated Meish 
grape, named in honor of its discoverer, Mr. Albert Meish, a native of 
Westphalia, Germany, had its origin in this county. 

Outside of farming and trucking, the manufacture of lumber is the 
largest interest. In the town of Washington, the county seat, are 
four large saw mills, two large planing mills and five or six small 
mills engaged in wood work of various kinds. There is also one 
large rice mill, one grain elevator and one foundry and machine shop, 
and many other smaller manufacturing works. There are four trains a 
day on the railroad that connects Washington with the Coast Line 
system, besides numerous steamers running to Norfolk and other 
points on the river and sounds. 

To those seeking a home, there is no more important factor than 
a good healthy climate. In this particular Beaufort is especially 

Description op Counties. 307 

blest. In the winter months there are few cold spell;-:, lasting from 
two days to a week, and during which the thermometer shows a 
general average of about 32° Fahrenheit. These cold spells soon give 
way to the warm exhilarating sunshine, and the thermometer rises 
again to its normal average for the winter, which is between 50° and 
65° Fahrenheit. In summer the thermometer seldom records a tem- 
perature of over 90° Fahrenheit in the middle of the day, and even 
this is tempered by the gentle breezes which come from the broad ex- 
panse of salt water to the east. The general average for the summer 
months is about 80°. 

The average depth of the channel of the Pamlico river from its 
mouth to the western line of the county is about ten feet, and any 
vessel drawing not more than eight feet loaded, can easily go to the 
extreme western end of the county. The county is divided by it 
nearly into equal parts, and, with its numerous tributaries, it serves a 
most useful purpose as a means of getting to market the results of 
labor. By means of it a large commerce is carried on, both by steam 
and sailing vessels, with the ports to the north, and some foreign 
commerce. Its banks are lined with farms and steam-mills. 

The swamp lands are considered to be among the best in the 
world, being equal in fertility to the bottom lands of the Nile, though, 
unlike them, not depending upon an annual overflow for their fertil- 
ity. These lands are, in all cases, found at the head of the num- 
erous streams, which rise in the county and feed Pamlico and Pungo 
rivers. Washington is the county seat, and is a place of considerable 
commercial importance, with a population of 5,000. 

The number of acres in this county is 363,11 1, valued at $1,223,- 
070; and 686 town lots, valued at $566,987. The number of live 
stock is — horses, 1,895; mules, 881; goats, 336; cattle, 9,870; hogs, 
20,183; sheep, 4,581. Taxes — State, $5,790.94; pensions, $1,198.39; 
schools, $9,987.70; county, $12,812.94. Population — white, 11,869; 
colored, 9,203; total, 21,072. 


Bertie county lies south of Hertford, in the angle between Roa- 
noke and Chowan rivers, and consists, for the most part, of level piny 
uplands, having a sandy loam soil; but the northern part of it is largely 
pine flats, having a fertile ash-colored fine sandy soil. Recent experi- 
ments have demonstrated that these lands are well suited to the pro- 
duction of the finest bright tobaccos. In the southern part, near the 
Roanoke river, and along its chief tributary, the Cashie, are wide 
tracts of level oak and pine lands, which are very productive. The 
Roanoke river, through almost the whole length of this county, is 
bordered by a tract of alluvial lands from three to six miles wide, 
subject to annual overflows, and covered with heavy forests of cypress, 
maple, ash, etc., which is among the most fertile of the continent. 
While these Roanoke lands are subject to overflow, they are very 
valuable and can be easily reclaimed by a system of dykes; the 
native grasses are so abundant, as to maintain great herds of cattle, 
while the reed grazing lasts the j^ear around. In the middle region, 

3o8 North Carolina and its Resources. 

on and near the Cashie and its tributaries, are considerable bodies of 
valuable swamp and semi-swamp lands. Cotton, corn, tobacco, pea- 
nuts, potatoes, fish and lumber make up the list of industries of this 
county. The fish industry is very extensive and profitable; the 
water frontage suitable to this business is one hundred miles in length. 
Marl is found in the southern and middle sections. Fruits of all 
kinds may be raised; peaches and pears to great perfection. The 
fruit crops seldom fail, as the frosts are rarely late enough to do dam- 
age. With improved railroad and ample water facilities, trucking 
and fruit growing are becoming important industrial features. 

The public schools of the county have been carried to a high 
state of proficiency, and in every neighborhood there are churches 
and academies. 

Windsor is the county seat, with a population of 750. Lewiston has 
a population of 375. There are twenty-one post ofl&ces in the county. 

The number of acres in this county is 382,331; valued at 
$1,450.04; and 376 town lots, valued at $191,345. 

The number of domestic animals is — horses, 2,230; mules, 1,148; 
goats, 158; 10,609 cattle; 25,422 hogs; 5,261 sheep. 

The product of taxation is — for State purposes, $5,406.31; pen- 
sions, $1,119.55; schools, $9,434.85; county, $8,675.27. 

Population — white, 7,885; colored, 11,291; total, 19,176. 


Bladen county lies south of Cumberland, and, like it, on both 
sides of the Cape Fear river. It has narrow zones of pines running 
parallel to the river courses nearly the whole length of the county, 
and it also abounds in cypress swamps and alluvial " bottoms " along 
its streams. There are also large bodies of level piny woods. Marl 
is found in the bluffs of the river. On many of the streams are 
extensive bodies of gum and C3^press swamps. This county has a 
considerable area of pine lands, with fine clay sub-soil, which when 
properly cultivated, produce a bale of cotton to the acre. Its agricul- 
ture is largely confined to cotton, corn, potatoes, peas, and forage 
crops. The production of naval stores and the lumbering interests 
still occupy the attention of a considerable number of her people. 
The river swamps contain large quantities of oak, ash, gum and other 
valuable timbers, for v/hich there is an increasing demand. On the 
western side of the Cape Fear river the lands are higher and less 
occupied by swamps than on the eastern, but there are fine produc- 
tive lands along the Cape Fear — productive in corn, and excellent for 
tobacco and trucking as well as for certain fruits. The eastern side, 
near the river, has good bottom lands extending back some distance 
from the river, and these are succeeded towards the east by entensive 
Swamps extending along the margins of South and Black rivers, and 
including the large area of Colley swamp; therefore the area of arable 
land is relatively small. On this side are found a number of small 

The Carolina Central railroad traverses the western portion of 
the county, which together with the streams, affords ample facilities 

Description of Counties. 309 

for transporting to market the leading products of farm and forest. 
Klizabethtown is the county seat. 

Bladen county contains 456,848 acres of land, valued at $871,- 
590; and 82 town lots, valued at $23,847. The number of domestic 
animals is — horses, 649; mules, 759; goats, 1,010; cattle, 8,258; hogs, 
21,801; sheep, 3.478. The product of taxation is — general taxes, 
$2,807.95; pensions, $639.99; schools, $5,863.61; county, $7,661.71. 
Population — white, 8,646; colored, 8,117; total, 16,763. 


Brunswick county lies on the west side of the Cape Fear river, 
and touches the Atlantic on the south. Its central and western por- 
tion is occupied by the great pocoson known as Green Swamp, 
which, with its many projections, covers nearly half the territory of the 
county. The resources of this swamp are not well established, 
though it is believed to contain large quantities of valuable timber of 
various kinds within its borders, as well as a good deal of arable 
land. That portion of Green Swamp which lies in Brunswick county, 
is owned by a non-resident corporation, and has not for several years 
been actively worked, and does not therefore contribute to the gen- 
eral prosperity of the countj^, beyond its value for taxation. The pro- 
duction of naval stores, formerly the principal occupation of the 
people, has given place to agriculture, and with this change, a con- 
dition of greater prosperity has begun. There are many fine farms, 
producing a sufficient food supply for all the citizens of the county, 
Lumber is produced only in sufficient quantity to supply local wants, 
very little being exported oiit of the county. 

The production of fish and clams has largely increased, both 
for domestic and market purposes. 

The productions of Brunswick county are, therefore, mostly 
agricultural, and consist of rice, corn, potatoes, peanuts and cotton. 
To which may be added the production of the sea, bordering the 
whole south of the county. 

The abandonment of the turpentine business, made necessary by 
the death of the pines and the exhaustion of the trees, has proved a 
blessing in disguise, and the change to the clearing up and cultivation 
of the land has been very beneficial; enlarging the minds of the 
people and causing them to pay more attention to education. There 
are more schools and churches, and with better railroad facilities, 
Brunswick would be a fine field for the settler .who wants productive 
land, a genial climate, and a friendly people to dwell among. 

Southport, the county seat of Brunswick, is situated at the mouth 
of the Cape Fear river, within view of the Atlantic Ocean, and only 
about four miles from the bar, over which vessels drawing about 
twenty-two feet of water can now safely be brought, with good pros- 
pect of further increase of depth in the future. 

Southport occupies a commanding though undeveloped position 
for the purpose of commerce, having a capacious and safe harbor with 
deep water on its front. It also possesses the important requisite of 
healthfulness and freedom from insect pests. A railroad is now under 

3IO North Carolina and its REvSources. 

construction connecting with other existing railroads at a point near 

Southport is better known to the old residents of the Cape Fear 
section, as Smithville. It was for sometime the residence of the late 
Gov. Benjamin Smith, whose memory has been suitably honored by 
the University of North Carolina, of which institution he was a great 
friend in the early period of its history. 

It has a population of about 1,200. In its immediate vicinity is 
Fort Caswell, now in ruins, and many other spots of historic interest. 
It was known as Fort Johnson before it became Smithville and has 
been a military position from the earliest times. 

It is expected that an extensive coaling station will shortly be 

The number of acres of land in the county is 388,255, valued at 
$640,564; and 313 town lots, valued at $163,475. 

The number of domestic animals is — horses, 424; mules, 224; 
goats, 950; cattle, 7,834; hogs, 15,019; sheep, 4,296. 

Proceeds of taxation — State, $2,323. 12; pensions, $514.80; schools, 
$5,413.14; county, $3,185.16. 

Population — white, 6,139; colored, 4,767, total, 10,900. 

Buncombe county, once so ample in its area as to receive, and 
almost merit, the title of the "State of Buncombe," is now much 
reduced in extent, and is no larger than many of the counties of 
which it is the parent. Its eastern boundary follows the line of the 
Blue Ridge, its crests forming the dividing line between McDowell 
and Buncombe. On the west the New Found range marks the sep- 
aration from Haywood county. Madison on the north, and Hender- 
son on the south, have no natural boundaries, the lines of division 
being artificial. 

The area of the county is 620 square miles; Nearly the whole 
surface is susceptible of improvement, for, though the mountains 
predominate as natural features, there are few without deep soil to 
the top, and much of the best pasture land and a large portion of 
land now used for the culture of fine yellow tobacco is mountain side 
or mountain top. 

Buncombe county is bisected by the French Broad river, which^ 
rising in Transylvania, pursues a course nearly north, and passes out 
of the State into Tennessee at Paint Rock. It is a stream of consid- 
erable volume and of surprising width for a mountain stream. At 
Asheville it is 1 10 yards wide, and little less than that for twenty 
miles above. Below, the character of the stream changes and the 
width varies. At Asheville the rapids begin; above that point the 
current is gentle, and there is natural navigation, with some obstruc- 
tions which the National Government has partially removed, up to 
Brevard, in Transylvania, a distance by water of forty miles. The 
water power of the river has not been utilized. The Swannanoa is 
the only other river in the county of any importance — more noted for 
its beauty than for its usefulness, but also offering immense water 

Descriptiox of Counties. 311 

power, as yet not developed. Numerous small streams prove much 
more useful in their applications to mills and machinery than the 
larger bodies of water. 

The valleys of Buncombe county are rather limited in extent. 
The general surface of the county is hilly, rather than mountainous, 
offering facilities for agricultural operations largely used, though the 
mountains are sufficiently lofty and abundant to give a mountainous 
character to the landscape. 

The soil of Buncombe is sufficientl}' productive in all the cereals, 
the grasses and fruits of the temperate zone. Dairying, and the rais- 
ing of dairy stock is pursued under manj^ advantageous circumstances. 
Wheat produces an average of ten bushels to the acre, but with the 
introduction of clover and improved cultivation this is largely in- 
creased. Oats yield exuberantly; corn thrives and produces from 
thirty to fifty bushels to the acre; clover and all the grasses are so w^ell 
favored by soil and climate as to appear indigenous. The fruits find 
a congenial home here, especially the apple, which, in size and flavor, 
and in abundant, healthy 5'ield, is seldom equalled. The Irish 
potato here finds a favoring soil and climate, the yield being great 
and of superior quality. All kinds of vegetables grow with luxur- 
iance, and the cabbage is especially noticeable for size and good 

The timber of this county includes all the varieties known in the 
mountains — oak, hickor}^ walnut, elm, beech, birch, s^'camore, 
maple, locust, bucke^'e, pine, the hemlock, spruce and others, with 
an undergrowth of chinquepin, dogwood, laurel, kalmia, azalea and 
other shrubby trees. 

Among the products of the county is tobacco, the one which has 
most largel}^ and most rapidl}^ added to the profits of agriculture. It 
has been cultivated as a general crop only wuthin the past fifteen 
years and the soil of the hills dowm the French Broad, and back a few 
miles from the river, seem better adapted to its culture than the 
southern portion of the county. The quality produced is almost alto- 
gether the bright yellow, of a quality that commands the highest 
prices. The culture is increased under growing demand and con- 
venient markets, and it has become the money crop of a greater part 
of the count5\ 

Buncombe county is traversed by three railroads, all owned by 
the Southern Railwaj^ companj', the main stem, or Western North 
Carolina road, enters the county from the mouth of the Swannanoa 
tunnel. From Ashevilleto the State line at Paint Rock, fortj^-three 
miles, the road is a part of the fourth division of the Southern. The 
Murphy branch connects Asheville and Murph}^, 130 miles distant. 
The Asheville and Spartanburg division is seventy miles in length. 
There is a double daily service over the main line, also on the A. & S. 

Asheville is the county-seat, a city containing now a population 
of upwards of 12,000, with all the conveniences of a city, with num- 
erous fine hotels unsurpassed in the South, electric and gas lighting, 
electric railways, waterworks, sewerage, improved paved streets, tele- 

312 North Carolina and its Ricsourcbs. 

phone exchange, ice factories, etc. A complete system of public 
schools for both races, several private schools of merit, including the 
famous Bingham Military School for boys are in operation. Its fame 
as a health and pleasure resort extends over the continent. 

Buncombe county contains 381,388 acres of land, valued at 
$3,227,695, and 4,433 town lots, valued at $3,739,710. The number 
of domestic animals is 4,086 horses, 1,875 niules, 12,070 cattle, 9,709 
hogs and 3,463 sheep. Taxes — State, $20,543.77; pensions, $3,766.15; 
schools, $27,889.29; county, $49,189.51. Population — white, 28,640; 
colored, 6,626; all others, 11; total, 35,266. 

Burke county lies southwest of Caldwell on both sides of the 
Catawba river, which traverses its middle section and drains its 
entire territory. Its southern flank lies upon the crests of the South 
Mountains, which here reach an elevation of over 3,000 feet above 
the sea and send off spurs in a northerly and northeasterly direction 
almost to the middle of the county. The northern end is elevated 
upon two of the most massive spurs of the Blue Ridge, Linville and 
Table Rock, which here rise to an elevation of over 4,000 feet; and 
from this are thrust out numerous long and rugged spurs and ridges 
in a southeasterly course. A large part of the territorj^ of this 
county, therefore, is mountainous, and the average elevation is not 
less than 1,300 feet. In its middle section are considerable tracts of 
red clay soils, with forests predominantly of oak, hickory, etc., while 
the remainder of the county is characterized in this respect by mixed 
forests of oak, pine, chestnut, etc., with white pine in the mountains 
of the south and north. The river and creek bottoms are very exten- 
sive and fertile, and have light-colored clays, loams, and sandy soils. 
In the middle section, on both sides of the river, the uplands usually 
have a red clay soil and oak forests. The other parts of the county 
have soils of a lighter color, yellowish to gray loams, and forests of 
the usual mixed character of the region — oak, pine, chestnut, sour- 
wood, dogwood, etc. Placer gold mines are numerous in the South 
Mountains, and there are several vein mines on the north side of the 
count5^ Cotton and tobacco have been added to the list of cultivated 
crops within a few years, but grain forms the chief crop. 

The diffusion of gold through this county is remarkable. It is found 
chiefly on the south side of the line of the Western North Carolina 
railroad, and most largely among the South Mountains, on its spurs 
and among its valleys. The gold area extends into the adjoining 
county of Rutherford, the placer workings of which have been only 
surpassed in profit by those in California, and at one time the resort 
to them was as large and tumultuous as ever animated the immortal 
"Forty-niners." The quantity of gold taken here between 1832 
and 1842 was so great, and the needs of a circulating medium for the 
convenience of miners and the country around so pressing, that the 
General Government authorized the issue, by Dr. Bechtler, of Ruther- 
ford, of gold pieces of the denomination of $1.00, $2.50 and $5.00 pure 
gold, without alloy; and so great was the trust reposed in the knowledge 

Description op Counties. 313 

and the iategrity of the coiner, that the issue of this private, unique 
mint, passed current without question throughout the State. 

Morganton, the county seat, is the site of the great and han- 
somely built Western Asylum for the Insane; and the Asylum for the 
Deaf and Dumb for the whites at Raleigh, having become in danger of 
being overcrowded with patients with the growth of population, the 
Legislature made provision for the erection of another institution at 
Morganton for the same class of unfortunates, to be known as "The 
North Carolina School for the Deaf and Dumb," which is now complete 
and in successful operation, with some two-hundred white deaf-mutes. 
Here also is a cotton factory and an extensive steam tannery, one of 
the largest and best equipped in the south. The population is 2,475, 
exclusive of the State institutions. The town has well graded streets 
which are being macadamized and the side walks paved with brick. 
A first class electric light system supplies light for streets and build- 
ings. Morganton is much frequented as a summer resort, and has, 
besides its exceptionable climate and magnificent scenery, a cultured 
and hospitable people to charm the visitor. Glen Alpine has a 
population of 260. 

There are in Burke county 245,484 acres of land, valued at $778,- 
593; and 500 town lots valued at ^233,165. The number of domestic 
animals is — horses, 1,276; mules, 1,492; cattle 5,277; hogs, 6,707; 
sheep, 2,161. Taxes — State ^3,030.68; pensions, $655.96; schools, 
-$6,056.89; county, $10,453.96. Population — white, 12,378; colored, 
2,561; total, 14.939. This by last census — it is now over 16,500. 


Cabarrus county is not unlike the adjacent counties in general 
features, its topographical character being similar, and its agricultural 
products the same. It is drained by the upper waters of Rocky river, 
one of the chief affluents of the Yadkin, and abounds in water-courses, 
which traverse its territory from northwest to southeast, dividing it 
into narrow zones or flattish swells, the higher parts of which are 
comparatively level and are covered with a growth of oaks and pines 
and have a characteristic gray to yellow loam soil, while along the 
borders of the streams there are numerous and often extensive tracts 
of alluvial bottom lands, which, as well as large tracts of red clay and 
dark gravelly loam soils, are covered with heavy forests of oak, hick- 
or3^, walnut, poplar, maple, etc. Along the eastern margin of the 
county lies a narrow belt of a few miles in breadth of slate hill-land, 
in the forests of which the short-leaf pine predominates. The soils 
of this tract are much less productive than the average of the county. 
Cotton enters as a large element into the agriculture of this county, 
and divides almost equally the attention of its population. 

Cabarrus was early famed for the discovery within its territory of 
the largest mass of pure gold ever f )und in the eastern part of the 
United States. The search for that metal was continued for many 
years with great success by placer mining, and is still continued in 
that form and also by vein mining. During this year (1896) a nugget 
weighing more than twenty-three pounds was found. 

314 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

Concord, the county seat, on the Southern railroad, is a thriving- 
town, with a population of 6,000, and contains cotton mills and other 
manufacturing establishments, among them the Odell Manufacturing 
Co., the Cannon's Manufacturing Co. and the Cabarrus Mills. Mount 
Pleasant has a population of 400; here is located Mount Pleasant 
College, under the auspices of the Lutheran denomination. 

The county contains 227,339 acres of land, valued at $1,372,286; 
and 770 town lots, valued at $499,621. 

The number of domestic animals is — horses, 2,265; mules, 1,631; 
goats, 147; cattle, 6,353; hogs, 8,171; sheep, 1,888. 

Taxes produce — for State purposes, $6,046.70; pensions, $1 ; 161 .60;. 
schools, $9,281.74; county, $13,366.44. 

Population — white, 12,863; colored, 5,459; total, 18,142. 


Caldwell county lies upon the flanks of the Blue Ridge, and 
extends southward beyond the Brushy mountains, a smaller and 
parallel range 2,000 feet and more in altitude. It is drained by the 
upper tributaries of the Catawba river and of the Yadkin, the larger 
of which rise in the summits of the Blue Ridge and its culminating 
region in Grandfather Mountain, which touches the elevation of 6,ooa 
feet above the sea. This mountain throws oif a number of long, 
heavy spurs down to the middle of the county, which is traversed 
midway, in a direction parallel to the other two chains, by the 
Warrior Mountains, so that its surface is for the most part broken 
and rugged; but the different chains are separated by extensive open 
valleys, and there is a great area of river and creek bottoms. The 
lands in the middle and southern sections generally have a red clay 
or yellow sandy loam soil, naturally fertile and easily responsive to 
proper treatment, while its higher regions on the ridges and spurs of 
the mountains are frequently slaty ledges, with gray sandy and 
gravelly soils of medium quality. Its forests are predominantly of 
oak in the middle section, and of pine and oak in the southern and 
northern — that is, in the more mountainous regions, while, in the 
latter section, white pine, hemlock and chestnut constitute a con- 
siderable element of the forest growth. The chief crops are grain, 
but tobacco culture has been recently introduced, and fruits, especially 
apples, are of large size and fine flavor; but peaches, pears, grapes and 
small fruits all grow to perfection. Co/n, wheat, oats, rye, barley 
and buckwheat, winter cabbage and Irish potatoes, as well as grass 
and cattle, form the chief products. 

Through the northern part of this county run the Yadkin river and 
some of its upper tributaries, along which lie that beautiful system of 
broad and fertile valleys which so early in the history of this 
section of the State attracted settlement, the immigration being 
marked by the preponderance of brave, energetic men, able to secure 
their hold against the resistance of the Indians, as well as to subdue 
the forces of nature, resulting in that lenghtened period of repose and 
the reduction of the valleys to that finish of culture and stage of 
refinement which they now present to the eye. The valley of the 

Description oi'' Counties. 315 

Yadkin is conspicuous through its entire length for its beauty, 
fertility and productiveness. 

I^enoir is the county seat, a pretty town of 1,046 people, and long 
noted as an educational centre. It is the terminus of the Chester and 
Lenoir Narrow Gauge railroad, connecting at Hickory with the 
Western North Carolina railroad. At this place is located one of the 
largest lumber plants in the western part of the State, which has 
constructed some ten miles of railroad into the denser timber; here is 
also a furniture factory, a roller flour mill and other industries. The 
county is also rich in mineral; several gold mines of importance, as 
well as iron and asbestos deposits are worth}^ of mention. There are 
also good water powers in the county. 

The number of acres of land is 323,751, valued at $961,438, and 
296 town lots, valued at $101,391. The number of domestic animals 
is — horses, 1,476; mules, 1,236; cattle, 6,741; hogs, 8,411; sheep, 2,965. 
Taxation yields — for State purposes, $3,479.27; pensions, $725.75; 
schools, $6,011.39; county, $4,620.94. Population — white, 10,737; 
colored, 1,561; total, 12,318. 


Camden county is a long narrow strip of territory, parallel to 
Currituck. Northwestward it reaches the Dismal swamp, and south- 
ward, Albemarle sound, and lies between two of its projecting arms, 
Pasquotank river and North river. The northern and larger portion 
of this count}' belongs to the description of semi-swamp or oak flats^ 
and along the main rivers, and frequently for a mile or two from their 
margins, are gum and cypress swamps. At a distance from the 
streams these lands, as in the adjoining county, are characterized by 
a heavy growth of oak, hickory, short-leaf pine, etc. The middle 
portion of the southern end of this county, along the divide be- 
tween its two bounding water-courses, has a narrow zone of sandy 
loam soil, with long-leaf pine forests. The main crops are corn and 
cotton, with some small grains; but fishing and truck-farming are also 
among the common and profitable industries, and several thousand- 
bushels of flax-seed are annually exported. Shipments are made to 
Norfolk by the Dismal Swamp canal and by rail. 

The lumbering and trucking interests are of considerable im- 
portance, and the possibilities of the latter are very great. Camden 
is the county seat, with several hundred population, and there are 
several other villages where various industries are pursued. 

Camden county contains i2o,49oacresof land, valued at $349,214, 
and 82 town lots valued at $22,927. The number of domestic animals 
is 1,034 horses, 398 mules, 7,820 hogs, 2,932 cattle and 1,625 sheep. 
Taxation produces — for State purposes, $1,253.74; pensions, $275.98; 
schools, $2,421.99; county, $2,804.79. Population — white, 3,347^ 
colored, 2,320; total, 5,567. 


Carteret county occupies a long strip of country' south of Craven 
county and of Pamlico sound, and is bounded southward by the 
Atlantic Ocean, It is traversed east and west through the middle 

3i6 North Caroi^ina and its Rksourceis. 

by a succession of swamps, the largest of which, occupying its east- 
ern peninsular projection, is called the Open Ground Prairie swamp. 
This is a peat swamp, quite barren in its middle parts, but fringed 
around its margin with oak flats and gray silty soil. There is also 
a line of sand islands (sand dunes) along the coast, and inland, par- 
allel to the coast, are several ridges of long-leaf pine sandy lands. 
The highest part of the county is only thirty-seven feet above tide. 
Carteret has the advantage of the best harbor on the coast of this 

This county lies immediately on the sea coast; its general direc- 
tion is east and west or nearly so. The prevailing winds in summer 
being from the south and southwest, blowing directly from the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, over Beaufort and Morehead City, make these towns 
exceedingly healthy seaside resorts. It is protected from the ocean by 
narrow strips of beach and sand hills, that are known as the "banks." 
Between these banks and the mainland are two narrow sounds, navi- 
gable for small vessels, known as Core sound and Bogue sound. There 
are several navigable creeks emptying into these sounds, giving facili- 
ties to farmers for the shipment of their crops. The soil is generally 
light and sandy, and will produce all of the cereals and cotton, also 
melons of very large size and of exquisite flavor; also sweet potatoes, 
Irish potatoes, and all kinds of vegetables. The season is very early, 
owing to proximity of the ocean. 

The Atlantic and North Carolina railroad terminates at More- 
head City, which lies immediately on Beaufort harbor; the waters are 
of sufficient depth to admit vessels of very large size. On the bar 
there are twenty feet of water at mean tide. In this county, on the 
"Banks," are droves of wild hardy horses, known as bank ponies. 
These animals, though small, make very efficient farm horses. 

The principal industry of the county is fishing. Carteret boasts 
of having a greater variety of food fish than any other section of same 
area in the United States. There are also several menhaden oil and 
guano factories doing a profitable business. Oysters and clams of 
the best quality are taken in abundance. 

There is another industry, that is carried on profitably by the 
people of Carteret county — whaling. At certain seasons, these hugh 
monsters of the deep visit the shores of North Carolina and are 
frequently seen and caught. 

Beaufort is the county seat, with a population of 2,900, includ- 
ing the township; and Morehead City, the terminus of the Atlantic 
and North Carolina railroad, has a population of 1,200. 

The number of acres of land in the county is 143,776 valued at 
$300,740, and 8,996 town lots, valued at $252,684. 

Number of domestic animals — horses, 1,277; mules, 93; goats, 
III; cattle, 6,260; hogs, 9,117; sheep, 1,422. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $1,771.94; pensions, $436.39; 
schools, $4,232.15; county, $10,346.28. 

Population — white, 8,528; colored, 2,297; total, 10,825. 

Description of Countiks. 317 


Caswell county has a somewhat thin gravelly soil, though with 
rich bottoms along Dan river, which flows along and through its 
northern border and along Country Line and Hyco creeks. The 
larger part of its territory is devoted to the production of bright 
yellow tobacco, while grain crops occupy a comparatively subordinate 
position, and are produced principally along the river and creek bot- 
toms which abound in the northern and eastern sections of this 
county. The northeastern section consists largely of red clay lands, 
with oak and hickory forests, while the lighter tobacco soils occupy 
most of the southern and western portions. Caswell ranks third 
among the tobacco counties in aggregate product. The crop averages 
annually 2,500,000 pounds, and more occasionally. 

It has only a few urban settlements, the population being dis- 
tributed on their farms, well cultivated and largely adorned with 
handsome and commodious houses. Yanceyville is the county seat, 
noted for its elegant court-house, costing $35,000. The population of 
the town is 350. Milton is the principal town in the county 
and has a population of 700. It is an important tobacco market, 
handling no less than 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 pounds annually in its 
three sales warehouses. It is situated in the northern part of the 
county and the northern corporate limits of the town is the Virginia 
line. The lands around Milton, being on the Dan river, are very fer- 
tile, producing fine corn and tobacco. 

Leasburg, a little village of 150 inhabitants, is surrounded by a 
fertile country, also producing fine crops of tobacco, &c. The chest- 
nut finds its eastern limit here; quite a number of bearing trees are to 
be found. 

Caswell contains 257,163 acres of land, valued at $713,474 and 
246 town lots, valued at $95,706. 

Of domestic animals it has — horses, 1,771; mules, 944; cattle, 
3,299; hogs, 7,350; sheep, 1,088. 

Taxes yield — for State purpose, $3,152.77; pensions, $679.54; 
schools, $6,021.59; county, $5,450.10. 

Population — white, 6,639; colored, 9,389; total, 16,028. 


Catawba county lies on the northern border of the cotton belt 
and on the margin of the Piedmont region of the State. It is 
bounded northward and eastward by the Catawba river, and has its 
western end on the foot hills of the South mountains. As to its 
middle, southern and eastern parts, it resembles the county of Iredell, 
from which it is separated by the Catawba river. Through the 
middle region of it, and in a northeast and southwest direction, is 
a broad belt of oak and hickory forest with a red clay soil, while that 
of the western section is a light to yellow sandy loam. The streams 
of this county, all of which flow into the Catawba, are occasionally 
bordered by considerable tracts of alluvial lands, and along the course 
of the Catawba are extensive bottoms. These and the red lands of 

31 8 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

the county are very productive. In the southeastern corner, as well 
as along the northwestern border, are mountain spurs which rise to 
an elevation of 1,500 feet and more, above sea-level. A broad flattish 
plateau crosses the county in a northwest and southeast direction 
between these mountain spurs, which, for the most part, is charac- 
terized by sandy and gravelly loams, and its oak forests are inter- 
mingled with much pine. 

The culture of cotton has been introduced into the county since 
1870, and has become one of the money crops. The larger part of its 
territory is still devoted to grain, of which more than half a million 
bushels are produced. Tobacco has been added to the list of its 
products within a few years, nearly half of the county being well 
adapted to the better grades of this crop. 

This county was largely settled by immigrants of German origin, 
who retain, unimpaired, their thrift, industry and skill, both as 
farmers and in mechanical industries. Few counties have better rail- 
road facilities, and not many counties in the State are better cultivated. 
A large proportion of the population belongs to the (German) Re- 
formed and lyUtheran denominations; their churches dot the county 
and towns; other denominations are also well represented. It is 
traversed from east to west by the Western North Carolina railroad, 
now a part of the Southern Railway system; and from north to south 
by the Chester and lycnoir Narrow Gauge. On the former of these 
roads are situate the towns of Catawba, Claremont, Newton, Conover, 
and Hickory. 

Newton is the county seat and has a population of about 1,500. 
It has good schools, good hotels, churches, &c., also one large cotton 
mill, two flouring mills, one hosiery mill and other manufacturing inter- 
ests. Catawba College,ofthe (German) Reformed Church is located here. 

Hickory is the largest town in the county; its population at last 
census was 2,023, but has increased considerably since. It is an 
important business place, containing a large wagon factory, wood- 
working establishments, &c., good schools, hotels and churches. 
Lenoir and Claremont colleges are located here. The famous Spark- 
ling Catawba Springs are eight miles from Hickory, ten from Newton 
and seven from Conover. Within two miles of Newton, Yount's 
Spring has recently been found; its waters are said to be effective in 
dyspepsia and kidney troubles. 

Maiden, a village of five-hundred inhabitants, contains two cotton 
factories, with other evidences of thrift. 

Catawba, Conover and Claremont are well located towns, with 
populations of 300, 350 and 200 respectively. Concordia College is 
located at Conover. 

There are seven cotton mills in the county; and on the Catawba 
river, within the limits of this county, there are quite a number of 
water-powers, within easy reach of railroad, awaiting improvement. 

The county contains 256,423 acres of land, valued at $1,347,980; 
887 town lots, valued at $377,119. 

Domestic animals — Horses, 2,786; mules, 1,668; cattle 7,614; 
hogs, 10,139; sheep, 2,738. 

Description op Counties. 319 

Proceeds of taxation — for State purposes, $5,905.90; pensions, 
^1,177.02; schools, $9,771; county $8,117.44. 

Population — white, 16.073, colored, 2,616; total, i8,68g. 


Chatham county lies contiguous to the long-leaf pine belt, and 
includes a small strip of it along the southern edge. It is drained 
by the waters of the Cape Fear river, the main affluents of which 
unite near its southeast corner. The principal of these, Deep river, 
has, on both sides, extensive bottom lands, covered with oak and 
short-leaf pine forests, which are very productive. A large part of 
its surface is hillj^ and broken, especially near the rivers, and in the 
middle and northwestern sections these hills rise to an elevation of 
from six hundred to seven hundred feet above the sea, attaining, in 
a few ca3e3, the elevation and designation of small mountains. The 
average elevation is five hundred feet. The soils are, for the most 
part, those of the oak uplands, generally sandy gray to yellowish 
loams, alternating here and there with belts of red clay soil. Toward 
the southern border, occur the sandy and gravelly oak and pine hills. 
With the exceptions noted, the forests consist mostl 3^ of oak, hickory, 
etc. Along the eastern margin of the county is a wide, level tract of 
oak and pine lands, with a gray clay loam soil of Triassic origin. 
Only a minor portion of Chatham, in the southern and eastern parts, 
is devoted to the culture of cotton, grain crops constituting its pre- 
dominant agricultural interest. The tobacco crop reaches very nearly 
half a million pounds annually, sometimes more. Its facilities 
for manufacturing are unsurpassed. Two large and two other con- 
siderable rivers cross its territory, with a fall of from three hundred 
to four hundred feet, and develop a force of more than 40,000 horse- 
power. The rivers provide only meagre facilities for navigation, but 
this defect is supplied by the Raleigh and Augusta Air-Line railroad, 
which passes through the southern part of the county, and which con- 
nects Pittsboro, the county seat, by a branch road of twelve miles, 
with Moncure. The Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley road runs through 
the whole western end of the county, and its construction has stimu- 
lated the growth of numerous villages, such as Egj^pt, Gulf, Goldston, 
Richmond, Ore Hill, Siler City and others, all of which have become 
centers of industrial pursuits, and locations of good schools. At Egypt, 
is a coal mine, the most extensive in the State, opened before the war, 
and now again operated with success. The coal is semi-bituminous. 
At Ore Hill, is a very valuable iron mine, worked during the Revolu- 
tionary war, and again during the late Civil war, and is now to be 
largely utilized in connection with the steel works in process of erec- 
tion at Greensboro. 

Pittsboro is the county seat. Its population, including the town- 
ship, is about 2,500. 

The total number of acres of land in the county is 459,487, the 
value of which is $1,803,550, and there are 690 town lots, valued at 
$136,255. - 

320 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

Of domestic animals there are 2,556 horses; 2,677 mules; 811 
goats; 13,305 cattle; 25,299 hogs; 15,051 sheep. 

Product of taxation — State, $6,195.13; pensions, $1,281,64; 
schools, $10,984.41; county, $13,481.82. 

Population — white, 17,214; colored, 8,199; total, 25,413. 


Cherokee county occupies the extreme western corner of the 
State, of which it includes the whole breadth, at this point less than 
twenty miles. It is bounded in part on the north by the Smoky 
mountains, and touches the states of Tennessee and Georgia on the 
west and south. The valley of the Valley river is open and level, with 
extensive bottoms and bordering hilly lands. This valley is nearly 
twenty miles long and from three to five miles broad, and contains a 
large proportion of fine agricultural lands. Its agriculture is divided 
between the culture of grains and grasses and cattle-raising. 

The timbered land amounts to at least four-fifths of the 
entire area and is covered generally with a heavy growth of almost all 
the varieties of the oak, interspersed with white and scaly bark hick- 
ory; tulip, or poplar, of two varieties, cucumber and wahoo, white 
ash, wild cherry, black and white walnut, black and sweet gum, red, 
white, mountain and ash-leaved maples, persimmon, dogwood, chest- 
nut and chinquapin, red, yellow and black birch, sassafras, white, 
3-ellow and black pines, hemlock, linn, snowdrop tree, black, yellow 
and honey locust, yellow wood (^Cladastis tinctovia), crab apple, serv- 
ice, hornbeam and ironwood, sycamore, etc. Portions of Cherokee, 
Graham, Swain and Macon counties contain very large quantities 
of chestnut oak as well as hemlock, and can thus furnish the materials 
for the largest tanning operations, as the climate and waters are so 
mild and pure as to oifer great inducements in this line. 

Besides the valley of Valley river already named, the valley of 
the Hiwassee and Nottely rivers, of Peach Tree, Brass Town and 
other creeks, extend an area of fertile and level arable lands found to 
wider extent than elsewhere in the mountains, the recession of the 
Blue Ridge into north Georgia permitting a large area of lands, hilly 
but not mountainous, together with the vallej^s, offering with favor- 
able climate and fertile soil every encouragement to agricultural pur- 

In minerals this county is exceedingly prolific. Gold is found 
in numerous localities and has amply rewarded research. Iron in 
abundance and of superior quality is of such quantity and value as 
long since to have attracted industry and capital; marble of all colors 
and varieties underlaj'S many sections, and is worked to advantage; 
talc or soapstone is found in great abundance and of peculiar excel- 
lence, and the quarries in Nottely river have long furnished exhaust- 
less supplies to a Georgia company. Manganese is found in addition 
to other minerals. 

The Western North Carolina railroad is now completed to Mur- 
phy, and the North Georgia and Marietta road connects that town 
with Atlanta. With the addition of these facilities to access and trans- 

Description op Counties. 321 

portation, capital has already been attracted to the county, and its 
rich resources are being developed. Several colonies have recently 
located here. 

Murphy, the county seat, has a population of 900. 

There are 322,527 acres of land in the count}*, valued at $1,018, 
360, and 571 town lots valued at $149,987. 

The number of domestic animals is — horses, 1,260; mules, 663; 
cattle, 6,805; liogs, 7,486; sheep, 6,043. 

Products of taxation — State, $3,163.84; pensions, $615. 94; schools, 
^4.713-37; county, $11,113.67. 

Population — white, 9,655; colored, 321; Indians, 48; total, 


Chowan county lies in the angle of the Chowan river and Albe- 
marle sound. Northward it consists of sandy, upland piny woods, 
except narrow tracts along the river and some of its tributaries, v/here 
cypress swamps of considerable extent are fotmd; and there are also 
large areas of oak-flats. The southern portion of the county, lying 
near the sound and south of the Yeopim river, is characterized by a 
gray clay-loam soil and a mixed oak and pine forest growth, and is 
for tlie most part very productive. Bear swamp, which crosses the 
county in a northeast and southwest direction, is more properly a semi- 
swamp from three to five miles v/ide, very level, with a very rich gray 
silty soil, and the characteristic growth of such lands comprises 
short-leaf pine, oaks, maple, ash, dogwood, occasionally C3'press and 
gum, and frequently a large admixture of holly, which here attains 
the size of oaks and furnishes a superior cabinet wood. Its fisheries 
are among the largest and most profitable in the country. Being sur- 
rounded on three sides by navigable waters and crossed by a line of 
railway, the county has abundant means of transportation. 

The fisheries referred to are probabl}^ the largest and most profit- 
able in the section devoted to that industry, lying along the shores of 
Albemarle sound and the lower waters of Chowan river. The seine 
fisheries engage much capital and numerous hands; the seines; includ- 
ing the handling ropes, are upwards of three and a half miles in 
length, and are laid out by steam flats and drawn into the shore by 
steam power. The fishing season begins in February and continues 
until early in May. In addition to the seines, the pound net fishing is a 
very large industry, and the pound nets being more numerous, probably 
catch more fish in the aggregate than the seines. Sturgeon fishing and 
the production of caviar from the roe is an additional and profitable 
industry for the fishermen. The principal catch is shad, now chiefly 
packed in ice and sent fresh to the Northern markets; herring, caught 
in immense numbers, often from 60,000 to 100,000 in one haul, 
largely shipped fresh on ice, but mostly salted and packed in barrels; 
rock fish, sturgeon, perch and other fish, are also caught in abundance. 

Edenton, the county seat, is one of the oldest towns in North 
Carolina, prettily situated on Edenton Bay, and has the benefit of 
water and railroad transportation, by the latter with Elizabeth City 

322 North Carolina and its Resources. 

and Norfolk, and by the former with the navigation of the sound and 
other waters of the State. Chowan is crossed by two lines of rail- 
road, viz: The Norfolk and Southern and the Suffolk and Carolina. 
These transportation facilities have greatly stimulated the business of 
truck farming. The population of Edenton is 3,500. The lumber 
interest of the county is large and important; a single saw- mill plant, 
located at Edenton, has a daily output of 150,000 feet. 

The county contains 101,632 acres of land, valued at $546,904, 
and 549 town lots, valued at $307,109. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses, 948; mules, 578; goats, 
124; cattle, 2,476; hogs, 9,246; sheep, 682. 

Proceeds of taxation — for State, $2,944.26; pensions, $569.77; 
schools, $4,492.42; county, $3,908.14. 

Population — white, 4,010; colored, 5,157; total, 9,116. 


The county of Clay is bounded on the south by Georgia, on the 
west by Cherokee county, on the north and east by Macon county. 

The northeastern portion of the county is very mountainous and 
furnishes fine natural pasturage for the raising of stock. The county 
is drained in a westerly direction by the Hiwassee river and its many 
tributaries, and has ample waterpower for floating timber or running 
machinery of any description. The timber of this county is immense 
and of very fine quality. The river and creek valleys furnish fine 
farming lands which are very productive, and are well adapted to the 
raising of corn, oats, wheat, rye, grass, tobacco, &c. The county 
abounds in minerals, such as gold, mica, corundum, &c. Clay is 
small and not very densly populated. 

The county is finely diversified with mountains and valleys. 
Those bordering on the Hiwassee, alternately broad and contracted, 
are very fertile; those on the Tusquittee equally productive, though 
not so extensive. The broad rolling lands on the south along the 
Brasstown and some smaller streams, and bounded on the south by 
the Chestatoe and other spurs of the Blue Ridge, are well adapted to 
wheat and other small grains, and to grass. The mountains along 
the eastern and northeastern sides are high and rugged, forming a 
landscape of great picturesqueness. The soil throughout the county 
is well adapted to grass, and hay is cured in large quantities, and 
large numbers of cattle and some horses and mules are annually driven 
to market. The lands are well tilled, and the number of improved 
implements for agriculture exceeds that of any county of its size in the 
western section. 

The county seat is Haysville, with a small population, that of 
the township being 1,500. 

The county contains 178,999 acres of land, valued at $323,779, 
and 75 town lots, valued at $13,350. 

Of domestic animals there are 674 horses; 595 mules; 3,283 cattle; 
4,567 hogs and 4,856 sheep. 

Description of Counties. 323 

Product of taxation — for State, $1,044.55; pensions, $217.30; 
schools, $1,750.74; county, $3,299.11, 

Population — white, 4,055; colored, 142; total, 4,197. 


Cleveland county is situated on the southern border of the State. 
Its northern end rests upon the summits of the South mountains, at 
an elevation of nearly 3,000 feet above sea-level, while along its 
southern border runs the lower King's mountains range; from any of 
the elevations in the county the Blue Ridge is plainly visible. It is 
drained by several large tributaries of the Broad river, which rise in 
this chain and cross the county southward into South Carolina. Its 
agricultural and topographical features are very similar to those of 
Catawba county, to which its territory is contiguous. Its soils 
consist of alternating tracts of red or reddish clay and gray and 
yellow gravelly loams (chiefly the latter), and have their correspond- 
ing forests of oak, and of oak mingled with pine. This county pro- 
duces cotton throughout its territorj^ even up to the flanks and on 
the slopes of the South mountains, although this form of agriculture 
is the growth of two decades, the product having increased twenty- 
fold in that time. Gold mining is also practiced, placers being 
common in the north, and vein mines in the south end of the county. 

The soil is generally well adapted to grain, especially to wheat, 
which is of fine quality and unusually productive, fiftj^-two bushels to 
the acre having been reported, and twentj'-five bushels is not uncom- 
mon. Oats and corn thrive in unusual luxuriance. Tobacco proves 
well adapted to both soil and climate, and the finer varieties are in no 
way inferior to those raised in the counties which for generations 
have brought up their culture to the dignity of a fine art. And this 
is the result of diversities in the characteristics of the soil, there 
being found those alternations from the deep rich mould of the lowlands 
and the lighter covering of the uplands, not less abounding in the 
elements of fertility. The surface of the county is undulating, but it is 
watered by several large rivers and creeks, among which are the two 
Broad rivers and Buffalo creek. Along these stretch large areas of rich 
alluvial bottoms, unsurpassed in fertility. Among the subjects of 
cultivation to which there is every encouragement is that of the 
grape, which, in the past, received more attention than now. 

Among the minerals found in the county is tin, near King's 
mountain, of which great ultimate expectation is entertained; mona- 
zite, of which large shipments have been made north and to foreign 
countries; mica, of which some of the largest pieces yet xound have 
been obtained; gold, copper, corundum, kaolin, etc. 

The water-power of the county is great and exhaustless, and is 
applied to eight cotton mills and other industries. In addition to the 
water-power, Cleveland has the aid of three important railroads — the 
Carolina Central, bisecting it nearly from east to west, wnth its east- 
ern terminus at Wilmington; and a part of the great Seaboard Air- 
lyine system, connecting with Norfolk and Atlanta, and the Ohio 

324 North Carolina and its Re;sources. 

river and Charleston, connected on the south with Charleston, with 
ultimate northern terminus on the Ohio river, but at present com- 
pleted only to Marion, on the Western North Carolina railroad. 
These roads pass by Shelby. The main line of the Southern system 
passes through the southern end of the county touching Grover 
and King's Mountain. 

Shelby is the county seat, finely situated on a high plateau, well 
drained on all sides and, in beauty of location and elegance of con- 
struction, is unsurpassed by any town of its size in the State. It is 
intersected by broad, straight and shaded streets, and is adorned 
with a large, well-planted square, in the center of which is the court- 
house, the culmination of fine prospects commanding the surrounding 
country and the distant mountains. An excellent quality of lithia 
water is piped to the court square from the lithia spring, three miles 
distant. Here there are good hotels, fine churches, flourishing 
schools and an industrious population. Two miles east are the 
Cleveland Springs, celebrated for their varied curative powers, their 
comfortable accommodations and their agreeable environments. 
Four miles south are Patterson's Springs and the same distance north 
McBrayer's Springs — both held in high repute. Shelby has a popu- 
lation of 2,200; Kings Mountain, 1,200; and a number of small villages 
are scattered through the county. At the two former places are located 
cotton and roller flour mills. A portion of King's Mountain is in 
Gaston county, and it has four cotton mills which are included in the 
eight referred to above. 

The material condition of the people of this county is improving; 
while there has been no decrease in the cotton crop, the county is 
producing a surplus of breadstufifs which is shipped out, and during 
the last decade personal debt has been steadily decreasing among the 

The environment of hills on three sides of the county, with an 
open southern exposure gives to it an exceptionally fine winter climate, 
singularly free from snow; therefore very inviting to sufferers from 
pulmonary diseases, while its altitude and proximity to the mountains 
makes it one of the most desirable of summer residences. 

The county contains 278,752 acres of land valued at $1,647,705; 
and 811 town lots, valued at $295,632. 

Of domestic animals there are 2,574 horses; 2,951 mules; 7,607 
cattle; 8,247 hogs; 2,321 sheep. 

Products of taxation — For State uses $6,674.81; pensions, $1, 
365.40; schools, $11,487.93; county, $18,219.97. 

Population — white, 17,301; colored, 3,093, total, 20,394. 


This county lies in the southeast corner of the State bordering 
upon South Carolina. It contains a considerable portion of upland 
piny woods. It is penetrated through all its parts by narrow belts of 
gum and cypress swamps and considerable tracts of oak and pine 
flats. The average soil of its upland piny woods is of moderate fer- 
tility, well adapted to the growth of cotton, but the richer swamp and 

Description of Counties. • 325 

gray-loam lands are devoted principally to corn. Brown marsh and 
White marsh are two large bodies of swamp in the eastern side of the 
county, and Gum swamp and others of less extent are found in the 
south and west. The production of cotton, potatoes and rice divides 
with lumber and naval stores the interest of its people. Marl is found 
in several parts of the county. 

The climate is mild, and from its proximity to the Gulf stream, 
has some features of the semi-tropical; to such extent that the sugar 
cane is cultivated in patches by almost every family for domestic 
use, and cane sugar has been successfully made. It is a climate 
and soil well suited to the grape, and wine has long been made on a 
considerable scale. 

The swamps furnish large quantities of timber, shingles and staves, 
which are transported to market through the Waccamaw and other 
streams having their sources in the county; or by the railroads which 
traverse the county, the Carolina Central, the Wilmington, Columbia 
and Augusta, and the Wilmington and Chadbourne. In this county 
is the beautiful and extensive sheet of water known as Waccamaw 
lake, ten or twelve miles long, and from six to eight wide, from ten 
to fifteen feet deep, with clear waters, abounding in fish, and on two 
of its sides with clean sandy beach. It is a frequent resort for pleas- 
ure parties from Wilmington and elsewhere. 

Whiteville is the county seat, with a population of 600. 

A large number of northern and western settlers have located in 
Columbus, and these colonies are growing. 

The lumber and shingle business is extensively carried on at 
Whiteville, Hub and Hallsboro, thriving communities. 

The trucking interest of the county is annually increasing in 
volume, as its warm climate gives it a pre-eminence in successfully 
producing early crops for northern markets. Improved methods char- 
acterize the agriculture of the county. 

Columbus county contains 540,109 acres of land, valued at $1,126, 
334, and 345 town lots, valued at $90,888. 

Of domestic animals it contains 730 horses; 731 mules; 3,369 
goats; 9,678 cattle; 26,703 hogs; 6,971 sheep. 

Proceeds of Taxation — State, $3,839.35; pensions, $834.07; 
schools, $8,344.16; county, $6,806. 19. 

Population — white, 11,804; colored, 6,027; total, 17,831. 


Craven is a large, straggling county, stretching sixty miles along 
the lower reaches of the Neuse river, which passes through its centre 
and drains its entire area. The physical description of its territory, 
•especially the southern and eastern sections, is identical with that of 
the two adjoining counties. It consists largely of swamps, pocoson 
and oak flats. The section lying north of the Neuse river, belongs 
for the most part in its agricultural features to the second subdivision 
or long-leaf pine belt, having considerable tracts of pine flats and 
long-leaf pine ridges, with a soil often very sandy and unproductive, 
when compared with other sections of the county. Near its upper 

326 North Carolina and its Resources. 

margin it is penetrated by considerable tracts of swamp and semi- 
swamp lands, which project southward from Pamlico river and form 
properly the western extension of Bay river swamp. Along the 
southern shore of the Neuse river, the soil is mainly a close gray loam. 
The great Dover pocoson, occupying more than one hundred square 
miles in the southwestern angle, is elevated sixty feet above tide in 
its central part, and is very flat and sterile for the most part, but has 
strips of oak and pine flats radiating in all directions from the centre 
along the numerous streams. 

Craven county is interesting historically, as being one of the origi- 
nal Proprietary counties. It v/as formed from Bath county, and 
derives its name from William, Karl Craven, one of the Lords Pro- 
prietors. It is more interesting, perhaps, from its having been 
selected by the Baron De Graffenreid, as the locality of his Swiss 
colony, which was planted here in the early years of the eighteenth 
century, the point of settlement at the junction of the Trent and 
Neuse rivers, having been named after Bern, the principal city of the 
Swiss canton from which the colonists were transplanted. The 
colony did not flourish; yet in process of time it became the seat of 
refinement and high intellectual culture, and some of the leading men 
of North Carolina draw their origin from this place. During this 
year, (1896,) the city of Bern, in Switzerland, presented through the 
Swiss Minister, Mr. Pioda, a flag bearing the emblem of the Swiss 
and the colors of Bern, to the city of New Bern. 

The city is beautifully situated at the junction of Neuse and 
Trent rivers, the Neuse forming its eastern, and the Trent its south- 
ern boundary: both wide and beautiful streams. The soil upon which 
it is built is light and sandy, and gently slopes to the rivers; conse- 
quently the drainage is perfect. Owing to its situation at the junc- 
tion of two wide rivers, and only twentj^-eight statute miles from the 
ocean, the winters are mild, and the summer heats are greatly modi- 
fied by the daily sea breeze from the southwest and southeast. 

This is the largest trucking centre in the State. Thousands of 
boxes and barrels of potatoes, cabbage, melons, asparagus, lettuce, 
spinach, cucumbers, early peas, beans, &c., are shipped annuall}^ 
Also small fruits; but this is hardly second to the immense business 
done in fish and game. These subjects are treated under their several 

Craven county possesses one valuable peculiarity in a land so near 
the flat sandy ocean beach. The entire county is underlaid either 
with marl or with a conglomerate of shells as hard and as durable as 
stone, which is used for building purposes and also for the manufac- 
ture of lime. On the Trent river it is found in inexhaustible quantities, 
and on the sides of the river it rises in banks to the height of fifteen 
or twenty feet. 

New Bern, the county seat, and the only considerable town in the 
county, has a population of 7,843. It is beautifully laid off and well 
shaded, handsomely built, wnth fine public buildings, numberless fine 
residences, extensive business houses, mills and factories, and does a 
very extensive business in fish and trucking. 

Deiscription op Counties. 327 

Craven county contains 316,726 acres of land, valued at $695,362; 
and 1,511 town lots, valued at $1,194,268. 

Of domestic animals there are — 1,239 horses; 849 mules; 6,082 
cattle; 445 goats; 14,101 hogs; 1,792 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State, $5,990.70; pensions, $1,216.10; 
schools, $10,543.35; county, $27,573.96. 

Population — white, 7,175; colored, 13,358; total, 20,533. 


Through the middle of Cumberland county, from its western 
margin, on the Moore county line, to the Cape Fear river, which 
crosses the eastern side of the county, lies a broad, irregular zone of 
"pine barrens," with a very sandy soil and an almost exclusive 
growth of long-leaf pine. On both sides of this zone, along the 
northern and southern sections of the county, with unimportant 
exceptions, and in the section eastward of the Cape Fear river, the 
soils belong to the class of gray sandy loams of the average upland 
piny woods. Near the river, on both sides, are large tracts of semi- 
swamp and oak and pine flats, which are very productive. Many of 
the streams which flow from the central pine barrens of the county 
contain narrow fringes of gum and cypress swamp, and the swampy 
tracts along the river often contain a considerable percentage of 
cypress. The turpentine and lumber interests are still important, 
though of diminishing importance each year with the gradual and 
certain consumption of the pine forests. The west side of the river, 
after rising from the river bottoms, is a rolling sandy country, occa- 
sionally presenting broad flats of lands susceptible of high improve- 
ment, producing grains and fruits of marked excellence. The river 
lands are devoted to cotton and corn, and fruits. The soil and 
climate are just right for the production of the finer grades of tea, 
such as come from China and Japan. Before the Civil war, the then 
U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture began experiments in tea culture, 
and the trees there planted still flourish, and some tea is annually 
produced. The possibilities in this direction present opportunities 
for future successful work. 

Through the pine lands run numerous bold, strong and swiftly 
flowing streams, never diminished by drought and rarely excited by 
freshet. These, from the earliest settlement, furnished convenient 
mill-sites, and originated that active 1 Limber industry so stimulating 
to the prosperity of the county and that of the towns on the Cape 
Fear river; and, upon the successful introduction of the cotton 
manufacture into the State, their power was speedily applied to the 
use of cotton-mills, which were built in the town of Fayetteville, on 
Cross and Blount's creek, on Buckhead, Beaver Dam and Rockfish 
(two of these) creeks, and on L,ower Little river; and on all of these 
there are now large and flourishing cotton factories. 

Cumberland county, of which Fayetteville is now the chief com- 
mercial city, was formed in 1734, and taken from that extensive terri- 
tory then called "Bladen," and was named in compliment to William, 
Duke of Cumberland. 

328 North Carolina and its Resources. 

In 1736 a ship-load of emigrants came over from the Highlands 
of Scotland and located in Cumberland, on the Cape Fear, near the 
mouth of Cross creek, where they found a number of their countrymen 
already settled. For several years, and immediately after the battle 
of Culloden, 1746, large companies of the Highlanders continued to 
come, until the colony became quite numerous; so that, in 1760, 
the settlement began to assume importance, and* was formally set 
apart for a town. It was called "Campbellton," in honor of Mr. 
Farquhard Campbell, who was the principal personage among them. 

Fayetteville, the county seat, is situated at the head of steamboat 
navigation on the Cape Fear river, 120 miles by water above Wil- 
mington. Its position, both with relation to the seaport of Wilming- 
ton and to the interior, gave it an early and a very great importance, 
and after the Revolutionary war it became the chief receiving and 
distributing point for a greater number of the interior towns and 
counties. It lost much of its importance by the construction of 
railroads, which largely diverted its traffic to other points. By 
enlarging the operations of its business, which it was enabled to do 
by the addition of naval stores to the subjects of its business, and by 
the construction of several railroads, it is rapidly regaining what it 
had lost. It now has the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley road, extend- 
ing from Mt. Airy, in Surry county, passing through Greensboro and 
terminating at Wilmington, with a branch from Fayetteville to 
Bennettsville, 3. C, a total of upwards of ^75 miles. In addition to 
this, the Coast Line system has completed its short-cut from Wilson, 
N. C, to Florence, S. C, thus shortening the distance between north 
and south, on this great highway of travel, by sixty miles. These 
additions to railroad facilities make Fayetteville an important railroad 
centre, through the good influences of which it must develop and 
prosper. Fayetteville is situated on the right bank of the Cape Fear 
river, and has a population of 5,000, and, including Cross township, 
of 7,500. 

Cumberland county contains 483,402 acres of land, valued at 
$1,367,750; and 1,331 town lots, valued at $759,660. 

Oi domestic animals there are 1,117 horses; 1,403 mules; 1,668 
goats; 8,030 cattle; 22,480 hogs; 4,444 sheep. 

Product of taxation — For State Purposes, $6,247.06; pensions, 
$1,278.33; schools, $11,537.50; county, $22,874.32. 

Population — white, 14,952; colored, 12,369; total, 27,321. 


Currituck county is bounded on the north by Virginia, east by 
the Atlantic ocean, south by Dare county, Kitty Hawk bay and 
Albemarle sound and west by North river and Camden county. It is 
traversed north and south by the Currituck sound, which is on an 
average about six miles wide. Between this sound and the Atlantic 
ocean, lies a narrow strip of sand beach about half a mile in width. 
This beach is interspersed with sand-dunes, which rise to a height of 
about fifty feet. That part of the beach called Kitty Hawk is covered 

Description of Counties. 329 

with a growth of short leaf pine, oak, hickory, dogwood, holly, &c. 
The body of the county is generally level and has a growth of oaks, 
hickory, short leaf pine, holly, gum, maple, juniper or white cedar, 
cypress, poplar, etc. 

The soils in this county are of different varieties — peaty, clay, 
clay loam, sandy loam and sandy; they are adapted to the culture of 
corn, oats, cotton, potatoes, both sweet and irish, melons and vegeta- 
bles of all kinds. Peaches, apples, pears, strawberries and other 
fruits also thrive well, and blackberries and huckleberries grow wild 
in profusion. All of these are shipped in season to cities north as 
far as New York and Boston. The shipping facilities are abundant 
both by rail and water. The Norfolk and Southern railroad passes 
through the county, but the chief shipping route is by the Albemarle 
and Chesapeake canal, which connects Currituck sound with Chesa- 
peake bay. 

Currituck sound abounds in fish of different varieties, which are 
caught and shipped to market. lyarge quantities of fish are also 
caught in the ocean and shipped from Currituck county. Wild fowl, 
such as geese, ducks, brant and swan, arrive in large numbers about 
the first of October, and inhabit the waters of Currituck sound, until 
the first of April, being equalled in numbers nowhere along our 
coast, and the food they obtain being abundant and conducive to high 
flavor, this section is much resorted to by gunners for market, as 
well as sportsmen. Their shooting is almost entirely upon the public 
waters of the sound, from batteries, bush blinds, etc. 

The sound is interspersed with numerous islands of low marsh 
lands, and considerable marsh land is also attached to the beach, both 
of which are used for grazing purposes. Islands, marshes and beach 
lands on the east side of the sound are almost entirely owned by 
wealthy amateur sportsmen, who resort here in the game season, 

Currituck county contains 127,865 acres of land, valued $310,885. 

The number of domestic animals is — horses, 1,407; mules, 294; 
goats, 93; cattle, 3,441; hogs, 10,403; sheep, 2,389. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $1,316,95; pensions, $314,01; 
schools, $3,235,49; county, $4,178.36. 

Population — white, 4,731; colored, 2,016; total, 6,747. 


The surface of Dare county is mainly water, the land, made up 
of a succession of long, narrow islands and peninsulas, being inter- 
penetrated throughout by great bays, sounds and navigable bayous. 
The county is bounded eastward by the Atlantic ocean, westward by 
Alligator river and southward by Pamlico sound. The larger por- 
tion, on the main-land, is a swamp, which lies a few feet above tide- 
level. Around the margins of this portion, next the sound, are tracts 
of a few miles, in places, of drainable, cultivable land belonging to 
the general description of oak flats, having a gray-loam soil of a close 
texture. It is also fringed by considerable bodies of marsh land next 
to the sound, from which large crops of cranberries are gathered. 
E-oanoke Island, a part of this county, lies within the upper portion 

330 North Carolina and its Resources. 

of Pamlico sound, and is a narrow tract twelve miles in length and 
from two to three miles in width. The upper portion is for the most 
part sandy, with a short-leaf pine growth, intermixed with oaks, and 
the southern half is mainly swamp and marsh. The easternmost part 
of the county, like the corresponding portion of Currituck, is a nar- 
row fringe of sand reef, properly a dune, which was originally cov- 
ered with a forest of short-leaf pine, oaks, hickories, dogwood, etc., 
with abundance of grape-vines. Here it was that the Scuppernong 
or its parent vine, was discovered by Amadas and Barlowe, and thus 
referred to in Dr. Hawk's history of the State, describing the landing 
on Roanoke Island in 1584: "We viewed the land about us, being 
where we first landed very sandy and low toward the waterside, but 
so full of grapes, as the very beating and surge of the sea overflowed 
them, of which we found such plenty as well there as in all places 
else," &c. These have in part disappeared, leaving a tract of sand 
waves, which are moving, under the impact of the trade winds, con- 
stantly toward the south-west into the sound, and sometimes rise to a 
height of more than 100 feet. There is comparatively little tillable 
land in the county. 

This county was formed in 1870 from the county of Hyde, to 
which was added portions of Carteret and Tyrrell counties, and derives 
its name from Virginia Dare, the first white child born on the con- 
tinent. A very large portion of Dare county is swamp land, and 
there are large bodies of it heavily timbered with cypress and juniper. 
On the side bounded by Pamlico sound there are lands that will pro- 
duce grasses, vegetables, corn, peas and potatoes. No portion of 
eastern Carolina presents better facilities for cattle-raising, the feed 
being abundant and the climate mild. The chief industry is fishing, 
which is carried on to a great extent. Roanoke Island forms a part 
of this county. Upon this island is Manteo, the county seat, named 
in honor of the Indian chief Manteo, the first of his race on the new 
continent to embrace the Christian religion. This island was the first 
place on the continent colonized by the English. 

In this county, on the banks lying immediately upon the sea 
coast, is the far-famed place of summer resort, known as Nags Head. 
This delightful resort is noted for its health, the sea-bathing, and its 
fine drives. 

Dare county has 188,178 acres of land, valued at $175,165, and 
79 town lots, valued at $25,555. 

Domestic animals are — 549 horses; 33 mules; 137 goats; 2,026 
cattle; 2,726 hogs; 1,140 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State use, $771.89; pensions, $185.35;, 
schools, $1,704.16; county $2,494.69. 

Population — white, 3,362; colored, 406; total, 3,768. 


Is one of the largest and finest counties in the State. It was 
established in 1822, from Rowan, and was "named in compliment of 
Gen. William Davidson, who fell at the passage of the Catawba river^ 

Description of Counties. 331 

at Chowan's Ford during the Revolutionary war, first of February, 

It is situated in the central portion of the State, in the Piedmont 
region. Whether viewed from its eastern and western or from its 
southern and northern boundaries, it is nearly in the center of the 
State, although L/exington, its county seat, is one hundred and seven- 
teen miles west of Raleigh. It is bounded on the north by Forsyth, 
east by Guilford and Randolph, south by the Yadkin river, which 
separates it from Stanly and Rowan, and on the west by the same 
river which separates it from Rowan and Davie. 

The county early attracted attention through the great fertility 
of the soil, especially in the southwestern part and that lying along 
the Yadkin river and its lower tributaries, and it was in this section 
that was formed the famous Jersey Settlement, or a portion of it^ 
a name given by immigrants chiefly from New Jersey and portions of 
Pennsylvania — retaining to this day its name, its fertility and the 
agricultural skill and industry of its early settlers. 

The county is still one of the leading producers of corn, oats and 
wheat, and in the latter probably has no equal in the State. The 
lands are as a whole, fertile and easily responsive to proper treatment. 
It is also a large producer of the better grades of tobacco, fine hay 
and excellent fruits and vegetables. Some cotton is also grown 
and of excellent quality. It has still immense and valuable forests 
of oak, hickory, poplar, ash and pine. 

It is one of the leading counties in its mineral wealth, being in 
the "gold belt," yet producing in the past more silver than the rest 
of the State put together. The Silver Hill and Silver Valley mines 
are among the best known in the State, and the former has been 
developed to a depth of near eight hundred feet. Besides these may 
be mentioned the Conrad Hill mines, the Lalor, the Ward, the Wel- 
born, the Hoover and the Emmons. 

The county is traversed from northeast to southwest by the North 
Carolina division of the Southern Railway system, and along the line 
are a number of thriving towns. The Legislature at its session of 
1889, cut off a portion of Davidson and credited it to the county of 

Lexington is the capital, a most flourishing and beautiful village- 
of 2,000 inhabitants. It contains several manufacturing establish- 
ments, including two large cotton mills. Thomasville is noted for its 
good schools; it has a population of 500, and has manufacturing and 
other industries. There are a number of smaller villages in the county, 
all of which are centers of some industry. 

The climate is pleasant, not being subject to the extremes of heat 
and cold, an abundance of pure cold water, a rich soil, good church 
and school facilities, accessibility to good markets and an hospitable 
people, all make it one of the most desirable counties for business and 
residence to be found in the State. 

Davidson county contains 314,482 acres of land, valued at 
$1,839,727, and 623 town lots, valued at $329,186. 

332 North Carolina and its Resourcibs. 

Domestic animals are — horses, 3,846; mules, 1,624; cattle, 8,008; 
hogs, 13,213; sheep, 5,692. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $7,273.49; pensions, $1,422. 
62; schools, $11,291.37; county, $9,623.38. 

Population — white, 18,174; colored, 3,528; total, 21,702. 


This is a small county lying in the angle between the Yadkin 
and South Yadkin rivers. In the southern half of this county the 
soils belong largely to the class of red clays, and are covered with 
heavy oak forests, while the middle and northern portions have a 
mixed growth of oaks and pines, and a light gray, sandy and gravelly 
soil. This section of the county is mainly devoted to the culture of 
tobacco. The river hills, flanking both the Yadkin and its chief 
tributaries, are quite broken, and have a productive gravelly loam 
soil and forests predominantly of oak. The elevation of the surface 
ranges from 700 to 1,000 feet, the average being about 850 feet above 
sea-level. The culture of cotton has recently entered the southern 
and western townships. The grain crop is quite large, and latterly, 
also, tobacco has been cultivated to a considerable extent in the north 
and west sections, the soils of a large part of its territory being well 
adapted to the higher grades. There are several valuable iron ore 
deposits in the county. 

Along the Yadkin there is much fine bottom land, prolific in 
wheat, corn, and other small grains, forming an important proportion 
of the beautiful "Valley of the Yadkin," one of the most beau- 
tiful and productive on this continent, of perpetual fertility, 
maintained by frequent but not destructive overflows, the usually 
placid current permitting the gradual subsidence of a rich sedi- 
ment which adds to the soil, as do the waters of the Nile to that 
of Egypt. 

The soil is well adapted to the production of grass, and stock of 
all kinds are profitably raised. It is also a good fruit county, excel- 
lent peaches, pears, grapes and apples are produced. 

The county is now traversed by a railroad, at present in opera- 
tion from Winston to Mocksville, and ultimately to be extended to 
some point on the Western North Carolina road. The northern and 
northeastern sections are not far remote from the Winston and 
Wilkesboro railroad ; and the two lines give reasonably ample facili- 
ties for travel and transportation. 

Mocksville is the county seat, and, including the township, con- 
tains 2,500 inhabitants. 

Davie county contains 163,792 acres of land, valued at $963,238 
and 242 town lots, valued, at $105,603. 

Of domestic animals there are — 1,762 horses; 1,125 mules; 3,848 
cattle; 7,064 hogs; 1,452 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State purposes, $3,459.30; pensions, 
$705.64; schools, $5,558; county, $7,950.89. 

Population — white, 8,769; colored, 2,852; total, 11,621. 

Description op Counties. 333 


Adjoins Lenoir and Sampson, and, like them, has considerable varia- 
tion of soil and surface. The northern portion consists of level piny 
uplands, penetrated with frequent streams margined with swamps. It 
is drained by North-east Cape Fear river, which flows southward 
through its middle section, and both this and the numerous tributaries 
are bordered by belts of alluvial and often swampy lands. Near its north- 
ern and eastern borders are two small pocosons, and within its south- 
ern section lies one half of the great Angola Bay pocoson, an almost 
impenetrable jungle of the average character of pocoson lands, with 
fringes of rich swamp lands on the streams that issue from it. This 
pocoson is flanked on the westward toward the North-east Cape Fear 
river by a fringe of fertile white-oak flats and semi-swamp lands, and 
on the north by a strip of sandy pine flats, dotted here and there with 
fertile spots. The "sandy pine hills" are not confined to any part of 
the county, and are of insignificant size. The cotton lands which are 
of limited extent, are the level piny woods of the usual description; 
but corn is a more valuable crop, and the product of potatoes and up- 
land rice and trucking are of considerable importance. On and near 
the Wilmington & Weldon railroad stations, strawberries, cabbages, 
peas, beans, Irish potatoes and other vegetables, for the northern 
markets, are produced in large quantities, and the business is increas- 
ing; while thousands of dollars are brought into the county to pay for 
huckleberries. One of the largest crate and basket factories is located 
near Warsaw and supplies not only local demands but also those of 
many shippers in the southern States. 

Good unimproved lands may be bought for as low as $3 an acre 
while improved lands cost only a few dollars more, according to loca- 
tion and proximity to transportation. Besides trucking, tube-rose 
and other bulb growing gives farmers profitable employment. 

The county has still valuable resources in timber and turpentine 
lands. Marl (blue and white) is abundant, though but little used. 

The county is traversed in its whole length by the Wilmington 
and Weldon railroad, and, with its water-ways, has convenient access 
to markets. 

Kenansville, the county seat, has a population cf 300: Magnolia, 
with a population of 500; Faison's, of 275, and Warsaw, of 450, are 
small towns lying on the Wilmington an Weldon Railroad. From 
Warsaw a railroad of twelvemiles extends to Clinton, in Sampson county . 

Duplin county has 457,247 acres of land, valued at ^957,251, and 
475 town lots, valued at $131,514. 

Of domestic animals there are — 1820 horses; mules, 876; goats, 
2,687; cattle, 9,678; hogs, 30,622; sheep, 5,093. 

Product of taxation — for State use, $1,644.06; pensions, $838.78; 
schools, $8,103.59; county, $6,023.80. 

Population — white, 11,600; colored, 7,090; total, 18,690. 


This county was formed from the eastern part of the county of 
Orange, and part of the northwestern corner of Wake. This was 

334 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

made necessary by the rapid growth of the town of Durham, and the 
creation of peculiar interests to be best guarded and advanced by an 
administration ofcounty affairs more directly addressed to those interests. 

A large portion of the territory of this county lies in that sand- 
stone belt or old sea-basin extending across the State from northeast 
to southwest, and which in this county assumes its greatest breadth. 
The northern and western part of the county is of a different geologi- 
cal period, with a stififer soil. In the northeastern part the parent 
streams of the Neuse river unite — the Eno, Flat and Little rivers — 
and their borders are all margined with broad rich bottom lands, an 
extent of fertile low grounds rarely found to such extent in the 
interior of the State, and productive in cotton, corn, wheat, oats and 
other grains, and the grasses. In the hill country along their valleys, 
and in the gray lands towards the county of Granville, are found the 
best tobacco lands, producing that fine quality which has added so 
much to the fame of the State and the magnitude of the Durham 
tobacco market. The lands not in cultivation are covered with oak, 
hickory, short-leaf pine and other woods, but the timber is nowhere 
large except in the still uncleaned bottoms, where the trees attain a 
magnitude scarcely surpassed anywhere in the State. Dairying and 
stock raising, have recently been successfully added to the agricul- 
ture of the count3^ 

The staple crops of the county are cotton of fine quality, tobacco 
of the highest grade, wheat, corn, oats, &c. The lands on the river 
bottoms referred to, and in the valleys of New Hope creek and its 
tributaries, produce large crops of the grains of all kinds, and also 
good crops of cotton, but are not adapted to fine tobacco. 

Durham, the county seat, is almost the sole instance in this 
State of a town springing from a cross-road station to the importance 
of a city, all in less than the lapse of a generation. It was a petty 
village in 1870. It is now known all over the world. It is bisected 
by the North Carolina railroad, and is the terminus of the I^ynch- 
burg and Durham, and of roads with through connections from 
Durham to Oxford and to Henderson. It is the seat of the largest 
smoking tobacco factory in the world — the original Blackwell and 
Carr; of the largest cigarette factory in the world — Duke and Son; of 
numerous other smoking tobacco factories; of a snuflf factory; of sales 
warehouses, selling from 15,000,000 to 18,000,000 pounds of leaf a 
year; of a business which extends not only over the United States but 
over the Western Hemisphere, over the whole world; of five cotton 
factories and two hosiery mills; of a fertilizer factory, of other 
important industries, and it is also the seat of Trinity College, the 
chief Methodist College of the State; numerous churches, graded and 
other schools for both races; has water- works, gas and electric 
lighting and telephone exchange, in addition to which it has all the 
advantages derived from the use of a belt line of railroad. 

Durham county contains 164,863 acres of land, valued at $1,633,- 
214, and 793 town lots, valued at 1,520,100. 

Of domestic animals there are — 1,596 horses; 899 mulesj 3,827 
cattle; hogs, 6,953; sheep, 990. 

Description of Counties. 335 

Proceeds of taxation — for State uses, $16,668.39; pensions, $2,- 
812.00; schools, $19,485.85; county, $22,539,85. 

Population — white, 10,712; colored, 7,329; total, 18,041. 


Edgecombe is a typical county of the long-leaf pine region. It 
is traversed through its middle portion by the Tar river, and is drained 
by its numerous tributaries. The soils are characteristically gray 
sandy loams, with a yellow to brown subsoil, and belong to the region 
of level piny uplands. Along the borders of the various streams are 
frequent and extensive tracts of alluvial lands, and on some of them 
occur cypress and gum swamps. This is one of the leading cotton coun- 
ties of the State, and its corn crop is also among the largest. The long- 
leaf pines have been thinned until they are a subordinate element, so 
that the remaining forests mainly of short-leaf pine and oak. 

Both commercial fertilizers and the native marls have been more 
largely used than elsewhere in the State, and, in connection with com- 
post, most effectively; so that Edgecombe has long been foremost 
in this special agriculture of the east. 

Edgecombe was formed from Craven, in 1733, by Governor Bur- 
rington and his council, and this action was confirmed by the Legisla- 
ture which met in Edenton in 1741. During the period of the Revo- 
lution the county of Edgecombe was foremost in resisting the exact- 
ions of the mother country. 

The soil of the county has every variety, from the black peaty 
soil to the stiff clay. The predominating soil is a light friable loam, 
being about four inches in depth, shading off in most places to a sub- 
soil of yellow sand. When fresh, it is of a darkish color, wearing 
white by use when not well manured and properly cultivated. This 
soil is easy to till at all seasons of the year. 

The variety, excellence and abundance of the products indicate 
alike the character of the soil and the intelligence and industry of the 
farmers. Those who at an early period assisted or directed nature in the 
use of her forces, and by the skilful application of fertilizers, and by 
the careful husbanding and skilful manipulation of all domestic stores 
of fertility, made Edgecombe conspicuous as one of the best and most 
profitably cultivated counties in the State. Corn and cotton consti- 
tute the most valuable field crops, but wheat, oats, rice, potatoes, 
peas, tobacco, etc., are cultivated largely and successfully. Truck 
farming is enlisting enterprise and capital, and is remunerative. Dairy 
farming is pursued to considerable extent, with satisfactory^ results. 
Tobacco is being cultivated to a considerable extent, no less than 
5,000 acres will be set to this crop in 1896, and 4,000,000 pounds of 
bright tobacco v/ill reward the farmers. The effect of this increase 
in this and adjacent counties is to transfer to this section much of the 
interest once centered on the counties in the Piedmont region, and to 
have necessitated the erection of sales warehouses, tobacco factories 
and all the agencies needed for the handling ofthe annually increasing 

336 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

Tarboro, the county seat, is situated at the head of navigation on 
Tar river, and, with four railroad outlets, has commercial advantages 
surpassed by few towns in the State. It has a population of 2,000, or, 
including Princeville and Tarboro township, of 4,500. 

There are four cotton seed oil mills situated at Tarboro, Swift 
Creek, Conetoe and Shilo, each doing a profitable business, milling 
all the surplus seed of this and adjacent counties. 

At Tarboro is the Tarboro Cotton Mills, $165,000 capital stock, 
12,000 spindles and 250 employees. The Tar River Knitting Mills, 
also located at Tarboro, employs about one hundred and twenty hands 
and sells most of its goods in the northwest. Trucking is decidedly on 
increase and large quantities of cabbage, potatoes and asparagus are 
shipped annually. 

There are two large tobacco sales houses in Tarboro that sell at 
least 3,000,000 pounds bright tobacco annually; several large prize 
houses; one peanut factory and one bag factory for manufacturing 
peanut sacks. 

The peanut industry has been particularly advantageous to the 
county in increasing the amount of meat raised by the farmers. 

Rocky Mount, partly in Edgecombe and partly in Nash, and 
bisected by the line of the Wilmington and Weldon Railroad, has a 
population of 1,000. The branch road for Tarboro begins at this 
point. In the vicinity, at the Falls of Tar River, are the Battle Cot- 
ton Mills, the oldest in North Carolina. 

Edgecombe county has 306,757 acres of land, valued at $1,464,- 
396, and 983 town lots, valued at $514,701. 

Of domestic animals, there are — horses, 1,595; uiules, 2,300; cat- 
tle, 4,929; hogs, 19,259; sheep, 2,060; goats, 506. 

Product of taxation — for State use, $6, 658. 52; pensions, $1,348. 85; 
schools, $11,274.06; county, $17,016.75. 

Population — white, 8,513; colored, 15,600; total, 24,113. 


In common with all the other western counties of this State, 
Forsyth has borne a series of names, having been a part successively 
of Anson, Rowan, Surry and Stokes, as they were divided and sub- 
divided. It was erected January 16, 1849, and named after Col. Benja- 
min Forsyth, of Stokes Co., who served in the Revolution and was 
killed in a skirmish in Canada, in 1814. 

Forsyth lies among the foothills of the Blue Ridge, and is well 
watered, a broad swell across the central portion forming the divide 
between the Dan and Yadkin, with their numerous branches. The 
tributaries of the Yadkin, which drain the southwestern section, 
abound in bottom lands of great fertility, and have heavy oak forests, 
interspersed with hickory, walnut, poplar, etc., while in the northern 
and eastern sections, oak and pine predominate. The soils are red 
clay, and a gray sandy loam, w':ich is admirably adapted to the culti- 
vation of tobacco. Wheat grows finely, as well as corn, oats and 
other grains, and the grasses; while fruits, vegetables, grapes and 
melons of almost every variety grow in the greatest profusion. 

Description of Counties. 337 

When, in 1753 the Uniias Fratuvi^ or Moravian Church, decided 
to purchase land and establish a settlement in North Carolina, its 
agents travelled over all of Earl Granville's possessions, from the At- 
lantic into Tennessee, and chose, as the land best suited to their pur- 
pose, a tract in what is now Forsyth county, whose fertile meadows, 
wooded hills and numerous water courses attracted them more than 
the mountains of the west or the lowlands of the east. This tract 
they named "Wachovia," and the first town, Bethabara, was begun 
on November 17 of the same year. In 1766 the town of Salem v/as 
commenced, and rapidly attained importance as the principal seat of 
the Moravian Church in the South. The people were noted for their 
energy, industry and thrift, and these traits have been inherited not 
only by the later inhabitants of that town but by the adjoining town 
of Winston as well, and have made possible the great strides of 
improvement that have marked the recent years. 

When Forsyth county was divided from Stokes, the State Legis- 
lature appointed five Commissioners, Francis Fries being Chairman, 
who were to select and buy a site for a courthouse and a jail, the 
nucleus of a county town which a later Legislature christened 
"Winston." They purchased fifty-one and one-quarter acres just 
north of Salem, at $5.00 an acre, located the courthouse in the cen- 
tre, and laid out the streets to correspond with those of the older town, 
and to-day the " Twin City " joins hands across an imaginary line 
on the south side of First Street. Two towns, which no stranger can 
separate; two municipal governments, and but one Chamber of Com- 
merce; two water-works, and but one street railway and one system 
of electric lights; where can the match be found to this anomaly! 

In addition to the modern life and improvements that have come 
to her through contact with her sister town, Salem retains a number 
of distinctive features. The Moravian Church, almost a century old, 
gathers large congregations from Sunday to Sunday and at her special 
services, and has built a number of chapels in more distant parts of 
the community. The Cedar Avenue and the adjacent grave3"ard 
charm every visitor; and the Salem Female Academy', established 
in 1802, the oldest and most widely known institution of its kind in 
the South, draws large numbers annually within its hospitable doors. 
The most important industries in Salem are the cotton, woolen and 
flouring mills of F. and H. Fries, the South Side Cotton Mills, Salem 
Iron Co., Vance's Iron Works, Fogle Bros. Woodworking Establish- 
ment, several tobacco factories. Broom Factorj^, Canning Factory and 
the Wagon Works of Spaugh Bros., C. F. Nissen & Co. and Geo. E. 
Nissen & Co., the last being one of the largest in the South. 

Winston, the county seat, has grown with great rapidity and to 
great wealth through its adaptation to the tobacco trade and the 
sagacity of its people in improving their opportunities. The paved 
streets, handsome hotels, business houses. City Hall and market 
house, near the Square, where an imposing court house is being erec- 
ted, bespeak the enterprise of the people; while the wide residence 
Streets and well-kept boulevards, deserve more than a passing glance. 
Among the churches, almost every denomination is represented. 

338 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The largest congregations are the Methodist Episcopal, the Presby- 
terian and Baptist, and in addition are the Episcopal, Moravian, 
Lutheran, Protestant, Methodist, Christian and Catholic churches. 
The Wachovia National, People's National and First National Banks 
and the Wachovia lyoan and Trust Company afford unusually good 
banking facilities, and are increasing in importance with every day. 
Tobacco is the staple manufacture, and Forsyth and all the neighbor- 
ing counties look to Winston as the market where the leaf they raise 
will find a ready sale at satisfactory prices. The four warehouses sell 
an average of more than 15,000,000 lbs. annually. The factory of 
R. J- Reynolds, is the largest in the State, and several other firms 
have a business almost as large. The total annual output of the 
thirty-five plug factories is over 12,000,000 lbs. per year, worth over 
$3,000,000, and paying about $750,000 revenue tax. Several of 
the firms also make smoking tobacco, and there are five smoking 
tobacco factories. There are twenty-five leaf houses, three cigar 
factories and four cigarette factories, which make a grand total of 
seventj^-eight houses in the tobacco business. 

Winston-Salem is well supplied with railroads, and has become 
an important railroad centre. The Northwestern North Carolina 
Railroad — part of the Southern Railway system — for a long time 
began at Greensboro and had Winston-Salem as its terminus, but 
has been extended up the valley of the Yadkin, a distance of seventy- 
five miles to Wilkesboro, in Wilkes Co. Another branch has been 
built to Mocksville, in Davie Co. The Roanoke and Southern, now 
belonging to the Norfolk and Western system, connects with the main 
line of that road at Roanoke, Va., and will probably be extended 
south from Winston-Salem, in the near future. 

The population of Winston-Salem, is about 18,000, of which 
Winston claims 14,000, and Salem 4,000. 

Several thriving towns are scattered about in the county, the 
largest being Kernersville, with about 2,500 inhabitants. 

Forsyth county contains 247,452 acres of land, valued at $1,461, 
077; and 4,145 town lots, valued at $2,464,187. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses, 2,973; mules, 1,386; cat- 
tle, 6,051; hogs, 9,172; sheep, 1,467. 

Product of taxation — ■'or State uses, $15,709.62; pensions, $2,886. 
01; schools, $21,578.26; county, $28,097,92. 

The population of Forsyth county is about 30,000, of which 
24,000 are Vi^hite, and 6,000 colored. 


The v>^estern portion of this county is a rolling hilly country, 
with clay predominant in the soil, and bearing a natural growth of 
oak, hickory and other hard woods, and, when cultivated, producing 
the cereals, cotton and tobacco. The eastern, and especially the 
southeastern section, contains a considerable proportion of long-leaf 
pine as a constituent of the forests. This county is drained by Tar 
river and its tributaries. The middle portion belongs to the region of 
oak and pine gravelly and sandy hills, and the western end rises into 

Description op Counties. 339 

the oak uplands. The large cotton product of this county is of 
recent date, but here and in the adjoining counties it has greatly 
increased in the last dozen years. The western half is largely 
devoted to the culture of tobacco. 

By a division of old " Bute," one of the Colonial counties, in the 
year 1779, Franklin and Warren were established. The name, "Bute," 
was cast aside on account of Earl Bute's hostility to the cause of 
liberty, and the names Franklin and Warren were given to the 
divided territory in honor of the distinguished philosopher and 
statesman. Dr. Benjamin Franklin, and Dr. Joseph Warren, the 
patriot-hero, who fell at Bunker Hill. 

The Raleigh and Gaston railroad passes for fourteen miles 
through this county, and in addition to the facilities afforded by it, a 
road has been constructed from Franklinton, on the Raleigh and 
Gaston road, to Louisburg, the county seat, a distance of nine miles. 

The county singularly abounds in minerals, considering its 
close proximity to the tertiary belt. Asbestos and mica are found, 
and granite of fine quality, susceptible of high polish, is found 
abundantly in some localities. But the most remarkable of all the 
discoveries is that of gold. In the northeastern portion of the county, 
near where it corners with Warren, Nash and Halifax, is situated the 
celebrated Portis gold mine, which received its name from its original 
owner, John Portis, in the mud daubing of whose log cabin the 
shining particle.= were first discovered. It has been successfully 
worked for nearly three quarters of a century, more than a million of 
dollars having been taken from it. Most of this large amount was 
washed from the top soil and gravel beds just underneath at a small 
cost. Stamp mills and other machinery for crushing the inexhaustible 
beds of quartz have been but recently introduced. This quartz, when 
crushed and assayed, has been found to carry from $6 to $12 worth of 
gold to the ton. And several other discoveries of nearly equal value 
have been made in the county. 

As before stated, cotton and tobacco are the chief crops raised 
for market. The yield of cotton is from 8,000 to 10,000 bales 
annually, and of tobacco many hundred thousand pounds. 

The lowlands upon the river and smaller streams are well 
adapted to the production of corn, small grain, the grasses and rice, 
only requiring proper drainage and cultivation to make bountiful 
crops, one hundred bushels of corn having been raised to the acre. 

The uplands are of a variety of soils; in the lower part of the 
county light sandy, with clay subsoil; in the middle and upper 
portions granite, mainly with red and yellow clay subsoil. 

lyarge areas of these uplands, well adapted to the growth of corn, 
cotton, tobacco, wheat, rye, oats, peas, beans, sweet and Irish 
potatoes, clover and grass, produce, with proper cultivation and 
manuring, most satisfactory yields. 

There are two well equipped modern cotton mills in the county, 
besides other industries. 

lyouisburg, the county seat, has a population of 700. Franklinton, 
on the Raleigh and Gaston railroad, has 600. 

340 North Carolina and its Resources. 

Franklin county has 284,385 acres of land, valued at $149,769; 
and 449 town lots, valued at $319,735. 

Of domestic animals it has — horses, 2,234; mules, 1,151; goats, 
146; cattle 7,314; hogs, 16,089; sheep, 2,846. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $5,703.97; pensions, $1,213. 
27; schools, $10,418.92; county, $9,752.85. 

Population — white, 10,755; colored, 10,335; total, 21,090. 


Gaston, a small county, lies on the southern border of the State, 
and is bounded eastv^'ard by the Catawba river, whose tributaries 
drain its entire surface. In the southern section are several small 
mountain chains and spurs, the highest of which. Kings Mountain, 
reaches an altitude of nearly 1,700 feet above sea-level. Most of the 
county is quite broken, and partakes of the character of the Piedmont 
Plateau region. It is characterized by mixed forests of oak and pine 
and by gray and yellow gravelly soils of moderate fertility, with oc- 
casional areas of red clay soils. In the northwestern section are the 
largest tracts of oak and hickory forests, with their corresponding red 
clay soils. 

There are many valuable beds of iron ore in the county, and the 
manufactures of cotton and mining of iron have attained consider- 
able importance. It is one of the oldest iron manufacturing regions 
of the South, some of its furnaces dating back nearly one hundred 
years. In water power it has superior advantages. It has also sev- 
eral noted gold mines. The waters of the Catawba river provide 
great water power, long utilized for manufacturing purposes; and, lying 
within the cotton belt, a stimulus has been given to the manufacture 
of cotton goods to such extent as to have created independence of the 
rude powers of nature. Numerous factories, operated by steam, have 
been erected at Mount Holly, Gastonia, Stanly Creek, Dallas, Besse- 
mer City, King's Mountain, I^owell and other points, a large coffin 
factory at Gastonia being among the number. 

Within this county rises the eminence, culminating on the South 
Carolina line in Cleveland county, of King's Mountain, the scene of 
one of the most remarkable and, in its consequences, one of the most 
decisive battles of the Revolutionary War. 

The county is well supplied with railroad facilities. No home in 
the county is more than eight miles from a railroad. The Carolina 
Central passes through it from southeast to northwest, the Chester 
and Lenoir Narrow Guage from north to south, and the Charlotte 
and Atlanta Air-Line through the centre in an undulating line from 
east to west. This has given every section access to market, and has 
stimulated industrial activity in marked degree, resulting in the 
building and prosperity of a number of towns and villages. Among 
these are Dallas, the county seat, with about 500 population; Gas- 
tonia, a thrifty manufacturing town of 2,313; McAdensville and 
Mount Holly, with from 1,000 to 1,500 population; and with Lowell, 
Belmont, Stanly, Bessemer City, and part of King's Mountain fol- 
lowing close on the heels of those named before. 

Description op Counties. 341 

The staple crops of the county are cotton, wheat and corn; and 
tobacco has been successfully tested as a profitable addition. Fruits, 
and especially the grape, succeed well. On the Catawba bottoms are 
some fine tomato and melon farms. Grasses grow well, and there are 
two or three excellent dairy farms in the county. 

Gaston county has 223,250 acres of land, valued at $1,826,609, 
and 705 town lots, valued at $330,507. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses, 1,482; mules, 2,153; 
cattle, 6,122; hogs, 8,685; sheep, 2,618. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $7,422.36; pensions, 
$1,367.36; schools, $11,405.87; county, $9,699.32. 

Population — white, 12,926; colored, 4,837; total, 17,754. 


Gates county lies between the Chowan river and the Dismal 
swamp, of which it includes a considerable section. The body of the 
county consists of level piny uplands, with a sandj'- loam soil. It has 
a narrow strip of very sandy long-leaf pine land near the Chowan 
river and also in the southeastern corner of the county. Along the 
Chowan river and its tributaries are tracts of cj^press swamp from one 
to two and three miles wide. Near the smaller streams are narrow 
tracts of pine and oak flats, having a gray-clay loam soil. Marl is 
found in the banks of the Chowan river and in the southern end of 
the county. 

The Blackwater river (lower down assuming the name of Chowan,) 
flowing along the western border, a deep, tortuous but navigable 
stream, used by steamboats of considerable size as high up as Frank- 
lin, Va., has added greatly to the business, convenience and profit of 
the inhabitants, but the construction of a railroad across the county, 
forming other and speedier connections, has diminished its importance. 

The Norfolk and Carolina railroad runs through the western part 
of the county. 

The products of the county are those of the section — cotton, corn, 
wheat, peas, potatoes, etc.; and an increased inducement to 
truck farming tends to give new character to the agriculture of the 

There is large attention given to timber, lumber, shingles and 

Gatesville, the county seat, is a village of three hundred inhabi- 
tants. The village of Sunbury, ten miles east of Gatesville, on the 
Suffolk and Carolina railroad, is a thriving little place, with schools, 
churches, and lumber and grist mills. It is surrounded by good 
trucking lands. 

Gates county contains 209,408 acres of land, valued at $664,325, 
and 72 town lots, valued at $33,080. 

Of domestic animals there are 1,501 horses; 599 mules; 778 goats; 
6,005 cattle; 16,248 hogs; 2,20osheep. 

Product of taxation — for State use, $2,403.70; pensions, $509.30; 
schools, $4,611.68; county, $3,669.66. 

Population — white, 5,539; colored, 4,713; total, 10,252. 

342 North Carolina and its Resources. 


Graham county, lying south of the Tennessee river, is bounded 
on the west by the Smoky mountains, which separate it from the 
State of Tennessee. The river of the same name separates it from 
the county of Swain, the lyong Ridge from the county of Cherokee, 
and a high and almost precipitous line of mountains from the county 
of Macon. It is largely isolated on account of difficulty of access, 
and therefore retains, in large degree, its primeval wildness. The 
surface in the interior of the county is intersected with numerous 
streams, tending to a union with the Cheoah river; and the united 
waters, a large, bold stream, flow into the Tennessee. Along these 
waters are stretches of fertile valley, and these constitute at present 
almost all the land reduced to cultivation. The remainder of the 
county is still clothed with forest, composed of all the varieties of 
trees found in the mountains, and of the greatest size. This forest is 
now invaded by timber cutters from the Northwestern States, who 
avail themselves of freshets to float their logs down the smaller 
streams into the Cheoah, thence into the Tennessee, down which they 
float through the mountain rapids, until in calmer waters below they 
are caught and detained in booms. 

Agricultural industry is limited chiefly to domestic uses, difficult 
access to market, prevents the more extensive operations for which 
the soil is so well fitted by reason of its fertility. The soil every- 
where is fertile, as indicated by the size of the trees and density of 
the forests. The chief remunerative pursuit of the inhabitants is in 
the rearing of cattle on the native ranges, from which they are driven 
in the fall, to be transported now by railroad to distant markets. The 
cattle industry is capable of greater expansion, and should be the 
the means of a very greatly increased income to the county. The 
adaptibility of the region to cattle raising, the extent and cheapness 
of pasturage, make it a suitable place for intending settlers of small 
means, who may wish to grow beef for market. 

Robbinsville, a small village, is the county seat. 

Graham county has 322,582 acres of land, valued at ^523,820, and 
36 town lots, valued at $8,262. 

Of domestic animals there are 493 horses; 191 mules; 3,326 cattle; 
3,481 hogs; 3,111 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State use, 1,348.71; pensions, $261.60; 
schools, $1,964.46; county, $4,865.76. 

Population — white, 3,137; colored, 137; Indians, 161; total, 3,435. 


Granville county is north of the central portion of North Caro- 
lina adjoining the Virginia line. It is drained partly toward the 
north by the tributaries of the Roanoke river, partly in its middle 
region bj' Tar River and in its southern portions by Neuse river, and 
is about 500 feet above tide-water level. The land is rolling for the 
most part and varied in character of soil, being partly gray 
and partly red, possessing much fertility, and easy of cultivation. 

Description of Counties. 343 

Its woodland consists of oak, hickory, pine, dogwood, persimmon, 
&c. The soil is adapted to all variety of crops — corn, wheat, oats, 
rye, grasses, clover, bright and dark tobacco, fruits and vegetables. 
No part of the globe is healthier. The climate is bracing and health- 
giving, the water abundant and of best quality. While the lands of 
Granville county produce either bright or dark grades of tobacco, 
there are certain sections of the county adapted to the cultivation of 
a golden-colored tobacco of extraordinary quality, greatly in demand, 
and selling sometimes at almost fabulous prices on home markets, at 
public auction on the warehouse floor. The pTofits to the farmer 
raising this noted grade of bright tobacco are very remunerative. The 
dark tobacco, though heavier in weight, seldom proves so profitable. 
The average tobacco crop will reach 5,000,000 pounds. Granville is 
quite a grain-growing county; its aggregate being about 750,000 

Rich copper ores are found in northern Granville, gold is found 
in various sections, and immense deposits of iron are only awaiting 

Oxford, the county seat, has about 2,500 inhabitants, and has 
ever been famous for its splendid institutions of learning, of which 
Oxford Female Seminary, and the Horner Classical and Military 
School are the most prominent. Here is the Orphan Asylum sup- 
ported jointly by the Masonic Fraternity of North Carolina and the 
State, at which over 200 orphan girls and boys are clothed and fed 
and taught the rudiments of an education. There is also a colored 
Orphan Asylum near Oxford, supported by an appropriation from the 
State, and contributions from charitably disposed white and colored 
people. Oxford has good railroad facilities, being connected with the 
Raleigh and Gaston railroad (Seaboard Air Line system) and with 
Richmond by a railroad from that city, via Keysville, Virginia, to 
Durham, North Carolina, under the Southern system. 

Granville county contains 316,018 acres of land, valued at $1,507,- 
514, and 638 town lots, valued at $470, 159. 

Of domestic animals there are 2,916 horses, 1,278 mules, 166 
goats, 6,240 cattle, 12,873 I'og's, 2,623 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State purposes, $6,607.25; pensions, 
$1,346.50; schools $11,165.58; county, $10,899.49. 

Population — white, 12,122; colored, 12,362; total, 24,484. 


The small county of Greene, adjoining Pitt on the south and 
west, and drained by the Moccasin river, (which crosses it through 
the middle) and its numerous tributaries, has the same general 
features, both as to its natural characteristics and as to the develop- 
ment of its agriculture, as Edgecombe county, but there are con- 
siderable areas of sandy pine lands and pine flats in the eastern angle 
and in the southern section. Its streams are also, for the most part, 
bordered by narrow fringes of alluvial land and of gum and cypress 
swamps. It has also along the courses of some of its tributaries 
considerable tracts of semi-swamp land, characterized by a dark-gray 

344 North Caroi^ina and its Resources. 

loam of great fertility, notably Wheat swamp, near the southern 
border. lyike the preceding counties, Greene finds marl and 
compost essential to successful cotton farming. There are still consid- 
erable areas of pine and cypress timber in the county. 

Much of the land of Greene, including nearly all of its uplands, is 
suitable to cotton, the production of which is from 13,000 to 15,000 
bales per annum. It is also a productive corn region, as would be 
indicated by the character of its best lands reclaimed from swamps. 
Oats, rice, peas and potatoes are largely cultivated, the soil being 
admirably adapted to them. The cultivation of hay, an industry 
that had not a beginning here seven years ago, has grown into consid- 
erable proportions, more than 3,000 acres having been devoted to this 
crop in 1895, and the area of its production is yearly increasing. 
Stock raising is receiving intelligent attention among the farmers and 
will soon become a leading and important industry. The cultivation 
of tobacco is conducted with great success here, the soil and climate 
both inviting to the production of the highest grades. Their superior 
adaptability to this crop had not become known before the last census, 
which reported only 6,650 pounds for the year 1889. The tobacco 
crop of 1895 in Greene could not have fallen short of 1,200,000 pounds, 
and the present year will show a largely increased acreage, and there 
is every reason to believe that the crop of 1896 will reach at least 
1,700,000 pounds, possibly more. 

Greene county contains 159,719 acres of land, valued at $936,959, 
and 170 town lots, valued at $52,852. 

Domestic animals — 924 horses; 1,137 mules; 158 goats; 1,440 
cattle; 13,158 hogs; 302 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State purposes, $3,027.58; pensions, 
$625.28; schools, $5,003.41; county, $7,168.64. 

Population — white, 5,281; colored, 4,758; total, 10,039. 

Guilford county, 24x28 miles square, lies near the middle of the 
Piedmont Plateau region, and its higher part on the water-shed 
between the Cape Fear and Dan rivers, which crosses its territory 
nearly midway in a w^est and east direction, at an average elevation 
of between eight hundred and one thousand feet above tide. Its 
forests consist mainly of oaks of various species and hickory, with a 
subordinate growth of pine scattered quite uniformly over most of its 
area. Along its river and creek bottoms, which are in many parts of 
the county extensive, and in the southeastern section of the county, 
even on the uplands, are heavy forests of oak, intermingled with 
hickory, walnut, poplar, maple, etc. These lands have generally a 
reddish clay loam soil. The soil of the higher and broad-backed 
ridges and swells is quite uniformly a yellowish sandy and gravelly 
loam, underlaid by a yellow and red clay subsoil. The cotton zone 
touches the southern border, the chief crops of the county consisting 
of grains, grasses, fruits and tobacco. Cherries, except in 1893, have 
not failed for the last fifty years. Gold, copper and iron are found in 
many places, and have been mined on a considerable scale, 

Description op Counties. 345 

The county of Guilford was formed in 1770, from Rowan and 
Orange counties, and was named in honor of Lord North, who was 
Karl of Guilford. In 1808, the county seat was removed from Mar- 
tinsville to Greensboro, (named in honor of General Green,) five 
miles southeast of the site of the battle-ground. This battle-ground 
was the site of the memorable "battle of Guilford Court House," 
fought on the 15th of March, 1781, between the American forces, 
under Gen. Nathaniel Green, and those of the British, under Lord 
Cornwallis, the latter nominally victorious, but in effect defeated, soon 
abandoning the field and rapidly retreating to Wilmington, thence to 
Yorktown, Va., where they eventually surrendered to General 
Washington, thus closing the war and securing American Indepen- 
dence. A monument recently erected on the battle-ground commemo- 
rates the real victory. 

In regard to the climate; the mean temperature is 50°, the ther- 
mometer rarely climbs above 92° and then only for short periods of 
one or two days at a time; ice seldom forms to a greater depth than one 
inch, perhaps once each two years it is thicker. Roses bloom out of 
doors for nine months in the year. 

Guilford is divided into eighteen townships, fifteen of which are 
penetrated by its in miles of railroads, radiating out from the centre, 
Greensboro, which contains 10,000 inhabitants. At this point 
are located five tobacco factories, twelve large leaf houses with over 
200,000 feet of floor space, all in actual use; three foundries and ma- 
chine shops, three cotton factories and one other now building; two 
roller mills, the Cone Export and Finishing mill, five large whole- 
sale grocery stores, one exclusive wholesale dry goods store, twelve 
churches, four graded schools supported nine months by public tax; 
State Normal and Industrial College for girls, at which 500 are now 
in attendance; the Greensboro Female College, a large institution 
under the control of the Methodists of the State; the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College for the colored race, also Bennett Seminary, a 
high-grade institution of learning for the same race. Wetmore's Busi- 
ness College for Whites affords cheap business training. Besides 
these, there are four other colleges of high grade in the county. Guil- 
ford College, six miles west of Greensboro, co-educational, has been 
in continuous successful operation since 1838, and is a Quaker College. 

Guilford county has several nurseries, producing hundreds of 
thousands of fruit trees and vines which are sold in dozens of States; 
terra cotta works which supply sewer pipes for neighboring cities and 
railroads, drain pipes, chimney flues, &c., on a large scale; two spoke 
and handle factories, twelve furniture factories using our native 
woods and shipping north, east and south, into more than twenty 

The population is about one-fourth colored, and the standing of 
the colored people will compare favorably with that of any other sec- 
tion, no race trouble ever having existed. 

The two center townships work their public roads by taxation. 
One of them levies 7)^ cents, the other 10 cents on the $100 valua- 

346 North Carolina and its Resources. 

Over 5,000,000 pounds of tobacco was sold on the Greensboro 
market last year. It is a profitable industry to the farmers, many 
of them realizing over $100 per acre for their crops. 

Within a radius of twenty-five miles around Greensboro there are 
thirty-five cotton factories, and others are being built. 

Guilford county has six banks carrying large deposits and all of 
them withstood the panic of 1893. 

Our usual crops are one to five tons of clover hay, twenty-five 
to one hundred bushels of corn, five to thirty-five bushels of wheat, 
ten to sixty bushels of oats per acre, according to the energy and 
judgment of the farmer. 

Agricultural lands sell from $5 to $25 an acre, according to fer- 
tility and proximity to market. 

Guilford county has 400,760 acres of land, valued at $2,285,700 
and 2,264 town lots, valued at $2,033,952. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses, 4,021 ; mules, 1,703; cattle, 
10,707; hogs, 12,842; sheep, 4,682. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $13,654.11; pensions, 
$2,515.57; schools, $19,745.40; county, $18,847.05. 

Population — white, 19,820; colored, 8,232; total, 28,052. 


Halifax county lies between the Roanoke river on the north, and 
Fishing creek, one of the confluents of the Tar river, on the south. 
The eastern and larger part of this county belongs to the normal type 
of upland piny woods; the western third to the oak uplands. Long- 
leaf and short-leaf pines are commonly mingled with a subordinate 
growth of oaks, hickory, dogwood, etc. The surface is generally level, 
or a little rolling, with small, often abrupt, hills and ravines near the 
streams. The soil is a gray sandy loam, with a yellow to brown sub- 
soil. The creeks and larger streams nearly all flow southward into the 
Tar river, the water-shed, according to a curious topographical law 
previously referred to, lying quite close to the south bank of the Roan- 
oke. The western section belongs in large part to the oak uplands 
region, having its characteristic gray, yellow and reddish clay loam 
and sandy loam soils and rolling surface, and predominant oak forests, 
with an intermixture of short-leaf pine. The crops of this section 
are largely grains (corn, wheat, etc.) and tobacco. The bulk of the 
cotton product is made in the eastern section. The streams in the 
eastern section have often narrow swampy tracts of gum and cypress 
along their margins, but there are extensive alluvial areas or bottoms, 
on the larger rivers, especially the Roanoke, whose bottoms are of 
unsurpassed fertility. In the great bend of Scotland Neck are some 
of the finest cotton lands of the State. Marl is abundant in the 
middle and eastern sections. Halifax is one of the most prosperous 
cotton counties, and produces very large crops of grains besides, 
chiefly corn. 

lyike others of the eastern counties, Halifax has largely increased 
the culture of tobacco, the quality being of the best. The average 
annual crop of tobacco is 1,000,000 pounds. 

DESCRIPTION OF Counties. 347 

The work of the Roanoke Navigation Company, embraced chiefly 
in a canal from Gaston to Weldon, overcoming the succession of rapids 
between those points from navigable water above to steamboat navi- 
gation below, is now owned by a company which has opened the 
canal so as to avail itself of water-power for manufacturing purposes, 
eventually to obtain such power as will be unequaled in the United 
States. The company has erected a large grist mill, and grinds corn 
in transit, that arrangement having been effected with the railroads. 
It also has roller mills. 

The county of Halifax has every needed facility attained by 
railroads, the first railroads in North Carolina extending from points 
in this county to the then chief towns in this State and the leading 
commercial towns in Virginia. The Raleigh and Gaston road was 
begun in 1836, and completed to Raleigh, and also connected, by a 
road to Belfield, Va., with the line built in 1833 from Blakely, in 
Northampton county, to Petersburg, Va.; and the Wilmington and 
Weldon road, also begun in 1836, and completed to Wilmington, was 
also early connected v/ith Portsmouth, Va., by the Seaboard and 
Roanoke, extending from Weldon, from which point also connection 
was made with Petersburg by addition to the road built to Blakely. 
Subsequently, a road (a branch of the Wilmington and Weldon road) 
was built to Scotland Neck, and this extended to Kinston, thus 
making two nearly parallel lines belonging to that company, and 
adding very greatly to the prosperity of Halifax county. 

Halifax, the county seat of Halifax county, is situated on the 
Roanoke river, a town of great historic interest, but now of small 
importance. It has a population of 450. Scotland Neck, growing 
into consequence since the war, has 1,250; Enfield, 800; Littleton, 
1,100; Weldon, 1,800; and Ringwood, Palmyra, Tillery andBrinkley- 
ville are small but interesting villages. 

The enterprising town of Scotland Neck has erected a com- 
modious knitting factory, now in successful operation for several 
years, giving employment to a number of operatives. Another 
enterprise of very great importance has been undertaken and brought 
to successful issue, in the erection of two large brick factories, in the 
new town of Roanoke Rapids, situated about midway between 
Gaston and Weldon, on the Raleigh and Gaston railroad. The 
lower terminus of the Great Falls canal is 100 feet wide, and its 
embankment on the riverside are heavily rip-rapped. This canal is 
a grand structure, being so substantially built as to stand the 
ravages of time, and bringing as it does, into further practical 
development, the immense and incalculable water powers of the Falls 
of Roanoke, which for so many years has been lying dormant, 
begging to be harnessed. 

This rapidly growing town — Roanoke Rapids — with a popula- 
tion now of 900, has three large two story brick stores, two beautiful 
churches (Methodist and Baptist,) commodious school houses and one 
hundred two story dwelling houses, occupied, and one hundred 
more in process of contruction. 

348 North Carolina and its Resources. 

Halifax county has 414,443 acres of land, valued at $2,104,295, 
and 961 town lots, valued at $593,395. 

Of domestic animals there are 2,389 horses, 1,393 mules, in 
goats, 9,608 cattle, 20,885 hogs, 2,974 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State use, $8,337.59; pensions, 
$1,670.46; schools, $14,734.74; county, $12,644.37. 

Population — white, 9,614; colored, 19,924; total, 28,908. 


Harnett county lies on both sides of the Cape Fear river, on the 
northwestern margin of the long-leaf pine belt. Near the river, and 
for several miles on both sides, its surface is quite hilly in its upper 
portion, and here the soil is of the intermediate character described 
as oak and pine sandy and gravelly hills. On the tops of the ridges 
and river hills, these soils are gray sandy loams, but on the slopes 
they approach the character of clay loams, and are covered mainly 
with forests of oak and short-leaf pine. The body of the county 
belongs strictly to the long-leaf pine belt, and has the general char- 
acteristics of that region. The western section, as well as a narrow 
belt in the middle, near the south bank of the river and some portions 
of the south side, partakes in part of the character of the pine bar- 
rens. Near the river, and along its principal tributaries from the 
west, and in the angles between these and the river, are wide tracts 
of gray, clayey, silty lands (oak and pine flats) and occasional 
narrow strips of gum and cypress swamp. Cotton production is the 
principal industry of the county, but grain, lumber and turpentine 
are also important products. Like the rest of this vast region through- 
out the State, these pine lands are valuable for trucking and for small 
fruit culture. 

The Cape Fear river passes through the county, but it affords no 
facilities for navigation, except in giving passage during high water 
to rafts of timber and lumber. 

The branch of the Wilmington and Weldon railroad from Wil- 
son to Florence, S. C, by way of Fayetteville, passes through the 
county, and has greatly stimulated industrial activity, several thriv- 
ing and busy towns having been built along the line, and the agricul- 
tural and naval store interest greatly stimulated. At Poe's, in this 
county, is situated the Buie's Creek Academy, with a well-known 
reputation for its educational work. 

lyillington is the county seat, a small village. Dunn, on the line 
of the "Short-cut" railroad, is the largest and the most important 
business point. It contains 650 inhabitants. The value of this sec- 
tion for the production of bulbs for florists use, in addition to its 
fruit and trucking facilities makes it of peculiar interest to the home 

Harnett county contains 329,836 acres of land, valued at $757, 
419, and 479 town lots, valued at $77,383. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses, 723; mules, 1,129; goats, 
1,763; cattle, 6,862; hogs, 18,838; sheep, 4,242. 

Description of Counties. 349 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $2,654.81; pensions, $617.43; 
schools, $5,642.33; county, $4,123.68. 

Population — white, 9,453; colored, 4,274; total, 13,700. 


This large and beautiful county is as remarkable for the long 
extent of its mountain ranges and the height of its numerous peaks 
as it is for the extent of its valley system and the fertility of its soil. 
The Pisgah range skirts it partly on the east, culminating in the 
pyramidal cone of Pisgah mountain, rising to the height of 5,750 feet. 
This range, interrupted by a depression of several miles is continued 
by the New Found range, extended to the Tennessee line. A spur 
projects northward between the East and West Forks of Pigeon river, 
the highest peak of which is Cold mountain, rising to the height of 
6,063 feet. Along the western border extends the massive line of the 
Balsam mountains, in this county attaining their greatest elevation. 
Here are fifteen peaks of more than 6,000 feet in height. The West- 
ern North Carolina railroad, by the Murphy branch, crosses this range 
at Balsam Gap, at an elevation of 3,357 feet. 

The mountain lands, except on the summits of the higher ranges, 
which are densely wooded with the balsam fir, are very fertile. The 
sides and summits of the lower ridges, when cleared, prove adapted 
by nature to the production of grasses in great luxuriance. Herds 
grass, timothy, red-top and clover take readily to the soil. Kentucky 
blue grass has been a natural production of the county for the last one 
hundred years. It springs up spontaneously and makes a thick sod 
in a short time under proper conditions. All the grasses, red and 
crimson clover, do well. Red clover is a soiling crop and is much 
grown. Stock raising is an important feature of the agriculture of 
the county. Haywood has better blooded horses, cattle and sheep, 
than any county in the State. 

Fruits grov/ to great perfection, and the apples of Haywood are 
famous all over the mountain regions. The acreage in apples has 
increased ten fold in the last few years. This is the home of the 

Tobacco, in portions of the county, has become an important 
article of industry, and the superiority of the product must tend to 
the increase of culture, the bright yellow tobacco proving little 
inferior to that of Granville, while the darker grades have character- 
istics in common with the famous Henry county tobacco of Virginia. 
The northern section of the county is best adapted to its successful 
culture. Wheat is one of the main crops, and so successfully 
is it produced, that two large roller mills have been built to handle 
part of the product. Corn is the leading grain crop. 

In mineral wealth there has been no development, except in 
mica, which has been worked to considerable extent at Micadale, near 
Waynesville. Gold, copper, iron, lead, asbestos and other minerals 
are known to exist, but no mines are in operation just now. 

350 North Caroi<ina and its Resources. 

The mountains are clothed to their summits with forests of a 
great range of species. On the lower slopes and in the rich coves, 
besides the usual characteristic oaks, hickories, cucumbers, poplar, 
chestnut, etc., are found in abundance walnut, black locust, cherry 
and ash, and a little higher sugar maple, linden, black birch and 
beech, and on the highest ranges two species of fir. Since the advent 
of the railroad, lumbering is rapidly becoming an important 

Waynesville is the county seat, with a population of over five 
hundred. It is finely situated in the valley of Richland creek, over- 
topped by some of the grandest summits of the Balsam mountains. 
It is a noted summer resort, and in the vicinity are the White Sul- 
phur Springs, equipped with a commodious hotel surrounded with 
ample grounds. The Murphy branch of the Western North Caro- 
lina railroad passes through Waynesville. 

Clyde, a thriving village, and Pigeon river town, both on the 
railroad are growing towns. 

Haywood county has 294,041 acres of land, valued at $1,071,676, 
417 town lots, valued at $213,921. 

Of domestic animals there are 2,303 horses, S03 mules, 9,702 cat- 
tle, 8,729 hogs, 6,384 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State use, $3,879.18; pensions, $790.80; 
schools, $5,759.71; county, $10,687.03. 

Population — white, 12,829, colored, 517; total, 13,346. 


Henderson county is a continuation southward of the French 
Broad valley described in Buncombe County, and its topographical 
features are very similar, except that there are broader areas of com- 
paratively level and undulating lands, the soils being predominantly 
light gray gravelly loams, and its forests being mixed growths of 
oak and pine, with hemlock and chestnut. Near the water-courses 
in the mountain coves are found walnut, cherry, maple and occasion- 
ally white pine. 

This county is divided by the Blue Ridge into two unequal parts, 
a considerable portion of it lying on the south, on the South Carolina 
line, and on the east bounded by Polk County. The remainder, is 
bordered on the east and south by the same range, and intersected at 
wide intervals by low ranges of mountains extending toward the 
north-west, it is closed in by the Pisgah range, the peak of that name 
being the common '^entre for the county lines of Henderson, Transyl- 
vania, Buncombe and Haj'wood. 

The county is intersected by numerous streams. Green river at 
the foot of the Blue Ridge, flows eastward between that range and the 
Saluda mountains, and is an affluent of the Broad river flowing south 
into South Carolina. The French Broad flows through the north- 
western part of the county, and, receiving the waters of Mills river, 
Ochlawaha and other considerable streams, becomes a bold, broad 

Description of Counties. 351 

stream, which by appropriations from the Government, has been made 
navigable for small steamboats. 

A remarkable feature of this county is the apparent great depres- 
sion of its surface, and the width of the valleys along the streams, 
assuming, as on the Ochlav/aha, the character of wide swamps. The 
whole interior of the county presents the aspect of one valley, into 
which project, like elongated promontories, small ranges of mount- 
ains, l/ooking northwest from Henderson ville, the eye sweeps over 
a level expanse of twenty miles, closed at that distance by the Pisgah 
range. This depression, however, is appparent rather than real, the 
most depressed portions being above the mean level of the Blue Ridge 
plateau, 2,250 feet, and presenting the appearance of a broad uplifted 

The soil of this county is good, though not so fertile as some 
other mountain counties, with the exception of the valleys, which 
are productive in grains and grass. Fruits are abundant and 
excellent. The mineral wealth of the county is great, but largely 
undeveloped. lyimestone of excellent quality for the kiln is found 
on the west side of the French Broad, and is largely burned for the 
Asheville market. 

The agricultural industry of the county is quite largely directed 
to the cultivation of cabbage and other vegetables for the southern 
market and much attention is given to the canning of fruits and 
vegetables. Among the minerals found in this county is zircon, 
found in large deposits in the valley of Green river, and exhumed in 
large quantities to be exported to Germany. This perhaps, is the 
largest deposit of this mineral in the United States. 

Hendersonville, the county seat, is credited with a population of 
1,600. This town is a noted summer resort for the citizens of 
South Carolina and other southern States. It is reached by railroad, 
the Asheville and Spartanburg line passing through it. There is a 
new railroad from Hendersonville to Brevard, up the French Broad 
valley. Two miles south of Hendersonville is Flat Rock, originally 
a summer settlement of wealthy South Carolinians, who surrounded 
themselves with ample ornamental grounds and erected handsome 
dwellings. It is also a general summer resort, a spacious hotel being 
always open. 

Henderson county has 260,699 acres of land, valued at 
$1,244,241; and 2,370 town lots, valued at $337,025. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses 1,406; mules, 674; cattle 
6,956; hogs, 7,250; sheep, 4,754. 

Product of taxation — for State uses $4,556.86; pensions, $878,50; 
schools, $6,861.49; county, $15,967.13. 

Population — white, 11,211; colored, 1,378; total, 12,589. 


Hertford county lies on the northern border of the State, and is 
bounded eastward by the Chowan river. The soils are, for the most 
part, of the general region of upland piny woods lands, but near the 
water-courses there are considerable tracts of oak and pine flats and 

352 North Caroi^ina and its Rksourcejs. 

alluvial land. Along the margin of the Chowan and some of the other 
water-courses are fringes of gum and cypress swamp. Marl in abun- 
dance underlies the surface. Besides the culture of cotton and corn, 
there are the fish, lumber and naval stores industries. Cotton, lumber, 
and other products are shipped by steamer and rail to Norfolk. 

Until recently this county has been without railroad facilities, 
depending for transportation on the Meherrin and Chowan rivers, 
which flow through it or along its borders. Now, the Norfolk and 
Carolina railroad, extending southward to Tarboro, and a branch 
road giving connection with Murfreesboro, have been provided. 

This county is in the trucking region, and this business is 
engaging the attention of the farmers; peanuts also are grown to some 
extent. There is an abundance of native pasturage. 

Murfreesboro is the most populous town in the county, with a 
population of 700, and is the seat of a flourishing female college. 

Winton, the county seat, has a population of about 600; has two 
Steam saw mills, one knitting factory and a number of fine schools. 

Hertford county has 207,102 acres of land, valued at ^1,020,000; 
and 472 town lots, valued at $209,210. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses 1,636; mules, 734; cattle, 
5,079; hogs, 17,174; sheep, 2,650; goats, 475. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $4,131.08; pensions $831.85; 
schools, $6,869.90; county, $5,673.74. 

Population — white, 5,906; colored, 7,945; total, 13,851. 


Hyde county is enveloped by sounds and great bay-like rivers, 
and its middle portion is occupied by a large lake, Mattamuskeet, 
twenty miles in length and six miles wide with two other lakes in its 
northern portion. Two-thirds of its land-surface is occupied by the 
great Alligator swamp. A fringe of from one to two miles in width 
around the central lake is the highest portion of the county, and is 
from six to ten feet above tide. It was originally covered with a 
heavy swamp growth of cypress, gum (tupelo), maple, ash, etc. 
These lands have been cultivated for a century, and still produce fifty 
bushels of corn to the acre, without manure or rotation. This ridge 
slopes off in every direction from the lake — eastward into a tract of 
oak and pine flats which extends to the sound. The southwestern 
portion of the county is within the projecting arms of Pungo river, 
and other bays from Pamlico sound, and may also be described as oak 
and pine flats, with a soil which, in general terms, is a gray silty 
loam. The northern portion of this county, throughout its whole 
extent from east to west, is a low-lying savannah or peaty cypress and 
juniper swamp, resembling the Great Dismal, called Alligator swamp. 
The productions of this county are chiefly corn, wheat and cotton, 
sweet and Irish potatoes, to which has been added rice. Lumbering 
and fishing complete the list of its industries. 

The exhaustless fertility of the lands of Hyde, affected neither 
by heat nor drought, have made them an assured granary. A large 

Description of Counties. 353 

number of coasting vessels make numerous trips to Charleston, Wil- 
mington, New Bern and other markets. In the damp soils on the 
borders of Mattamuskeet I^ake originated one of the best flavored 
and possibly the best keeping winter apple known — Mattamuskeet — 
perfecting best in its original home, but doing well elsewhere. 

The remarkable character of the soil of Hyde county, its fertility 
and its unchangable qualities, led Professor Emmons, a former State 
Geologist, to the following observations: 

" The character of the Hyde county soil has never been under- 
stood. The cause of its fertility has never been explained, and many 
persons who are good judges of land have over-rated the value of swamp 
lands in consequence of the close external resemblance they have borne 
to those of Hyde. Analysis, however, will, in every case, detect 
the difference in the common swamp lands and those of Hyde. The 
color is black or dark brown, and the whole mass near the surface 
looks as if it was composed entirely of vegetable matter. We see no 
particles of sand or soil in it. On the sides and bottoms of the 
ditches, a light gray or ashy soil is discernable; indeed, it is regarded 
as ashes, and is so called, and is supposed to have been formed b}^ the 
combustion of ancient beds of vegetable matter. The cultivated 
lands of Hyde are not chaffy — that is, when dry, like tinder, liable 
to take fire from a spark originated by a gun-wad. There are, it is 
true, tracts lying in connection with them of this character, which 
are quite limited, but their occurrence does not affect this general 

Swan Quarter is the county seat, with a population of several 

Hyde county has 245,207 acres of land, valued at $551,082, and 
114 town lots, valued at $20,132. 

Of domestic animals there are — 1,535 horses; 211 mules; 116 goats; 
6,912 cattle; 9,488 hogs; 2,438 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $2,292.59; pensions, $495.90; 
schools, $4,168.36; county, $6,490.18. 

Population — white, 4,962; colored, 3,941; total, 8,903. 


Iredell is a county of rolling uplands, and lies on the waters of 
the Catawba on the west, and of the Yadkin on the east, being mainly 
drained by the latter. It is divided in a north-westerly and south- 
easterly direction by the course of the tributary streams, into broad 
flattish, elevated zones, the summits of which have generally a gray 
and yellow loam soil, with mixed oak and pine forests and occasional 
tracts of red-clay oak-covered soils, while along the streams, which 
abound in alluvial bottoms, forests of oak, walnut, hickory, etc., pre- 
dominate. One of these high swells or divides lies along and quite 
close to the course of the Catawba river, and has an elevation of 900 
feet in its southern portion, rising to 1,000 feet and upward at its 
northern limit. The average elevation of the county is but little 
below 1,000 feet above sea-level. 


354 North Carolina and its Resources. 

The cotton crop has increased tenfold since 1870, and is confined 
mainly to the southern half, this form of agriculture having only 
recently passed beyond the middle of the county. The northern sec- 
tion produces tobacco as its chief market crop, but corn and the 
small grains occupy the larger portion of the tilled surface of the 
county, and aggregate more than 800,000 bushels. The grasses and 
clover do well also, but it is essentially a grain and grass region. 
Fruits of remarkable flavor abound. 

The tobacco crop is an important one, reaching an annual 
average of 2,000,000 pounds and over. At Statesville and Mooresville 
and other points in the county are large tobacco factories, and at the 
former place sales warehouses which give it some prestige as a 
tobacco market. 

Iredell county has good railroad facilities, the Western North 
Carolina railroad passing through it, and the Atlantic, Tennessee and 
Ohio railroad connecting it with Charlotte on the south, and another 
branch line of twenty-five miles with Taylors ville on the north. 
With its varieties of soil and of products, its water-power and con- 
veniences for manufacture, the whole county is undergoing rapid de- 
velopment and improvement. 

Statesville, the county seat, on the Western North Carolina rail- 
road, has a population of 3,000. It has a United States public build- 
ing, a female college, manufactories of various kinds, including a 
cotton mill, and is a prosperous town. 

Alooresville, on the A. T. & O. railroad, is a thrifty village; has 
a cotton mill and other industries. Near it are quarries affording 
monumental granite of great beauty. The stone is also used for other 

Turnersburg has a cotton mill and there are other villages in 
the county, all in prosperous condition. 

Iredell county has 344,003 acres of land, valued at $1,746,074, 
and 1.044 town lots, valued at $736,041. 

Of domestic animals there are — 3,066 horses; 2,530 mules; 181 
goats; 8,491 cattle; 12,483 hogs; and 3,533 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State use, $7',944. 94; pensions, $1,584.70; 
schools, $12,909.89; count}^ $14,175.97. 

Population — white, 19,516; colored, 5,946; total, 25,462. 


Ja-ckson county extends from South Carolina on the south nearly 
across the State, being separated by the narrow county of Swain from 
the State of Ten-nessee. The general form is one broad valley, lying 
between the Balsam mountains on the east and the Cowee mountains 
on the west. But the term valley would convey an erroneous idea, 
since the space between these two dominant ranges is filled with 
numerous cross chains, making the mountain character predominant, 
while the valleys are exceptional. 

lyittle encroachment has yet been made on the massive forests 
which clothe the hills and mountains. Nowhere in the mountain 
country is the timber more varied in kind or more majestic in size. 


Description op Counties. 355 

With the exception of the high plateau at the south end of the 
county, where Cashier's valley is situated, and where the soil is light 
and somewhat thin, the soil is of great fertility, remarkable for the 
high percentage of productive arable lands. The lands of the entire 
southern portion of the county are adapted to the growth of cabbage 
and potatoes for winter use, and of the finest quality. There is no 
better section anywhere for grass, offering, therefore, exceptional 
advantages for sheep and cattle raising. 

The usual crops and fruits of the mountain section thrive lux- 
uriantly. Tobacco is found to be well adapted to both soil and clim- 
ate, and its culture is increasing. 

This county is very rich in minerals, though there has been little 
development of quantity or value. Several copper veins of ascertained 
richness have been opened. Chromic iron is found in large quanti- 
ties near Webster. Nickel ores (genthite), are found in the same 
locality. Other ores of iron are abundant. Mica, asbestos and cor- 
undum are also abundant. 

In the northern part of the county, along the Tuckaseege river 
and along the waters of Soco creek, is an Indian reservation inhabited 
by families of Cherokees, who are also distributed through the adja- 
cent counties of Swain and Graham. The whole number in these 
counties is nearly 1,500. They have adopted the habits of the white 
men, and are engaged in agricultural pursuits. They have their 
schools and churches, and are under the guardianship of their chief, 
James Ely the, an educated and intelligent native. 

The county is now intersected by the Western North Carolina 
branch of the Southern railway system, and from Sylva, a station on 
that road, a branch line has been constructed to Webster, the county 

Among the mineral substances applied to use is kaolin, found in 
great abundance near the valleys of Scott's and Savannah creeks, and 
prepared for the use of potteries and porcelain works at Sylva and 
Dillsboro. The manufactured product is very beautiful. 

Cattle raising in the mountain ranges engages the industry of the 
inhabitants, and large numbers of animals are annually driven to 

Webster, the countj'- seat, has a population of 250. Sylva and 
Dillsboro are flourishing villages on the line of railroad. 

Jackson county has 350,664 acres of land, valued at $855,642; and 
271 town lots, valued at $57,880. 

Of domestic animals it has — horses, 1,690; mules, 396; cattle, 
7,448; hogs, 7,520; sheep, 7,489. 

Product of taxation — for State uses, $2,629.62; pensions, $539.66; 
schools, $4,370.37; county, $7,890.77. 

Population — white, 8,630; colored, 528; Indians, 375; total, 


Johnston county lies on the upper waters of the Neuse river and 
its larger tributaries, which traverse it in a southeast direction, and 
consists, for the most part, of level and gently rolling piny uplands, 

356 North Caroi,ina and its Resources. 

with a few small bodies of more sandy and barren pine lands. It lies 
on the western margin of the long-leaf pine region, its southeastern 
half being characterized in its general features by the same soils and 
growth as the average of that belt, while along the northwestern mar- 
gin the lands are more hilly and the piny belts are alternated along 
the streams and more hilly portions with oak and pine forests and 
gravelly loam soils. There are tracts of quite sandy soil in the 
eastern section, while in the middle section are large bodies of pine 

Johnston is one of the most prosperous counties, as, besides its large 
cotton crop, the grain product reaches nearly 500,000 bushels, and its 
crop of potatoes exceeds 200,000 bushels. Cotton is the principal 
crop of the county, and prospers in almost all parts, especially on 
the broad belts of bottom lands lying along the Neuse river, Swift 
creek and other streams. 

Until recently cotton has been the only money crop, but lately the 
people have learned that the soil is splendidly adapted to the 
growth of the brightest tobacco, and its culture is spreading rapidly. 
Hundreds of acres are being set this year in tobacco; last year many 
who had never grown it before realized $100 an acre from its cultivation. 

The growing of truck for northern markets is an increasing and 
profitable industry along the railroads. Along the streams are large 
quantities of hard wood and furniture timbers, which are in great 
demand; much ash, oak, poplar, maple and gum is being shipped to 
furniture and veneer works. 

The county is traversed from east to west by the North Carolina 
railroad, from north to south by the " Short-cut " line from Wilson to 
Florence, S. C, and is penetrated by the Midland railroad, extending 
from Goldsboro to Smithfield, a distance of twenty-five miles. The 
navigation of the Neuse river has been opened as far as Smithfield 
for steamboats, but is not kept regularly open, and the markets are 
sought through the railroads. 

Smithfield is the county seat, and has a population of 550. 
Clayton has a population of 478, Selma of 527, Boon Hill of 243, and 
Pine Level of 264. All those last mentioned are on the North 
Carolina railroad. Kenly has a population of 245; Four Oaks, 260; 
Benson, 257. These villages are on the Short-cut. Wilson's Mills, 
Bagley and Jerome are stations at which large saw mills are estab- 
lished, but they are not incorporated towns. 

Johnston county has 486,546 acres of land, valued at $1,825,909; 
and 971 town lots, valued at $223,231. 

Of domestic animals there are — horses, 1,587; mules, 2,261; goats, 
3,487; cattle, 11,338; hogs, 40,805; sheep, 7,381. 

Product of taxation— for State uses, $6,923.20; pensions, 
$1,485.71; schools, $13,486.97; county, $io,535-94- 

Population— white, 19,917; colored, 7,322; total, 27,239. 


This county is bounded on the north by Craven, on the 
south by Onslow, on the east by Carteret, and on the west by Duplin. 

Description of Counties. 357 

It has two railroads, the Atlantic and North Carolina and the Wil- 
mington, New Bern and Norfolk, and one navigable river running 
through it. It also has rich beds of marl and phosphates, with a 
good fertile soil that yields abundantly all the crops that are grown 
anywhere this side the Mississippi river, and the people are generally 
happy and contented. 

A great tract of swamp land lies between the Neuse and the 
White Oak rivers, a large, or the largest portion being in Jones 
county, and is crowned with a number of small lakes, one being 
quite large, covering an area of five miles or more, and the others are 
a little less in size. This region is covered with an inestimable 
amount of the finest timber of all kinds known in this section of the 
State. And there is still another important feature to be considered. 
The pocoson that lies between these two rivers runs northwest and 
southeast to very near the Duplin line for twenty-five miles, with 
an average width of about eight miles of as rich land as the Mississ- 
ippi Valley, and around the lakes covered with a growth of the 
finest quality of timbers known here. There is still another pocoson 
known as the Dover pocoson, lying between the counties of Jones 
and Craven on the Atlantic and North Carolina railroad, which 
is very fertile and heavily timbered. 

The soils of this county are of two kinds — the one a light 
loamy soil, more or less mixed with sand, with a subsoil of gray clay, 
easy of cultivation, returning good crops of cotton and grain, and an 
excellent soil for truck farming. It also produces excellent bright 
tobacco. The other is a heavy loam, underlaid with a substratum of 
stiff red clay, producing abundantly cotton, grains or tobacco. The 
fertility is largely due to the presence in the soil of decomposed shells 
or carbonate of lime. This material is also found undecomposed, in 
solid masses, often outcropping above the soil and providing an easily 
accessible building material or material for burning into lime. 

Trenton is the county seat, and has a population of over 400. 

Jones county has 220,754 acres of land, valued at $729,754, and 
630 town lots, valued at $54,049. 

Of domestic animals there are — 630 horses; 725 mules; 503 goats; 
4,102 cattle; 11,304 hogs, and 3,028 sheep. 

Product of taxation — for State purposes, $2,239.69: pensions, 
$455.66; schools, $3,809.90; county, $5,600.32. 

Population — white, 3,885; colored, 3,518; total, 7,403. 


I^enoir county lies on the lower course of the Neuse, east of 
Wayne. The northern half consists of level piny uplands of the same 
general character as those of the counties adjoining it on the north, 
while in its western and northern parts there are v/ide tracts of level 
semi-swamp lands, which are characterized by a dark fine loam of 
great fertility. The southern half of the county, south of the Neuse, 
is characterized generally by a more sandy soil. The water courses 
in this half of the county are also bordered by cypress and gum 
swamps, and, to some extent, by oak and pine flats. Shell marl 

358 North Carolina and its Resources. 

(blue), chalk marl and green sand are all found in this county — one 
or the other in almost every neighborhood. The face of the coun- 
try may be described as level, though there are some portions where 
the land is rolling. 

On the north side of the Neuse there is a section of country ex- 
tending from Wayne on the west to Falling Creek on the east, a 
distance of about ten miles, and known as Buckleberry pocoson. 
From the river to the foot of the hills where the piny-woods region 
begins is from four to five miles wide. This section embraces what 
may be properly called the Valley of the Neuse, and is sufficiently 
elevated above high water to be free from overflow. The soil is of 
a brown or snuff color, and is very fertile; producing from 300 to 
500 pounds of lint cotton to the acre, and averaging thirty to forty 
bushels of corn per acre; and also makes fair crops of wheat. The 
surface soil is rich in humus and the clay sub-soil only five to eight 
inches from the surface. This is an ideal condition and is capable of 
the highest improvement. 

East of this section, on the same side of the river, is a region 
known as the "Neck," being situated between Moccasin and Neuse 
rivers; it is very fertile, and extends from Falling creek on the west to 
Pitt county on the east — a distance of eighteen or twenty miles. This 
is the finest portion of the county. North of this valley is the piny- 
woods region, which extends eight or ten miles to Greene county. 
This soil is not so fertile, but is of fine quality, and will produce the 
highest grades of fine yellow tobacco, and other crops if properly 
treated. On the south side of the Neuse, the soil is not so fertile, is 
more sandy, but of such character as to be capable of being brought 
to a high state of cultivation. It is more sparcely settled than the 
north side. 

The question of proper water for drinking purposes has been 
settled by the driven-well system. Excellent water for table is found 
at thirty to thirty-five feet from the surface. 

Cotton is the great staple. The soil is well adapted to the cul- 
tivation of corn and all other cereals; also Irish and sweet potatoes. 
All the fruits of the temperate regions can be successfully grown, and 
the cultivation, if made a specialty, would be attended with profit. 
There are no lands in the entire State of North Carolina better 
adapted to the cultivation of bright yellow tobacco than the lands of 
Lenoir county. Owing to the great prosperity of this county, land 
is in demand. There is a high order of intelligence among the 
farming population, and they are well abreast with the recent im- 
provements in farming and are well informed in agricultural chemis- 
try. They take rank with the most successful farmers of the South. 
Their lands are scientifically cultivated, and their farms are models 
of neatness. 

The Atlantic and North Carolina railroad traverses the county, 
giving access to all the markets; and this facility has given an im- 
petus to truck farming, for which soil and climate are well adapted, 
and all the early vegetables cultivated on the shores of navigable 
waters are sent to market from Lenoir with equal facility and profits 

Description of Counties. 359 

The Neuse is navigable to Kinston and for a few miles above, and is 
navigated by regular lines of freight steamboats. 

Kinston, the capital, is situated on the Neuse river, and also on 
the Atlantic and North Carolina railroad; and is also the southern ter- 
minus of a branch of the Wilmington and Weldon railroad, extend- 
ing from Weldon via . Scotland Neck , a distance of 1 1 2 miles . Kinston is 
a considerable cotton market, and forwards annually between 10,000 
and 12,000 bales. The population is 1,800; I^a Grange has a popula- 
tion of 800. 

Lenoir county has 241,183 acres of land, valued at $873,797, and 
854 town lots, valued at ^345,451. 

Of domestic animals there are — 1,293 horses; 1,316 mules; 3,784 
cattle; 18,175, hogs; 1,069, sheep ^.nd 820 goats. 

Product of taxation — for State use, $4,173.33; pensions, $874.35; 
schools, $7,443.62; county, $10,705.20. 

Population — white, 8,517; colored, 6,362; total, 14,879. 


Lincoln county, named for Gen. Lincoln of Revolutionary fame, 
lies south of Catawba county and west of the Catawba river, and its 
featurss, agricultural and topographical, are those of that county, 
and may be described in nearly the same terms Its territory is 
drained by the parallel courses of the numerous tributaries of the 
South Fork of the Catawba. The average elevation is nearly 1,000 
feet above sea-level. In its middle and eastern portion along the 
Catawba river are north and south zones, several miles in breadth, of 
red-clay soils, with oak and hickory forests. For the rest, its forests 
are mixed oak, pine, walnut, ash, maple, dogwood, cherry, birch and 
poplar, and its soils are gray and yellow gravelly loams. The eastern 
side of the county is hilly near the river. 

This county, once one of the largest in the State, has been so 
reduced by the formation of Catawba and Gaston counties from its 
territory as to be one of the smallest. It, however, retains much of 
its former consequence, owing to the productiveness of its soil, the 
variety of its crops, the value of its ores, and its fine water-power and 
consequent adaptation to the uses of manufactures. 

It produces tobacco of good quality and in considerable quantity, 
and a cotton crop of about 4,000 bales, besides wheat, corn and other 
grains. It is naturally the home of the grape, and it is here the cele- 
brated Lincoln grape had its origin. It has been long noted for its 
productive iron mines, producing the best grade of magnetite, which 
have been worked since ante-